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AP US History Review 2009 Session _1 Columbus - 1800

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					                 AP US History Review Columbus - 1800
Consider the 5 Ws when thinking about history: Who, What, When, Where, & Why/How is it important?

Ch. 1 New World Beginnings, 33,000 B.C.-A.D. 1769
Reasons for colonization:
Colonists who ultimately embraced the vision of America as an independent nation had in common all of the
        following characteristics -
                 the desire to create an agricultural society
                 learning to live lives unfettered by the tyrannies of official authority
                 learning to live lives unfettered by the tyrannies of official religion
                 learning to live lives unfettered by the tyrannies of social hierarchies
                         They did have a willingness to subjugate others (slavery)
The ideals that the colonists cherished as synonymous with American life included reverence for all of the
        following - individual liberty - self-government - religious tolerance - economic opportunity
        They did not have an opposition to slavery
Native Americans:
Some of the more advanced Native American cultures did all of the following -
        establish large, bustling cities - make strikingly accurate astronomical observations
        study mathematics - carry on commerce
        but they did not engage in significant ocean voyages of discovery [or did they?]
The size and sophistication of Native American civilizations in Mexico and South America can be attributed
        - to the development of agriculture [which is why they were more war-like than nomadic hunter-gatherer Indians]
All of the following are true of the Inca, Mayan, and Aztec civilizations -
        they had advanced agricultural practices based primarily on the cultivation of maize
        they lacked the technology of the wheel
        they built elaborate cities and carried on far-flung commerce
        they had talented mathematicians, which allowed them to make accurate astronomical observations
        but they did not have the use of large draft animals such as the horse and oxen
The crop that became the staple of life in Mexico and South America was corn
At the time of the European colonization of North America the number of Indian tribes was estimated at
        approximately 200 [perhaps 500 – 500 Nations]
The Iroquois Confederacy was able to menace its Native American and European neighbors because of
        - its military alliance, sustained by political and organizational skills
All of the following were original territories of North American Indian populations within the current borders of
        the United States - Northeast – Southeast – Great Plains – Great Basin - but not Mesoamerica
Among the more highly developed Native American (Indian) cultures of North America were the
        - Mound Builders – Iroquois – Pueblos – Creeks – and so many others not listed here
Slavery:
The Arabs and Africans were responsible for slave trading in Africa long before the Europeans had arrived
In the last half of the fifteenth century some forth thousand Africans were forced into slavery by Portugal and
        Spain - to work on plantations on the Atlantic sugar islands
The origins of the modern plantation system can be found in the - Portuguese slave trade
The stage was set for a cataclysmic shift in the course of history when -
        Europeans clamored for more and cheaper products from Asia.
        and Africa was established as a source of slave labor
        and the Portuguese demonstrated the feasibility of long-range ocean navigation
        and the Renaissance nurtured a spirit of optimism and adventure [and profit $$$$$]


Columbus/Columbian Exchange:
After his first voyage, Christopher Columbus believed that he had - sailed to the outskirts of the East Indies
Columbus called the native people in the “New World” Indians because -
        he believed that he had skirted the rim of the “Indies”
The following New World plants revolutionized the international economy –
        maize – potatoes – beans – tomatoes
The introduction of American plants around the world resulted in - rapid population growth in Europe
 Numerous Columbus facts such as cruelties and slavery, etc. – important but probably not on APUSH exam
Emergence of new interdependent global economic system [based primarily on sugar]:
All of the following contributed to the emergence of a new interdependent global economic system -
        Europe providing the market and capital - Africa providing the labor
        and the New World providing its raw materials – and the advancement and improvement of technology
European contact with Native Americans & political, economic, & social results:
European voyages of discovery and exploration were facilitated – by the Renaissance – by new naval
        technology – by the rise of nation-states – and by printing presses – [by capitalism – joint-stock]
European contact with Native Americans led to -
        the deaths of millions of Native Americans, who had little resistance to European diseases
Within a century after Columbus’s landfall in the New World, the Native American population was reduced by
        nearly 90 percent
European explorers introduced smallpox into the New World
The flood of precious metal from the New World to Europe resulted in - the growth of capitalism
The institution of encomienda allowed the -
        European governments to give [enslave] Indians to colonists if they promised to Christianize them
Spain began to fortify and settle its North American border lands in order to -
        protect its central and South American domains from encroachments by England and France
As a result of Pope’s Rebellion in 1680 – [“rebellion” is a Eurocentric term to describe “revolutionary”]
        the Pueblo Indians destroyed every Catholic church in the province of New Mexico
The treatment of the Native Americans by the Spanish conquistadores can be described as -
        at times brutal and exploitative – other Europeans did the same if not worse – Ex. the English
        Context is important here too – Europeans & other civilizations considered this acceptable at the time


Ch. 2 The Planting Of English America, 1500-1733
How and why the English colonized in America:
The financial means for England’s first permanent colonization in America were provided by -
        a joint-stock company
All of the following provided motives for English colonization -
        unemployment – a thirst for adventure – a desire for markets - and a desire for religious freedom
The guarantee that English settlers in the New World would retain the “rights of Englishmen” proved to be
        - the foundation for American liberties
Originally, the Virginia Company intended to -
        find a passage through America to the Indies
        and guarantee its settlers the same rights as other English citizens
        and realize a quick profit from its investment
        and search for gold
England’s first colonies in the future United States of America – Roanoke & Jamestown:
The first successful English attempt at colonization in 1585 was in - Roanoke Island [the “lost colony”]
The settlement founded in the early 1600s that was the most important for the future United States was
        - Jamestown
The early years at Jamestown were mainly characterized by - starvation, disease, and frequent Indian raids

Captain John Smith’s role at Jamestown can best be described as - saving the colony from collapse
Chief Powhatan had Captain John Smith kidnapped in order to -
        impress Smith with his power and show the Indian’s desire for peace
When Lord De La Warr [Delaware is named after him] took control of Jamestown in 1610, he
        - imposed a harsh military regime on the colony
The result of the Second Anglo-Powhatan War in 1644 can best be described as
        - ending any chance of assimilating the native peoples into Virginia society
The native peoples of Virginia (Powhatans) succumbed to the Europeans because -
        they died in large numbers from European diseases
        they lacked the unity necessary to resist the well-organized whites
        they could be disposed of by Europeans with no harm to the colonial economy
        they were not a reliable labor source
(Think about Guns, Germs, and Steel Jared Diamond UCLA – not in textbook)
Despite an abundance of fish and game, early Jamestown settlers continued to starve because -
        they were unaccustomed to fend for themselves and they wasted time looking for gold
After the purchases of slaves in 1619 by Jamestown settlers, additional purchases of Africans were few -
        because they were too costly
The cultivation of tobacco in Jamestown resulted in all of the following -
        the destruction of the soil
        a great demand for controlled labor
        soaring prosperity in the colony
        the broad-acred plantation system
        It did not result in the diversification of the colony’s economy
Impact of English colonization on Native Americans:
The biggest disrupter of Native American life was - disease
The Indians that had the greatest opportunity to adapt to the European incursion were
        - inland tribes such as the Algonquians
First European parliamentary form of government in the future USA:
The summoning of Virginia’s House of Burgesses marked an important precedent because it
        - was the first of many miniature parliaments to convene in America
In American history, 1619 is important because in that year
        - blacks from Africa first arrived in English America
                & the House of Burgesses was established for the Virginia colony
Founding of Maryland:
A major reason for the founding of the Maryland colony in 1634 was to
        - create a refuge for the Catholics
At the outset, Lord Baltimore allowed some religious toleration in the Maryland colony because he
        - hoped to secure freedom of worship for his fellow Catholics
In 1649 Maryland’s Act of Toleration - guaranteed toleration to all Christians [not Jews and atheists]
Like Virginia, Maryland - cultivated tobacco on plantations and created a high demand for labor
English colonial agriculture:
Tobacco was considered a poor man’s crop because - it could be produced easily and quickly
Sugar was called a rich man’s crop for all of the following reasons -
        had to be planted extensively
        required the clearing of much land
        required an elaborate refining process
        was a capital-intense business
Origins of slavery, American slavery, slave codes, & American agriculture:
Under the Barbados slave code of 1661, slaves were - denied the most fundamental rights
The statues governing slavery in the North American colonies originated in - the Caribbean
One of the earliest and most important exports from the Carolinas was - Indian slaves
The colony of South Carolina prospered - by developing close economic ties with the British West Indies
Two major exports of the Carolinas were - rice and Indian slaves
Some Africans became especially valuable as slaves in the Carolinas because they
        - were experienced in rice cultivation
The busiest seaport in the southern colonies was Charleston [why? slaves & slave-based agricultural products]
In American history, 1619 is important because in that year
        - blacks from Africa first arrived in English America
                & the House of Burgesses was established for the Virginia colony
Most democratic colonies:
North Carolina and Rhode Island were similar in that they - were the two most democratic colonies
        [Consider: North Carolina had slave-based agriculture & Rhode Island became huge shippers of slaves]
The Carolinas & Georgia:
The inhabitants of North Carolina were regarded by their neighbors as - outcasts and irreligious
The attitude of Carolinians toward Indians can best be described as hostile
The colony of Georgia was founded
        - as a defensive buffer [from Indians & Spaniards in FL] for the valuable Carolinas
Georgia’s founders were determined to - create a haven for people imprisoned for debt
Georgia grew very slowly for all of the following reasons except John Oglethorpe’s leadership -
        its unhealthy climate
        early restrictions on black slavery
        Spanish attacks
        lack of a plantation economy
Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia were similar in that they were all
        - economically dependent on the export of a staple crop
Native Americans threatened by Europeans:
All of the following European imports threatened the Iroquois’ existence - whiskey – diseases – muskets
Plantation agriculture:
By 1750, all the southern plantation colonies -
        based their economies on the production of staple crops for export
        and practiced slavery
        and provided tax support for the Church of England
        and had few large cities




Ch. 3 Settling The Northern Colonies, 1619-1700
American colonies:
Colonists in both the North and the South established differences in all of the following areas -
       patterns of settlement – economics – values - allegiance to England
Separatists/Pilgrims:
Why did King James I oppose the Separatists who wanted to break away entirely from the Church of England?
       He realized that if his subjects could defy him as their spiritual leader, they could defy him as their
       political leader.
The Separatists (Pilgrims) migrated from Holland to the New World in order to
       - avoid the Dutchification of their children
How can the Mayflower Compact best be described?
       A promising step toward genuine self-government
Separatists - were radical Puritans and were also known as Pilgrims and authored the Mayflower Compact



Massachusetts Bay Colony:
Initially, the Massachusetts Bay Colony enjoyed all of the following advantages -
        being a well-equipped expedition
        starting off on a larger scale than any other English colony.
        receiving many fairly prosperous and educated immigrants.
        a shared purpose among the first settlers.
Puritan doctrine included acceptance of - the idea of a covenant with God
With the franchise in Massachusetts extended to all adult males who belonged to Puritan congregations, the -
        proportion of qualified voters (approximately 2/5) in this colony as compared to England was - larger.
In the Massachusetts “Bible Commonwealth,” clergyman -
        were barred from holding formal political office
Puritan religious beliefs allowed all of the following -
        drinking alcohol – eating plentifully – making love discreetly – singing songs
        it did not allow challenging religious authority
Among the Puritans, it was understood that -
        the purpose of government was to enforce God’s laws
People who flouted the authority of the Puritan clergy in Massachusetts Bay were subject to the following
        Punishments - fines – floggings – banishment – death
Massachusetts Bay Colony Dissenters:
According to Anne Hutchinson, a dissenter in Massachusetts Bay
        - the truly saved need not bother to obey the laws of God or man
As the founder of Rhode Island, Roger Williams - established complete religious freedom for all
Roger Williams’ beliefs included all of the following -
        breaking away from the Church of England
        condemning the taking of Indian land without fair compensation
        denying the authority of the civil government to regulate religious matters
        challenging the legality of Massachusetts Bay’s charter
        But did not include demanding oaths regarding religious beliefs
As a colony, Rhode Island became known for - individualist and independent attitudes
Roger Williams got into trouble with Massachusetts Bay authorities because he -
        questioned the legality of the Massachusetts Bay charter and claimed that the colony’s civil government
                 should not regulate religious behavior
Connecticut’s Puritans:
Settlers of the Connecticut River colony developed a document known as the Fundamental Orders, which -
        established a regime democratically controlled by “substantial” citizens
The city of New Haven was settled by - Puritans
Puritans:
Unlike other English voyagers to the New World, the Puritans - transplanted entire communities
Unlike Separatists, the Puritans - remained members of the Church of England
Peqout War:
After the Pequot War, Puritan efforts to convert Indians to Christianity can best be described as
        - feeble, not equaling that of the Spanish or the French
The New England Indians’ only hope for resisting English encroachment lay in
        - intertribal unity against the English
Puritans were - Calvinists and especially attracted England’s economically depressed
The Pequot War of 1637 resulted in - the virtual annihilation of the Pequots and four decades of uneasy peace
        between the Puritans and the Indians
Massacre at Mystic
Metacom’s/King Philip’s War:
King Philip’s War resulted in - the lasting defeat of New England’s Indians
Huge war w/more losses proportionally than the Revolution and many later wars

Salutary/Benign Neglect:
During the early years of colonization in the New World, England - paid little attention to its colonies
As a result of Sir Edmund Andros’ rule, - (under the Dominion of New England)
        the power of town meetings was curbed
        officials tried to enforce the Navigation Laws
        taxes were levied without the consent of elected representatives
        smuggling was suppressed
The Dutch & New Netherlands (Amsterdam)/New York:
New York was originally founded by the - Dutch.
The Dutch colony of New Netherlands (later New York) - was established for its quick profit of fur trading
New York and Pennsylvania were similar in that they both - had ethnically mixed populations
New England Confederation regarded Dutch New Netherlands as - an enemy to be wiped out
The physical growth of English New York was slowed because
        - of the monopolistic land policies of the aristocrats
Cultural contributions the Dutch made to America include all of the following
        - Easter eggs – Santa Claus – sauerkraut – skating
Society of Friends/Quakers:
One of the traits that made Quakers unpopular in England was - their refusal to do military service
Pennsylvania & The Middle Colonies:
Pennsylvania was the - best advertised
Indian policy in early Pennsylvania can be best described as - benevolent
Economically, the colony of Pennsylvania - became profitable very quickly
All the middle colonies were - notable for their fertile soil
The middle colonies were notable for their - unusual degree of democratic control
The section of the American colonies where there was the greatest internal conflict was the middle colonies
Pennsylvania -
        introduced an unusually liberal land policy that attracted a heavy flow of immigrants
        and had fertile soil that produced surplus grain for export
        and was founded with the intention of making a profit
Indian & colonists interactions:
Recently, historians have increasingly viewed the colonial period as -
        one of contact and adaptation between native populations
The picture of colonial America that is emerging from new scholarship is a society formed by -
        encounters with native people – and European heritage
        and - many intertwining roots – and American heritage
Population migrations from Europe:
Factors leading to the first major European migration include -
        a population explosion – and economic depression – and religious repression



Ch. 4 American Life In The Seventeenth Century, 1607-1692
Chesapeake:
The population of the Chesapeake colonies throughout the first half of the seventeenth century was notable for
        its - scarcity of women
In contrast to the Chesapeake colonies, those in New England - had a more diversified economy
Unlike those in the Chesapeake, New England immigrants -
        enjoyed a longer life expectancy
        usually migrated in family units
        were less ravaged by infectious diseases
        had a low premarital pregnancy rate

Indentured servants:
During the seventeenth century, indentured servitude solved the labor problem in many English colonies
        because the Indian population proved to be an unreliable work force because they died in such large
                 numbers, and African slaves cost too much money, and in some areas families formed too
                        slowly, and families procreated too slowly
                                and Spain had stopped sending slaves to its New World colonies.
For their labor in the colonies indentured servants received passage to America and a suit of clothes and a few
        barrels of corn and at times a small parcel of land. They did not receive a headright (see below)
English yeomen who agreed to exchange their labor temporarily in return for payment of their passage to an
        American colony were called - indentured servants.
Throughout the greater part of the seventeenth century, the Chesapeake colonies acquired most of the labor they
        needed from - white servants.
Most immigrants to the Chesapeake colonies in the seventeenth century came as - indentured servants
Over the course of the seventeenth century, most indentured servants - faced increasingly harsh circumstances.
By the end of the seventeenth century, indentured servants who gained their freedom -
        had little choice but to hire themselves out for low wages to their former masters
Headright system:
The “headright” system, which made some people very wealthy, consisted of - giving the right to acquire fifty
        acres of land to the person paying the passage of a laborer to America.
New England colonists - reaped the greatest benefit from the land policies of the “headright” system.
Virginia:
By 1700, the most populous colony in English America was - Virginia.
Tobacco:
Seventeenth-century colonial tobacco growers usually responded to depressed prices for their crop by
        - growing more tobacco to increase their volume of production.
Bacon’s Rebellion:
Bacon’s Rebellion was supported mainly by - young men frustrated by their inability to acquire land.
The immediate reason for Bacon’s rebellion was - Indian attacks on frontier settlements
As a result of Bacon’s Rebellion - planters began to look for less troublesome laborers
Bacon’s Rebellion stemmed from
        - Governor Berkeley’s Indian policies and the frontier’s resentment of the tidewater gentry
Details of Bacon’s Rebellion
Slavery:
The majority of African slaves coming to the New World
        - were delivered to South America and the West Indies
After 1680, reliance on slave labor in colonial America rapidly increased because -
        higher wages in England reduced the number of emigrating servants
        and planters feared the growing number of landless freemen in the colonies
        and the British Royal African company lost its monopoly on the slave trade in colonial America
        and Americans rushed to cash in on slave trade
Many of the slaves who reached North America were - originally captured by African coastal tribes.
For those Africans who were sold into slavery, the “middle passage” can be best described -
        as the gruesome ocean voyage to America
The physical and social conditions of slavery were harshest in - South Carolina
African American contributions to American culture include -
        jazz music – and the banjo – and a variety of words – and bongo drums
While slavery might have begun in America for economic reasons -
        racial discrimination also powerfully molded the American slave system
The slave society that developed in North America was one of the few slave societies in history to
        - perpetuate (continue) itself by its own natural reproduction
The slave culture that developed in America - was a uniquely New World creation

Slave Christianity emphasized all of the following in their faith -
       that Jesus was the Messiah who would deliver them from bondage
        that heaven was a place where they would be reunited with their ancestors
        God’s freeing the Hebrews from slavery
        using religious songs as encoded messages about escape
Compared with indentured servants, African American slaves were a - more manageable labor force
As slavery spread in the South, - gaps in the social structure widened
The great majority of Africans who left Africa as captured slaves - were taken to South American and
        Caribbean colonies and came from the west coast of Africa
The early “slave codes” in colonial America -
        defined slavery as lifetime servitude
        and defined slavery as inheritable servitude
        and usually forbade whites from teaching slaves to read or write
The following are products of the American slave culture -
        jazz – and several modern American dances – and a new language, (called) Gullah
Slaves in colonial America -were a generally manageable labor force and were mostly menial field hands
Characteristics of the South:
Most of the inhabitants of the colonial American South - were landowning small farmers
Urban development in the colonial South - was slow to emerge.
Southern colonies generally allowed married women to retain separate title to their property because
- southern men frequently died young.
By 1700, the colonial South generally lacked reliable overland transportation - and an urban professional class
Characteristics of New England:
It was typical of colonial New England adults to - marry early and have several children
The New England family can best be described as - a very stable institution.
The special characteristics of New England’s population led to the observation that these colonists “invented”
        - grandparents.
Puritans refused to recognize a woman’s separate property rights because
        - they worried that such rights would undercut the unity of married persons.
When new towns were established in New England, all of the following were true -
        a land grant was given by the legislature – a meeting house was built
        a village green was laid out – schools were required in towns of more than fifty families
The Puritan system of congregational church government logically led to - democracy in political government
Thomas Jefferson once observed that “the best school of political liberty the world ever saw” was the
        - New England town meeting
As a result of poor soil, all of the following conditions prevailed in New England -
        the area was less ethnically mixed than its southern neighbors
        frugality became essential to economic survival
        hard work was required to make a living
        diversification in agriculture and industry were encouraged
The New England economy depended heavily on - fishing, shipbuilding, and commerce
Unlike those in the Chesapeake, New England immigrants -
        enjoyed a longer life expectancy
        usually migrated in family units
        were less ravaged by infectious diseases
        had a low premarital pregnancy rate
The following reflected the lessening hold of Puritan piety on later generations of New Englanders -
        the geographical dispersion of New England’s population
        the Congregational church’s reliance on the Half-Way Covenant to bolster church membership
        the erosion of the distinction between “the elect” and other members of society


Half-Way Covenant:
All of the following were consequences of the Half-Way Covenant -
       it weakened the distinction between the “elect” and others
       it conferred partial membership rights in the once-exclusive congregations
       it increased the numbers of church membership
       women became the majority in the Puritan congregations

The Half-Way Covenant
       - admitted to baptism but not full membership the unconverted children of existing members.
European women in colonial society:
In seventeenth century colonial America all of the following are true regarding women -
       women could not vote – women were regarded as morally weaker than men
       a husband’s power over his wife was not absolute – abusive husbands were punished
Salem:
The Salem witchcraft trials were
       - the result of unsettled social and religious conditions in rapidly evolving Massachusetts
During the Salem witchcraft trials, most of those accused as witches were - property-owning women
The Salem “witch hunt” in 1692 - was opposed by the more responsible members of the clergy
English justify taking Indian lands:
The English justified taking land from the native inhabitants on the grounds that the Indians - wasted the earth
Europeans vs. colonists:
Compared with most seventeenth-century Europeans, Americans lived in - affluent abundance
Rebellions:
The late-seventeenth-century rebellion in New York was headed by Jacob Leisler, whereas that in Maryland
       was led by - Protestants



Ch. 5 Colonial Society On The Eve Of Revolution, 1700-1775 (Ch. 5 in 12th and 13th editions)
Reasons for independence from England:
The following are all reasons the thirteen Atlantic seaboard colonies sought independence -
       distinctive social structures – and distinctive economic structures
       and distinctive political structures – and the appearance of a recognizably American way of life
Demographic factors, explosion, & impact:
One feature common to all of the eventually rebellious colonies was their – rapidly growing populations
As a result of the rapid population growth in colonial America during the eighteenth century
       – a momentous shift occurred in the balance of power between the colonies and the mother country
The population growth of the American colonies by 1775 is attributed mostly to
       – the natural fertility of all Americans
The average age of the American colonists in 1775 was – 16 years old
By 1775, population growth in the American colonies -
       was causing the population to double about every twenty-five years
       was attributable more to reproduction than to immigration
In 1775, most of the population in the American colonies -
       lived east of the Allegheny Mountains
       lived in rural areas
       was under twenty-five years of age
       was of predominately English stock
Largest American colonial cities on the eve of Revolution:
By 1775, the following communities could be considered a city in colonial America -
       New York – Charleston – Philadelphia – Boston (Baltimore could not be considered a city apparently)

The rural American colonies/colonists:
By the end of the 1700’s the percentage of people living in rural areas of colonial America was – 90%
Scots-Irish immigrants:
With regard to governmental authority, the Scots-Irish colonists
        – cherished no love for the British or any other government
The Scots-Irish can best be described as – fiercely independent
When the Scots-Irish established a new community, one of the first tasks they undertook was to – erect a church
When it came to religion, the Scots-Irish – found it to be a bond that held them together
All of the following conditions caused many Scots to migrate to Northern Ireland and thence to America -
        the poor quality of farm land in Scotland
        the spread of commercial farming
        extremely high rent increase
        paying taxes to support the Anglican church
        But not persecution for their Catholic religion
Ethnic diversity in colonies:
By 1775, the – Africans – were the largest non-English ethnic group in colonial America.
The population of the thirteen American colonies was
        – perhaps the most diverse in the world, although it remained predominately Anglo-Saxon
The most ethnically diverse region of colonial America was – the middle colonies, - whereas
        – New England – was the least ethnically diverse
Social stratification (social classes):
In contrast to the seventeenth century, by 1775 colonial Americans
        – had become more stratified into social classes and had less social mobility
By the mid-1700s, the number of poor people in the American colonies
        – remained tiny compared with the number in England (but still massive numbers of poor people)
On the eve of the American Revolution, social and economic mobility decreased, partly because
        – some merchants made huge profits as military suppliers
During the colonial era, all of the following peoples created new societies out of diverse ethnic groups in
        America - English – Africans – Indians – French               NOT ASIANS
Interesting facts:
The most honored profession in early colonial society was – ministry
The least honored profession in early colonial society was – medicine
Slavery & colonial economics:
The riches created by the growing slave population in the American South
        – were not distributed evenly among whites
When several colonial legislatures attempted to restrict or halt the importation of slaves, British authorities
        – vetoed such efforts
By the eighteenth century, the various colonial regions had distinct economic identities; the northern colonies
        relied on cattle and grain, the Chesapeake colonies relied on tobacco,
                and the southern colonies relied on rice and indigo
The leading industry in the American colonies was – agriculture
        You could say it was the most important industry
One of the surest avenues to speedy wealth in the American colonies was – a commercial venture (merchants)
The triangular trade of the colonial American shipping industry – involved the trading of rum for African slaves
Manufacturing - was a secondary and least important economic activity in colonial America
Although manufacturing in the colonies was of only secondary importance, they did produce the following
        rum – beaver hats – lumber – iron
The major manufacturing enterprise in colonial America in the eighteenth century was – rum distilling
One feature of the American economy that strained the relationship between the colonies and Britain was the
        – growing desire of Americans to trade with other nations in addition to Britain
American colonists sought trade with countries other than Great Britain
        – to make money to buy what they wanted in Britain
Molasses Act:
When the British Parliament passed the Molasses Act in 1733, it intended the act to
        – inhibit colonial trade with the French West Indies
Transportation:
Transportation in colonial America was – slow by any of the means available [it sucked badly]
Taverns, revolutionaries, & democracy:
Colonial American taverns were all of the following -
        another cradle of democracy
        hotbeds of agitation for the Revolutionary movement
        important in crystallizing public opinion
        places providing amusements
English try to extend royal authority through religion:
English officials tried to “establish” the Church of England in as many colonies as possible because
        – the church would act as a major prop for kingly authority
Dominant religious institutions:
In 1775, the - Congregational and Anglican
        - churches were the only two established (tax-supported) churches in colonial America
The following are denominations and the regions where it predominated -
        Congregationalist – New England
        Anglican – the South
        Presbyterian – the frontier
As the Revolution approached, Presbyterian and Congregational ministers in general
        – supported the Revolutionary cause
By the early eighteenth century, religion in colonial America was – becoming less tolerant
First Great Awakening:
The following individuals are matched with his or her talent -
        Jonathan Edwards – theologian
        Benjamin Franklin – scientist
        Phillis Wheatley – poet
The “new light” preachers of the Great Awakening – delivered intensely emotional sermons
The Great Awakening -
        undermined the prestige of the learned clergy in the colonies
        split colonial churches into several competing denominations
        led to the founding of Princeton, Dartmouth, and Rutgers colleges
        was the first spontaneous mass movement of the American people
Leaders of the Great Awakening endorsed the concepts of - divine omnipotence and predestination
Education:
The time-honored English ideal, which Americans accepted for some time, regarding education as
        – reserved for the aristocratic few
In colonial America, education was most zealously promoted – in New England
Colonial schools and colleges placed their main emphasis on – religion
The first American college free from determined control was – The University of Pennsylvania
In colonial New England, education was primarily - for boys and intended for religious instruction
Art/Artists in colonial America:
All of the following contributed to the lack of development of art and artists in early colonial America -
        simplicity of pioneering life
        lack of subjects to paint
        lack of patrons who could afford the expensive art
        lack of art schools in America
        There was not a lack of talent among the Americans
Culture in colonial America – was generally ignored and unappreciated

Benjamin Franklin:
The person most often called the “first civilized American” was – Benjamin Franklin
All of the following are achievements of Benjamin Franklin -
        the lightening rod
        bifocal glasses
        a highly efficient stove
        author of Poor Richard’s Almanack
Benjamin Franklin -
        was the author of Poor Richard’s Almanack
        celebrated the virtues of thrift, hard work, and common sense
        was a scientist
Significant court case regarding free speech (in newspapers):
The jury’s decision in the case of John Peter Zenger, a newspaper printer, was significant because
        – it pointed the way to open public discussion
Colonial newspaper printer John Peter Zenger -
        was accused of seditious libel
        was found innocent of the charges brought against him
        printed comments accusing the royal governor of corruption
Representation for taxation:
One political principle that colonial Americans came to cherish above most others was
        – self-taxation through representation
Colonial governments on the eve of Revolution:
By 1775, most governors of American colonies were – appointed by the king
Colonial legislatures were often able to bend the power of the governors to their will because
        – colonial legislatures controlled taxes and expenditures that paid the governors’ salaries
In colonial elections – the right to vote was reserved for property holders
Similarities of English American colonies:
By the mid-eighteenth century, North American colonies shared all of the following similarities -
        basically English in language
        Protestant in religion
        opportunity for social mobility
        same degree of ethnic and religious toleration
        But not complete democracy
By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain’s North American colonies were similar in the following ways -
        opportunities for social mobility
        basically Protestant in religion
        some measure of self-government
        basically English in language and custom
Rebellions against colonial governments:
The rebelliousness and inclination toward violence of the Scots-Irish was demonstrated by -
        the Paxton Boys in Philadelphia
        the Regulator movement in North Carolina
Life was tough in the colonies:
Generally, in the eighteenth-century American colonies -
        most people had sufficient food to stay healthy
        lotteries were a usual source of funds used for civic purposes
        labor was heavy and constant




Ch. 6 – The Duel For North America, 1608-1763
English wars:
During the seventeenth century, America established the precedent of
         – being involved in every world war since 1688 [4 major or world was – last was Seven Years’ War]
France in America:
France was finally able to join in the scramble for colonies in the New World as a result of the
         – end of the religious wars
Government in New France (Canada) was – almost completely autocratic
Unlike the English colonies in America, in New France – there were no popularly elected assemblies
The one valuable resource in New France was – beavers
The coureurs de bois were – French fur trappers
The population in Catholic New France grew very slowly because
         – disease took a heavy toll on New France’s inhabitants
The primary economic pursuit of early settlers in New France was – fur trapping
The French wanted to control Louisiana because they – would then control the mouth of the Mississippi
French motives in the New World included the desire to – compete with Spain for an empire in America
Indians & French interact:
The Indians suffered from their association with the French in New France in all of the following ways -
         decimation of their numbers by the white man’s diseases
         violation of their religious beliefs
         debauchery by the white man’s alcohol
         weakening of their traditional way of life
The Jesuit priests, despite their initial failure in gaining converts, played a vital role because
         – of their exploration and work as geographers [Jesuits do not have to be French – only Catholic]
The early wars between France and Britain in North America were notable for the
         – use of primitive guerrilla warfare
Salutary/Benign Neglect:
During a generation of peace following the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, Britain provided its American colonies with
         – decades of salutary neglect
The Seven Years’ War/The French & Indian War:
The clash between Britain and France for control of the North American continent sprang from their rivalry for
         control of – the Ohio River Valley
The reason France needed to control the Ohio Valley was to
         – link its Canadian holdings with those of the lower Mississippi Valley
In his first military command in the French and Indian War, George Washington
         – was defeated at Fort Necessity but was allowed to retreat
The Seven Years’ War was also known in America as – the French and Indian War
In the colonial wars before 1754, Americans – demonstrated an astonishing lack of unity
The immediate purpose of the Albany Congress of 1754 was to – keep the Iroquois tribes loyal to the British
Unlike the first three Anglo-French wars, the Seven Years’ War
         – was fought initially on the North American continent
The following events are arranged in chronological order -
         George Washington surrenders Fort Necessity
         General Edward Braddock is defeated near Fort Duquesne
         British troops capture Louisbourg in their first significant victory of the French and Indian War
         General James Wolfe’s army defeats Montcalm’s on the Plains of Abraham
The long-range purpose of the Albany Congress in 1754 was to
         – achieve colonial unity and common defense against the French threat
Benjamin Franklin’s plan for colonial home rule was rejected by the individual colonies because
         – it did not seem to give enough independence to the colonies
As a result of General Braddock’s defeat a few miles from Fort Duquesne
         – the frontier from Pennsylvania to North Carolina was open to Indian attack
The British invasion of Canada in 1756 during the Seven Years’ War – ended in defeat
When William Pitt became prime minister during the Seven Years’ War, he
        – focused his military strategy on the capture of French Canada
The 1759 Battle of Quebec – ranks as one of the most significant victories in British and American history
In the peace arrangements that ended the Seven Years’ War,
        - France surrendered all of its territorial claims to North America
As a result of the Seven Years’ War, Great Britain – became the dominant power in North America
For the American colonies, the Seven Years’ War – ended the myth of British invincibility
During the Seven Years’ War, - British officials were disturbed by the lukewarm support of many colonials
With the end of the Seven Years’ War, the disunity, jealousy, and suspicion that had long existed in the
        American colonies – began to melt somewhat
The disunity that existed in the colonies before the Seven Years’ War can be attributed to -
        the enormous distances between the colonies
        geographical barriers like rivers
        conflicting religions
        varied nationalities
France had to give up its vision of a North American New France when
        – it was defeated by the British in 1713 and 1763
With the British and American victory in the Seven Years’ War,
        - a new spirit of independence arose, as the French threat disappeared
In a sense, the history of the United States began with the – fall of Quebec and Montreal
With the defeat of Chief Pontiac and his alliance, the British decided to – stabilize Indian-white relations
Chief Pontiac decided to try to drive the British out of the Ohio Valley because
        – the Indians were in a precarious position
The Proclamation of 1763 was designed mainly to – work out a fair settlement of the Indian problem
In the wake of the Proclamation of 1763 – American colonists moved west, defying the Proclamation
The Proclamation of 1763 – prohibited colonial settlements west of the Appalachian Mountains
Cajuns:
When the Acadians left Canada, they went to – Louisiana
The isolation of Louisiana’s Cajun communities ended – with bridge building in the 1930s
The primary thing that the Acadians and Quebecois believed that bound them together was their
        – French language



Ch. 7 The Road To Revolution, 1763-1775 (Ch. 5 in 12th and 13th editions)
British want American colonists to pay their fair share:
The Navigation Laws required that -
        all commerce to and from the colonies be carried only on British vessels
        European goods going to the colonies had first to be put in at a British port and pay duties
        certain goods produced in the colonies, like tobacco, be shipped only to Britain
To a degree, the Navigation Laws were beneficial to colonists because -
        colonists were paid subsidies for producing ships’ parts and stores
        tobacco growers were guaranteed a monopoly of the British market for their crop
        colonial trading ships were protected by the Royal Navy
Change in colonial policy by the British government that helped precipitate the American Revolution involved
        – compelling the American colonists to shoulder some of the financial costs of the empire
When it came to the Revolution, it could be said that the American colonists were – reluctant revolutionaries
The American colonial exponents of republicanism argued that a just society depended on
        – the willingness of all citizens to subordinate their private interests to the common good
The republican belief that held the stability of society and the authority of the government
        – depended on the virtue of its citizenry
The “radical whigs” feared – the arbitrary power of the monarchy
Mercantilists believed that
        – a country’s economic wealth could be measured by the amount of gold and silver in its treasury
Taxes/Acts to raise $$$ & representation:
The first law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenues in the colonies for the crown was the
        – Sugar Act
The British Parliament passed the Stamp Act (1765) to
        – raise money to support new military forces needed for colonial defense
Passage of the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act
        – convinced many colonists that the British were trying to take away their historic liberty
Unlike the Stamp Act, the Sugar Act and the Townshend Act were both indirect taxes on trade goods arriving in
        American ports
The following events are in chronological order -
        Sugar Act – Stamp Act – repeal of the Stamp Act – Declaratory Act
Colonists objected to the Stamp Act because – Parliament passed the tax, not the colonists
When the colonists shouted “No taxation without representation,” they were rejecting Parliament’s power to
        – levy revenue-raising taxes on the colonies
Actions taken by the colonists that helped them unite include -
        the Stamp Act Congress
        nonimportation agreements
        spinning bees
        the making and wearing of homemade woolen goods
[Boycotts]
“Virtual” representation meant that – every member of Parliament represented all British subjects
Colonial protest against the Stamp Act took the form of -
        convening a colonial congress to request repeal of the act
        a colonial boycott against British goods
        violence in several colonial towns
        wearing homemade woolen clothes
As a result of American opposition to the Townshend Acts
        – British officials sent regiments of troops to Boston to restore law and order
The colonists took the Townshend Acts less seriously than the Stamp Act because – it was light and indirect
The Townshend Acts -
        were designed to raise revenue to help pay the salaries of royal governors
        failed to produce the volume of revenue expected
        were repealed by Parliament
George Grenville (British Prime Minister) responded to American protests against his policies by asserting that
        - colonists were represented in Parliament even if they did not think so the power of Parliament was
                 absolutely supreme in the empire
Boston “Massacre” (1770)
In response to the Boston Tea Party (Dec 1773), Parliament -
        closed Boston harbor
        restricted town meetings in New England
        required that the perpetrators of the Boston Tea Party be taken to England for trial
[Other “tea parties” in other cities]
The First Continental Congress – called for a complete boycott of British goods
Other colonial grievances:
Colonists disliked the new British policy of trying accused tax-policy offenders in admiralty courts because the
        offenders -
        would be assumed guilty unless they could prove themselves innocent
        would not receive a jury trial

Revolution:
As a result of Parliament’s rejection of the petitions of the Continental Congress
        – fighting and bloodshed took place, and war began
As the War for Independence began, Britain had the advantage of
        – overwhelming national wealth and naval power
All of the following were weaknesses of the British military during the War for Independence -
        second-rate officers
        the need to keep many soldiers in Europe in case of trouble
        the long supply lines
        brutal treatment of their soldiers
As the War for Independence began, the colonies had the advantage of
        – many outstanding civil and military leaders
The colonists faced all of the following weaknesses in the War for Independence -
        poor organization
        sectional jealousy, which constantly interfered with the appointment of military leaders
        great difficulties in raising money to support the army
        a weak central authority running the war effort
By the end of the War for Independence,
        – a few thousand American regular troops were finally whipped into shape
Whigs in England want a colonial victory not a British one:
Many Whigs in Britain hoped for an American victory in the War for Independence because they
        – feared that if George III triumphed, his rule at home might become tyrannical
African-Americans in the Revolution:
African Americans during the Revolutionary War – fought for both the Americans and the British
Regarding American independence – only a select minority supported independence with selfless devotion




Ch. 8: America Secedes From The Empire, 1775-1783
Second Continental Congress:
When the Second Continental Congress met in 1775 – there was no well-defined sentiment for independence -
       and (from 12th edition) it resolved to keep fighting in the hope that the British would redress the
       colonists’ grievances
When the Second Continental Congress convened -
       delegates attended from all thirteen colonies
       it adopted measures to raise money and create an army and navy
       it drafted new written appeals to the king
       the conservatives remained a strong force
Perhaps the most important single action of the Second Continental Congress was to
       – select George Washington to head the army (a political choice really – lucky it was good one)
George Washington:
George Washington’s selection to lead the colonial army was – largely political
As commander of America’s Revolutionary army, George Washington exhibited all of the following:
       courage – a sense of justice – moral force – patience [he was a harsh disciplinarian]
George Washington was chosen commander of the colonial armies because he -
       was from a southern colony
       was a colonial aristocrat
       was a symbol and rallying point
{He lost most of his battles but managed to hold the army together & not lose fighting a guerrilla war}
{He married into his money but coveted his best friend’s wife} {He was quite the Indian killer}
{He was a bit stuck up but an avid athlete – the best horseman in America - & a great dancer}
Chronology:
The following events are in chronological order -
        fighting at Lexington and Concord
        convening of the Second Continental Congress
        publication of Common Sense
        adoption of the Declaration of Independence
Revolutionary War:
The Revolutionary War began with fighting in New England; then in 1777-1778, fighting was concentrated in
        the middle colonies; and the fighting concluded in the south
In 1775, once fighting between the colonies and Great Britain began,
        - the colonists affirmed their loyalty to the King
The colonial army eventually lost the Battle of Bunker Hill because its troops were – short of gunpowder
King George III officially declared the colonies in rebellion just after – the Battle of Bunker (Breed’s) Hill
The Olive Branch Petition – professed American loyalty to the crown
With the American invasion of Canada in 1775, - the colonials’ claim that they were merely fighting
        defensively for a redress of grievances was contradicted
The colonists’ invasion of Canada in 1775
        – contradicted the American claim that they were only fighting defensively
The colonists delayed declaring their independence until July 4, 1776 for all of the following reasons -
        support for the tradition of loyalty to the empire
        the realization that the colonies were not united
        fear of British military reprisals
        a continued belief that America was part of the transatlantic community
What is a “republican” government?:
In a republic, power – comes from the people themselves (who elect representatives to represent them)
When America became a republic and political power no longer rested with an all-powerful king,
        - individuals needed to sacrifice their own self-interest to the public good
Thomas Paine:
Thomas Paine’s pamphlet Common Sense
        – called for American independence and the creation of a democratic republic
Thomas Paine argued that all government officials – should derive their authority from popular consent
Thank you Richard Henry Lee!:
The resolution that “These United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states…” was
        introduced into the Second Continental Congress by Virginia delegate – Richard Henry Lee
Self-governance/Committees of Correspondence:
The feasibility of representative government had been demonstrated in the – committees of correspondence
Examples of colonial experience with self-governance, which prepared Americans for a republic, included all of
        the following:
                New England town meetings
                committees of correspondence
                the relative equality of landowning farmers
                the absence of a hereditary aristocracy [is this really true though – are there very rich & very poor?]
American colonists had experience with republicanism -
        in New England town meetings
        in the committees of correspondence
John Adams’ wife says to “Remember the ladies…”:
Abigail Adams – privately advocated equality for women (in letters to her husband who respected her greatly)
Were all Americans revolutionaries?
Like many revolutions, the American Revolution was – a minority movement



Declaration of Independence:
One purpose of the Declaration of Independence was to
        – explain to the rest of the world why the colonies had revolted
The Declaration of Independence did all of the following -
        invoke the natural rights of humankind to justify revolt
        catalog the tyrannical actions of King George III [but they really meant Parliament]
        argue that royal tyranny justified revolt
        accused the British of violating the natural rights of the Americans
Loyalists/Tories:
Americans who opposed independence for the colonies were labeled – Loyalists or – Tories, - and the
        independence-seeking Patriots were also known as – Whigs
The Americans who continued to support the crown after independence had been declared were more likely to
        be all of the following -
                 well educated – from among the older generation – affiliated with the Anglican church – wealthy
All of the following fates befell colonial Loyalists -
        tarring and feathering – imprisonment – exile – riding astride fence rails
Loyalists were least numerous in – New England
Many Americans remained loyalists during the Revolution for all of the following reasons -
        they believed a Patriot victory would lead to anarchy
        some were promised freedom
        they believed the British would preserve religious toleration
        they believed in British military superiority
The following fates befell Loyalists after the Revolutionary War -
        some fled to England – some re-established themselves in America
        some had their property confiscated – some were exiled
To help the British, colonial Loyalists did all of the following -
        fight for the British – serve as spies
        threat kept Patriot soldiers at home to protect their families – incite the Indians
American militias:
The Patriot militia played a crucial role in the Revolution in all of the following ways -
        taking up the task of “political” education
        convincing people that the British army was an reliable friend
        mercilessly harassing small British detachments
        as effective agents of Revolutionary ideas
Revolutionary War details:
General William Howe did not pursue and defeat George Washington’s army after the Battle of Long Island for
        all of the following reasons -
                 he remembered the slaughter of Bunker Hill
                 the country was rough
                 supplies were slow in coming
                 he did not relish the rigors of a winter campaign
In late 1776 and early 1777, George Washington helped restore confidence in America’s military by
        – defeating the Hessians at Trenton and the British at Princeton
The basic strategy of the British in 1777 was to try to – isolate New England
Each British general below is matched with the battle in which he was involved -
        William Howe – Long Island
        John Burgoyne – Saratoga
        Charles Cornwallis – Yorktown
The following battles are in chronological order -
        Long Island – Trenton – Saratoga – Charleston
After the humiliating defeat at Saratoga in 1777, the British Parliament
        – passed a bill that offered Americans home rule (12th edition)
The basic principles of the “Model Treaty” and the new philosophy behind American international affairs,
        contained all of the following
                  no political connection – no military connection
                  only commercial connection – novus ordo seculorum-“a new order for the ages”
                  were considered old-fashioned and out-dated
                  were not popular among most enlightened figures in America
                  held that military conflict would still determine international relations among countries
                  infused an element of realism into American attitudes toward international affairs that proved
                  short-sighted and inconsistent
The Battle of Saratoga was a key victory for the Americans because it
         – brought the colonists much-needed aid and a formal alliance with France
We need French help (that’s hard to admit):
France waited to give open assistance to America until after the victory at Saratoga because the French
         – thought the colonists’ chances of winning slim before the victory (12th edition)
France came to America’s aid in the Revolution because – it wanted revenge against the British
America’s first entangling alliance was with – France
America’s alliance with France was accepted by the American people with – distaste
The American diplomat that negotiated the “Model Treaty” with France was – Benjamin Franklin
When the alliance with France was formalized, the Americans were able to
         – avail themselves of French naval strength
The commander of French troops in America was – Rochambeau
French aid to the colonies -
         greatly aided America’s struggle for independence
         was motivated by what the French considered to be their own national interests
         forced the British to change their military strategy in America
         helped them protect their own West Indies islands
Benedict Arnold - hero, then, traitor!:
Shortly after French troops arrived in America, the resulting improvement in morale staggered when
         – General Benedict Arnold turned traitor
More Revolutionary War details:
New York was chosen as the base of British operations because -
         of its splendid seaport
         of its central location
         of the probability of support there from colonists who opposed independence
During the Revolutionary War, the British captured and occupied -
         New York City – Charleston – Philadelphia
The colonists suffered their heaviest losses of the Revolutionary War at the Battle of – Charleston
The individuals below are matched with the correct descriptive phrase -
         George Rogers Clark – commanded Patriot troops in the West
         Nathanael Greene – commanded Patriot troops in the South
         John Paul Jones – commanded Patriot naval forces
Some Indian nations join the British during the Revolutionary War because
         – they believed that a British victory would restrain American expansion into the West
The “Fighting Quaker” who cleared most of Georgia and South Carolina was – Nathaniel Greene
After the British defeat at Yorktown (1781) – the fighting continued for more than a year
It is legitimate to claim that the triumph at Yorktown “was no less French than American” because -
         the French supplied all the seapower
         French troops made up half the besieging army
The British decided to negotiate an end to the Revolutionary War because -
         they were crushed by the failure of their army at Yorktown
         they were suffering heavy military losses against the French and Spanish elsewhere
         the new British ministry now in power was more pro-American
Revolutionary War on the frontier:
The Indian chief who fought for the British in New York and Pennsylvania was – Joseph Brant
The Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the first treaty between the United States and an Indian nation, resulted in
        – the ceding of most of the Iroquois’ land
During the Revolution, the frontier saw much fighting, which
        – failed to stem the tide of westward-moving pioneers
Privateers/Pirates:
The most important contribution of the seagoing “privateers” during the Revolutionary War was that they
        – captured hundreds of British merchant ships
Treaty of Paris 1783:
American diplomats to the peace negotiations in Paris in 1782-1783 were instructed by the Second Continental
        Congress to
         - consult with the colonies’ French allies and make no separate peace arrangements with the British
Britain gave America generous terms in the Treaty of Paris because British leaders
        – were trying to persuade America to abandon its alliance with France
Regarding the provisions of the 1783 Treaty of Paris, which formally ended the Revolution
        – America broke the assurances regarding treatment of the Loyalists
The Treaty of Paris in 1783 stipulated -
        British recognition of American independence
        establishment of the boundaries of the new United States from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi
        River between the Great Lakes and Spanish Florida
        the Americans allow British collection of prewar debts from colonists
        that Americans cease persecution of Loyalists
        that Loyalists should have their confiscated property restored




Ch. 9 The Confederation and the Constitution, 1776-1790 (Ch 9 in the 12th and 13th editions)
Quakers & anti-slavery:
The world’s first antislavery society was founded by – Quakers in Philadelphia
Slavery, emancipation for some, & slavery protected by the government:
As part of the Egalitarian movement of the American Revolution, - several northern states abolished slavery
        - [don’t be fooled though – inequality was immense eventually]
Early signs of the abolitionist movement can be seen in the – emancipation of some slaves
The Founding Fathers failed to eliminate slavery because – a fight over slavery might destroy national unity
        - [Is that the only reason? No! It was immeasurably profitable for all of the colonies]
Equality in the colonies? Please, that’s ridiculous!:
As a result of the Revolution’s emphasis on equality, all of the following were achieved -
        the reduction of property qualifications for voting by most states (not substantial)
        the growth of trade organizations for artisans and laborers
        the establishment of the world’s first antislavery society
        abolishing medieval inheritance laws
The most important outcome of the Revolution for white women was that they
        – were elevated as special keepers of the nation’s conscience
Formation of State & the Federal Governments:
As written documents, the state constitutions were intended to
        – represent a fundamental law superior to ordinary legislation
As a means of ensuring that legislators stay in touch with the mood of the people, state constitutions
        – required the annual election of legislators
As a result of the Revolution, many state capitals were relocated westward
        – to get them away from the haughty eastern seaports
No French Revolution – why?:
One reason that the United States avoided the frightful excesses of the French Revolution is that
        – cheap land was easily available
Successful American Revolution? That is relative!:
It was highly significant to the course of future events that
        – economic democracy preceded political democracy in the United States
The economic status of the average American at the end of the Revolutionary War was
        – probably worse than before the war
Immediately after the Revolution, the new American nation’s greatest strength lay in its
        – excellent political leadership [but these elites protected their own interests sometimes at the expense of others]
Powerless Continental Congresses:
The Second Continental Congress of Revolutionary days
        – was little more than a conference of ambassadors with very limited power
Articles of Confederation:
The Articles of Confederation were finally approved when
        – all states claiming western lands surrendered them to the national government
The major issue that delayed ratification of the Articles of Confederation concerned – western lands
The Articles of Confederation left Congress unable to – enforce a tax-collection program
A major strength of the Articles of Confederation was its – presentation of the ideal of a united nation
Under the Articles of Confederation, the relationship among the thirteen states
        – convinced many that a stronger central government was needed
The debate between the supporters and critics of the Articles of Confederation centered on how to
        – reconcile states’ rights with strong national government
Under the Articles of Confederation, -
        a unicameral Congress was to be the chief agency of national government
        there was no executive branch of national government
        each state remained essentially sovereign
        major legislation required a two-thirds vote to pass Congress
Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress -
        was specifically designed to be weak
        had no power to regulate commerce
        had no tax-collecting authority
[Lots of weaknesses – EX. no executive branch to enforce the laws, all states has to agree to ratification, etc…]
USA’s new territories:
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 – established a procedure for governing the Old Northwest territory
One of the most farsighted provisions of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787
        – prohibited slavery in the Old Northwest [Thanks Thomas Jefferson!]
The Land Ordinance of 1785 provided for all of the following -
        money from land sales should be used to pay off the national debt
        the land should be surveyed before its sale
        the territory should be divided into townships six miles square
        the sixteenth section should be sold to support education
Post-Revolution problems for the new USA:
Each nation below is matched with the correct description of the problem it presented for U.S. foreign relations
        following the Revolutionary War -
                 Britain – occupied a chain of trading forts in the Old Northwest
                 France – demanded repayment of wartime loans
                 Spain – controlled important trade routes from the interior of North America
                 Barbary Coast – threatened American commerce in the Mediterranean
After the Revolutionary War, both Britain and Spain
        – prevented America from exercising effective control over about half of its total territory

Daniel Shays’ Rebellion:
Shay’s Rebellion was provoked by – foreclosures on the mortgages of backcountry farmers [gov’t was unfair]
Shay’s Rebellion convinced many Americans of the need for – a stronger central government
        [quick ratification of Constitution as a result]
Constitutional Convention (1787 in Philadelphia, PA):
The issue that finally touched off the movement toward the Constitutional Convention was
        – control of commerce [it’s always about $$$]
By the time the Constitution was adopted in 1789 – prosperity was beginning to return
The Constitutional Convention was called to – revise the Articles of Confederation
Which Revolutionary leader was NOT present at the Constitutional Convention? – Thomas Jefferson
Which Revolutionary leader was present at the Constitutional Convention? – Benjamin Franklin (12th edition)
The delegate whose contributions to the Philadelphia Convention were so notable that he has been called the
        “Father of the Constitution” was – James Madison
The delegates at the Constitutional Convention were concerned mainly with
        – protecting America from its weaknesses abroad and its excesses at home [Shays’ Rebellion]
Most of the delegates at the Constitutional Convention could best be labeled – nationalists
Motives of the delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia include all of the following
        to preserve the union – to forestall anarchy – to ensure the security of life and property
                 to curb unrestrained democracy
The “large-state plan” put forward in the Constitutional Convention
        – based representation in the House and Senate on population
The Great Compromise at the Constitutional Convention worked out an acceptable scheme for
        – apportioning congressional representation
        [VA Plan based on population – House of Representatives & NJ Plan based on equality – Senate]
Under the Constitution, the president of the United States was to be elected by a majority vote of the
        – Electoral College (take away democracy of the masses)
The idea that all tax measures should start in the House was made to appease
        – the big states with the most people
The Constitutional Convention addressed the North-South controversy over slavery through the
        – “three-fifths” compromise (slaves counted as 3/5ths of a person for representation in the House)
Continuation of the foreign slave trade – was a compromise in the Constitution [readily made]
By their actions, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention manifested their common beliefs in all of the
        following: [Can 55 propertied, rich men, many of them slaveholders, really represent the population, thus writing, “We the people …”?]
                 government by the consent of the governed
                 checks and balances in government
                 the sanctity of private property
                 a stronger central government
The one (& only) branch of the government elected directly by the people is the – House of Representatives
The new Constitution established the idea that the only legitimate government was one based on
        – the consent of the governed [but the common people did not have a choice to say no or reject it either]
The ultimate guarantor of liberty and justice was – the virtue of the people [true, but the people forget this often]
The delegates at the Constitution Convention stipulated that the new Constitution be ratified by
        – state conventions
Most of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention were -
        relatively well-to-do {rich - $$$}
        appointed by state legislatures {not elected by the people popularly}
        experienced at writing constitutions
        lawyers
Major goals of the delegates at the Constitutional Convention included -
        preservation of the Union
        creation of a stronger national government
        restricting democracy in several states
Federalists, Anti-Federalists, & the Bill of Rights [first 10 Amendments to the Constitution]:
The Anti-Federalist camp included all of the following groups -
       states’ rights supporters – backcountry dwellers – paper money advocates – debtors
Probably the most alarming characteristic of the new Constitution to those who opposed it was the
       – absence of a Bill of Rights [first 10 Amendments to the Constitution]
Among other views, The Federalist, written during the ratification debate, argued that it was
       – possible to extend a republican form of government over a large territory
Anti-Federalists believe that the sovereignty of the people resided in the
       – legislative – branch of the central government {executive grew more powerful in 20th century}
Laws of the colonial period & early American government:
During the Revolutionary War, many states -
       eliminated inheritance laws like primogeniture (first son gets the entire inheritance)
       reduced property requirements for voting
       [but not to the degree that suffrage was widely expanded - & then raised the requirements after the war was over]
       disestablished the Anglican church (a symbol of England to many)
Most, if not all, of the new state constitutions -
       were written documents, required the annual election of state legislators, granted the state legislatures
                more power than governors, & created weak executive and judicial branches
Some results of the Revolution:
The Revolutionary War -
       stimulated American manufacturing (more so the War of 1812)
       produced runaway inflation in many states (wars tend to cause inflation of prices devaluing currency)
       saw America remain a nation of farmers
The disruptive forces that produced a shaky start toward union of the states immediately following the
       Revolutionary War included -
                the absence of the unifying element of a common cause {which was what before exactly?}
                an economic depression in the colonies



Ch.10: Launching the New Ship of State, 1789-1800
Demographic explosion:
When the new government was launched in 1789
       – the nation’s population was doubling about every twenty-five years { young population}
Have Americans trusted their government?:
Regarding central authority, early Americans saw it as all of the following -
       something to be distrusted – something to be watched
       something to be curbed – a necessary evil
       but not something to be ultimately eliminated
               {Is that different today? If so, how so; if not, why not?}
Presidential Cabinet {Not in Constitution – Thanks George Washington!}:
The new Constitution did not provide for the creation of a – cabinet (George Washington appointed one)
Each individual below is matched with his office in the new government -
       Thomas Jefferson – secretary of state
       Alexander Hamilton – secretary of treasury
       Henry Knox – secretary of war
Demographics:
Despite flourishing cities, America’s population was still about 90% rural
Anti-Federalists want a Bill of Rights, so the Federalists promise to deliver one:
One of the major criticisms of the Constitution as drafted in Philadelphia was that it
       – did not provide guarantees for individual rights

The Bill of Rights was intended to protect – individual liberties
       – against the potential tyranny of – a strong central government
One of the first jobs facing the new government formed under the Constitution was to
        – draw up and pass a bill of rights
All of the following are guarantees provided by the Bill of Rights -
        freedom of speech – freedom of religion – freedom of the press – right to a trial by a jury
The – Tenth – Amendment might rightly be called the “states’ rights” amendment
Hamilton, the Federalist, the Financier, the elitist, the dead:
Alexander Hamilton’s financial program for the economic development of the United States favored
        – the wealthier class
Hamilton believed that, together, his funding and assumption (of state’s unpaid war debts) programs would
        – gain the monetary and political support of the rich for the federal government
As Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton’s first objective was to – bolster the national credit
All of the following were part of Alexander Hamilton’s economic program -
        the creation of a national bank
        funding the entire national debt at “par”
        vigorous foreign trade
        protective tariffs
Alexander Hamilton’s financial plan for strengthening the economy and bolstering national credit proposed all
        of the following:
                 funding the national debt
                 assuming state debts
                 establishing a national bank
                 a low protective wall around infant industries
Alexander Hamilton believed that a limited national debt – was beneficial, because people to whom the
        government owed money would work hard to make the nation a success
The aspect of Hamilton’s financial program that received the least support in Congress was – a protective tariff
Hamilton expected that the revenue to pay the interest on the national debt would come from
        – customs duties and excise tax
Alexander Hamilton’s proposed bank of the United States was
        – based on the “necessary and proper,” or “elastic,” clause in the Constitution
Hamilton’s major programs seriously infringed on – states’ rights
Alexander Hamilton’s Bank of the United States was modeled on the – Bank of England
Federalist are “loose” while Anti-Federalists are “strict”:
The following pairs of items are directly related to each other -
        implied powers-“necessary and proper” clause
        strict construction-Tenth Amendment
        loose construction-“elastic” clause
        “necessary And proper” clause-vested powers
        states’ rights-loose construction are not directly related to each other
Hamilton – Federalist/Jefferson – Anti-Federalist:
Each political leader below is matched with his positions on public policy in the 1790s -
        Hamilton         privileges for the upper classes
                         pro-British
                         potent central government
                         government support for business
        Jefferson        sympathy for the common people
                         pay off the national debt
                         pro-French
                         universal education


Jefferson & Madison oppose Hamilton:
Opposition by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison to the financial plan of Alexander Hamilton resulted in
        – the formation of permanent political parties
Are we supposed to have political parties?:
The Founding Fathers had not envisioned the existence of permanent political parties because they
        – saw opposition to the government as disloyal
The political party of the “outs” that provided the “loyal opposition” to the party in power in the 1790s was
        – the Democratic-Republicans {Jefferson’s party}
Whiskey Rebellion:
The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 arose in southwestern Pennsylvania when the federal government
        – levied an excise tax on whiskey
        [unfair b/c the gov’t did not tax the rich to pay war debts (bonds) owed to the rich, so severely taxed
          poor farmers on the only commodity they had – many of the farmers were veterans who could not vote]
What scared the elites in America?:
The event of the 1790s that has left the deepest scar on American political and social life is
        – the French Revolution
Alliance with France not wanted by the USA & deteriorating:
The Franco-American alliance of 1778 – bound the United States to help the French defend their West Indies
USA chose neutrality rather than honor commitment to war:
When the French Revolution developed into a war with Britain, George Washington and the American
        government – remained neutral
Washington says stay out of European wars:
Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 – was based on calculations of American self-interest
Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation clearly illustrated the truism that
        – self-interest is the basic cement of alliances
One of George Washington’s major contributions as president was – keeping the nation out of foreign wars
Washington’s Farewell Address in 1796 – warned against the dangers of permanent foreign alliances
War with Indians in Ohio, not the Seminoles in Florida or the Miami Hurricanes:
The Treaty of Greenville signed in August with the Miami Confederation resulted in all of the following -
        giving to the United States vast tracts of land in the Old Northwest
        the Indians receiving a $20,000 lump sum payment
        an annual annuity of $9,000 to the Indians
        the right of the Indians to hunt the land they had ceded
        It did not result in the establishment of an equal relationship with the Indians
England provokes a weak USA & laughs:
Britain made neutrality very difficult for the United States during the French and British conflicts of the 1790s
        by – seizing American merchant ships in the West Indies
War with England as France’s ally as our alliance demands or war with France as England’s ally – Depends?:
Hamilton’s position on the war between Britain and France in 1793 was primarily influenced by
        – the national government’s dependence on customs collections for revenue (He wants to side w/England)
For its continued success, Hamilton’s financial program relied heavily on – trade with Britain
My Treaty:
In Jay’s Treaty, the British – promised to evacuate the chain of forts in the Old Northwest
The United States acquired free navigation of the Mississippi River in – the Pinckney Treaty
John Jay’s 1794 treaty with Britain – created deeper splits between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
Jay’s Treaty contained all of the following provisions -
        a British promise to evacuate its chain of forts on U.S. soil
        British consent to pay damages for the recent seizure of American ships
        that Americans were bound to pay debts still owed to British merchants on pre-Revolutionary accounts
        no promise by the British to pay for future seizure of American ships
In the election campaign of 1796, the Democratic-Republicans made their primary issue
        – the terms of Jay’s Treaty
The French grew angry with the United States after 1794 because – of Jay’s Treaty
First election without the obvious winner, George Washington – Who won?:
John Adams (Federalist) beat Thomas Jefferson (Anti-Federalist in the Democrat-Republican/Jeffersonian-
        Republican), but elections were different back then – all candidates ran for President and the winner was
        President and the second place was the VP
The 1796 presidential campaign focused heavily on – the candidates’ personalities
Naval war with France:
Foreign relations between the United States and France deteriorated in the late 1790s over
        – French seizure of American merchant ships
The immediate cause of the undeclared war between the United States and France was – the XYZ affair
        [French officials – “X, Y, & Z” – who wanted bribes from American ambassadors who refused to pay]
        {Really? This war was about US commerce being disrupted & France angry over US refusal to honor
                the alliance & go to war against England – plus USA was weak, so Britain & France could & did
                beat up on the young nation on the seas}
The United States finally negotiated a peace settlement with France in 1800 mainly because Napoleon
        – wanted to concentrate on gaining more power in Europe
President John Adams sought a peaceful solution to the undeclared war with France in order to
        – prevent the outbreak of a full-scale war (He was very proud of this)
President Adams throws the First Amendment in the garbage {2nd President – that didn’t take long}:
The main purpose of the Alien and Sedition Acts was to – silence and punish critics of the Federalists
The Federalist-dominated Congress’s Alien Act was aimed at – recent immigrants
        – whereas the Sedition Act was primarily aimed at – newspapers
The Sedition Act – threatened First Amendment freedoms
The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions were written in response to – the Alien and Sedition Acts
Federalists/Anti-Federalists debate government:
According to the compact theory advocated by Jefferson and Madison,
        - the national government was the creation of the thirteen sovereign states
According to the Federalists, the duty of judging the unconstitutionality of legislation passed by Congress lay
        with – the Supreme Court
Federalist advocated rule by – the “best” people (elites – they controlled who these people were w/restrictions on voting & office holding)
Federalists strongly supported – law and order (Apparently, Anti-Federalists did not – this is rubbish!)
Hamiltonian Federalists advocated – a strong central government
Thomas Jefferson – politician:
Thomas Jefferson appealed to all of the following groups -
        small shopkeepers – the underprivileged – the middle class – artisans
        But not the upper class {although he was upper class}
To the Jeffersonian Republicans, the “ideal” citizen of a republic was an – independent (yeoman) farmer
Thomas Jefferson favored a political system in which – the states retained the majority of political power
Jeffersonians believed in all of the following -
        opposition to a national debt (Federalists like Hamilton insisted that the USA have a debt)
        agriculture as the ideal occupation (Hamilton was from NY so was more partial to bankers & merchants)
        freedom of speech (Hamilton did not trust the middle and lower classes – he didn’t like democracy)
        central authority should be kept to a minimum (opposite of Federalists)
        But not every adult white male’s right to vote
Thomas Jefferson argued that a landless class of voters could be avoided in part by – continuing slavery
         [




                             AP US History Review 1800-1850
Ch. 11 The Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic, 1800-1812
John Adams:
One of the greatest problems that John Adams and the Federalists faced in the election of 1800 was
       – Adams’s refusal to take the country to war against France
[Alien and Sedition Acts]
Thomas Jefferson:
In the election of 1800, the Federalists accused Thomas Jefferson of all of the following
        having robbed a widow
        having fathered numerous mulatto children by his own slave women
        being an atheist
        having robbed children of their trust funds
In the 1800 election Thomas Jefferson won the state of New York because
        – Aaron Burr used his influence to turn the state to Jefferson
The Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans presented themselves as all of the following:
        strict constructionists – protectors of agrarian purity
        believers of political and economic liberty – strong supporters of state’s rights
        They did not present themselves as believers in a strong central government
Thomas Jefferson received the bulk of his support from the – South and West
In 1800, Thomas Jefferson was chosen president by the – House of Representatives
Thomas Jefferson’s “Revolution of 1800” was remarkable in that it – marked the peaceful and orderly transfer
        of power on the basis of election results accepted by all parties
Thomas Jefferson was elected president by the House of Representatives when
        – a few Federalists refrained from voting
Thomas Jefferson saw his election and his mission as president to include all of the following
        to return to the original spirit of the revolution
        restore the republican experiment
        check the growth of the republican experiment
        halt the decay of virtue
        But not to support the establishment of a strong army
As president, Thomas Jefferson’s stand on several political issues that he had previously championed
        – was reversed
With Thomas Jefferson’s election as president, the Democratic-Republican party
        – grew less unified as the Federalist party began to fade and lose power
Thomas Jefferson’s presidency was characterized by his – moderation in the administration of public policy
On becoming president, Thomas Jefferson and the Republicans in Congress immediately repealed
        – the excise tax on whiskey [Whiskey Rebellion]
When it came to the major Federalist economic programs, Thomas Jefferson as president
        – left practically all of them intact
Thomas Jefferson and his followers opposed John Adams’ last-minute appointment of new federal judges
        mainly because – it was an attempt by a defeated party to entrench itself in the government
        [“Midnight Judges”]
Chief Justice John Marshall:
The chief justice who carried out, more than any other federal official, the ideas of Alexander Hamilton
        concerning a powerful federal government was – John Marshall [Federalist]
Before he became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, John Marshall’s service at Valley Forge during the
        American Revolution convinced him – of the drawbacks of feeble central authority

As chief justice of the United States, John Marshall helped to ensure that
       – the political and economic systems were based on a strong central government
The legal precedent for judicial review was established when
       – the Supreme Court declared the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional
The case of Marbury v. Madison involved the question of who had the right to
       – declare an act of Congress unconstitutional [Judicial Review]
John Marshall, as chief justice of the United States, helped to strengthen the judicial branch of government by
       – asserting the doctrine of judicial review of congressional legislation
Thomas Jefferson (Again):
Thomas Jefferson’s failed attempt to impeach and convict Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase for
        “high crimes and misdemeanors” meant that
                – judicial independence and the separation of powers had been preserved
Thomas Jefferson distrusted large standing armies because they – could be used to establish a dictatorship
Thomas Jefferson saw navies as less dangerous than armies because
        – they could not march inland and endanger liberties
Thomas Jefferson had strong misgivings about the wisdom of – maintaining a large standing army
Thomas Jefferson’s first major foreign-policy decision was to – send a naval squadron to the Mediterranean
Thomas Jefferson ceased his opposition to the expansion of the navy when the
        – Pasha of Tripoli declared war on the United States [Barbary Coast Pirates – North Africa – Libya today]
To guard American shores, Thomas Jefferson – constructed two hundred tiny gunboats
“Louisiana Purchase”:
In order to purchase New Orleans from France, Thomas Jefferson
        – decided to make an alliance with his old enemy Britain
Napoleon chose to sell Louisiana to the United States because
        he had suffered misfortunes in Santo Domingo
        he hoped that the territory would one day help America to thwart the ambitions of the British
        he did not want to drive America into the arms of the British
        yellow fever killed many French troops
Jefferson had authorized American negotiators to purchase only – New Orleans and the Floridas – from France
Thomas Jefferson was conscience-stricken about the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France because
        – he believed that the purchase was unconstitutional [So, why did he do it then?]
                {How do you think the Indians that lived there felt about France selling the land?}
Lewis and Clark’s expedition through the Louisiana Purchase territory yielded all of the following
        a rich harvest of scientific observations – maps
        hair-raising adventure stories – knowledge of the Indians of the region
        But it did not yield treaties with several Indian nations
Lewis and Clark demonstrated the viability of – an overland trail to the Pacific
Dueling can lead to death & in Burr’s case, treason!:
After killing Alexander Hamilton in a duel, Aaron Burr – plotted to divide the United States
What was so “impressive” about British sailors that caused them to kidnap American sailors?:
The British policy of impressments was a kind of – forced enlistment
The British impressed American sailors into the British navy because – they needed more men
The Chesapeake incident involved the flagrant use of – impressments
Naval conflicts on the high seas for a young and weak nation lead to a mistake by President Jefferson:
To deal with British and French violations of America’s neutrality, Thomas Jefferson
        – enacted an economic embargo [the Ograbme snapping turtle political cartoon]
Thomas Jefferson’s embargo failed for all of the following reasons
        he underestimated the determination of the British
        Britain produced a bumper grain crop
        Latin America opened its ports for commerce
        he miscalculated the difficulty of enforcing it
President Jefferson’s foreign policy of economic coercion – stimulated manufacturing in the United States
Macon’s Bill No. 2 – permitted trade with all nations but promised that if either Britain or France lifted its
        commercial restrictions on American trade, the United States would stop trading with the other
James Madison:
President James Madison made a major foreign-policy mistake when he
        – accepted Napoleon’s promise to recognize America’s rights [war with England]
War with the world’s superpower again?:
By 1810, the most insistent demand for a declaration of war against Britain came from – the West and South
The war hawks demanded war with Britain because they wanted to do all of the following
        wipe out renewed Indian resistance [to expand in West & South]
       defend American rights
       gain more territory
       revenge the manhandling of American sailors
The only argument not put forth by the war hawks as a justification for a declaration of war against Britain was
       that – Britain’s commercial restrictions had come close to destroying America’s profitable New England
               shipping business
War with Indians:
The following events are in chronological order
       Embargo Act – war hawks enter Congress – Battle of Tippecanoe – declaration of war on Britain
Tecumseh argued that Indians should – not cede control of land to whites unless all Indians agreed
Native American leader Tecumseh was killed in 1813 at the – Battle of the Thames
The battle of Tippecanoe resulted in – the death of the dream of an Indian confederacy
War of 1812 (1812-1814):
In 1812, James Madison turned to war – to restore confidence in the republican experiment [really?]
Seafaring New England opposed the War of 1812 because of all of the following
       the Northeast Federalists sympathized with England
       it resented the Republican’s sympathy with Napoleon
       Federalists opposed the acquisition of Canada
       it could result in more agrarian states
Once begun, the War of 1812 was supported strongly by – the West and South
Federalists opposed the acquisition of Canada because
       – it was too agrarian and would give more voted to the Democratic-Republicans
During the War of 1812, the New England states
       – lent more money and sent more food to the British army than to the American army




Ch. 12 The Second War For Independence And The Upsurge of Nationalism, 1812-1824
War of 1812 (1812-1814):
The War of 1812 was one of the worst-fought wars in United States history because – of widespread disunity
When the United States entered the War of 1812, it was – militarily unprepared
The War of 1812 was one of the worst-fought wars in American history for all of the following reasons
        disunity was widespread
        only a zealous minority supported the war
        the army was scandalously inadequate
        the militia was poorly trained
Canada became an important battleground in the War of 1812 because – British forces were weakest there
The performance of the United States’ Navy in the War of 1812 could be best described as
        – much better than that of the army
America’s campaign against Canada in the War of 1812 was – poorly conceived because it split-up the military
Perhaps the key battle of the War of 1812, because it protected the United States from full-scale invasion and
        possible dissolution, was the Battle of – Plattsburgh
British plans for their 1814 campaign did not include action in – Florida
The British attack on Fort McHenry (Baltimore, MD) – inspired the writing of “The Star-Spangled Banner”
The most devastating defeat suffered by the British during the War of 1812 took place at the Battle of
        – New Orleans (after the war was over)
The Battle of New Orleans – saw British troops defeated by Andrew Jackson’s soldiers
One result of the American naval victories during the War of 1812 was
        – a British naval blockade of the American coast
At the peace conference at Ghent, the British began to withdraw many of its earlier demands for all of the
        following reasons
                 reverses in upper New York – a loss at Baltimore
                 increasing war weariness in Britain – concern about the still dangerous France
                 But not because of the American victory at New Orleans
The delegates of the Hartford Convention adopted resolutions that included a call for
         – a Constitutional amendment requiring a two-thirds vote in Congress before war was declared
The resolutions from the Hartford Convention – helped to cause the death of the Federalist party
War of 1812 Facts:
Washington DC was invaded and burned. Dolly Madison saved a portrait of George Washington and other
things from the Executive Mansion (it was not the “White House” yet) before the British over-ran the capitol
Factoid:
One of the nationally recognized American authors in the 1820s was – Washington Irving (Columbus round earth myth)
Results of the War of 1812:
From a global perspective, the War of 1812 was – of little importance
In diplomatic and economic terms, the War of 1812 – bred greater American independence (particularly economically)
The outcome of the War of 1812 was – a stimulus to patriotic nationalism (for many) in the United States
The Rush-Bagnot agreement – limited naval armaments on the Great Lakes
After the War of 1812, Europe – returned to conservativism, illiberalism, and reaction
One of the most important by-products of the War of 1812 was – a heightened spirit of nationalism (for many but not all)
Post-War of 1812 nationalism could be seen in all of the following
         the way in which American painters depicted the beauty of American landscapes
         the building of a more handsome national capital
         an expanded army and navy
         development of a national literature
         But not in a revival of American religion
At the end of the War of 1812, British manufacturers
         – began dumping their goods in America at extremely low prices
Tariffs:
The Tariff of 1816 was the first in American history – that aimed to protect American industry
Henry Clay & His American System:
Henry Clay’s call for federally funded roads and canals received whole-hearted endorsement from – the West
New England opposed the (Clay’s) American System’s federally constructed roads because
         – they would drain away needed population to the West
Democratic-Republicans opposed Henry Clay’s American System because
         – they believed that it was unconstitutional (to tax citizens to pay for federal construction)
Good Vibrations Early 19th Century Style:
The Era of Good Feelings – was a misnomer, because the period was a troubled one
With the demise of the Federalist party – the Democratic-Republicans established one-party rule
Panic! (Depression!) [Take Zoloft!]:
The panic of 1819 brought with it all of the following
         unemployment – bank failures – debtor’s prisons – bankruptcies
         But not inflation
One of the major causes of the panic of 1819 was – overspeculation in frontier lands

The western land boom resulted from all of the following
       it was a continuation of the old westward movement
       land exhaustion in older tobacco states
       speculators accepted small down payments
       the frontier was pacified with the defeat of the Indians
       But not the construction of railroad lines west of the Mississippi River
One of the demands made by the West to help it grow was – cheap money
Balance between slave and free states must be maintained in Congress:
When the House of Representatives passed the Tallmadge Amendment in response to Missouri’s request for
        admission to the Union, the South thought that the amendment – would threaten the sectional balance
The first state entirely west of the Mississippi River to be carved out of the Louisiana Territory was – Missouri
As a result of the Missouri Compromise
        – slavery was banned north of the 36º30' in the Louisiana Purchase territory
All of the following were results of the Missouri compromise
        extremists in both the North and South were not satisfied
        Missouri entered the Union as a slave state
        Maine entered the Union as a free state
        the balance between the North and South was kept even
        But sectionalism was not reduced
Federalist Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Marshall:
In interpreting the constitution, John Marshall – favored “loose construction”
John Marshall uttered his famous legal dictum that “the power to tax involved the power to destroy” in
        – McCulloch v. Maryland
In McCulloch v. Maryland, Cohens v. Virginia, and Gibbons v. Ogden, Chief Justice Marshall’s rulings limited
        the extent of – states’ rights
John Marshall’s rulings upheld a defense of property rights against public pressure in – Fletcher v. Peck
Old Northwest Territory:
People moved into the Old Northwest for all of the following reasons
        better transportation – the Indian threat was gone [why?]
        to achieve better social position – to get their own democratic community
        But not as a haven for runaway slaves
Settlers from the South who moved into the Old Northwest territory were known as – Butternuts
When moving to the Old Northwest, settlers from the North wanted to do all of the following
        tame the land – tame the people – build canals – build roads [Clay’s American System]
The United States’ most successful diplomat in the Era of Good Feelings was – John Quincy Adams
The Treaty of 1818 with England – called for a ten-year joint occupation of the Oregon country by both
        American citizens and British subjects
Andrew Jackson, that dude on the $20:
Jackson in Florida vs. Seminoles & Maroons (runaway slaves living w/Seminoles – a mixed society
       - b/c Spain had to fight in South America (independence movements)
                 Argentina 1816, Venezuela 1817, Chile 1818
       - John Quincy Adams defended him (later they run for president against each other & the mud is slung big-time)
                 against those who wanted his (metaphoric) head for his actions in Florida
                 – cruel warfare against Spanish & Indians (and his own men in some cases for harsh discipline)
       - Florida Purchase 1819 from Spain (Florida Cession)
                 - plus claims on Oregon too in exchange for any US claims to Texas
                 - plus USA has the newly purchased LA territory
Perceived threats to the USA:
US felt threatened by the powerful monarchies w/claims in North America
        - Much of Latin America was in revolution against Spain & Russia was in North America too
        - British trading in Latin America now too – all were threats to the new USA


Monroe Doctrine:
Monroe Doctrine – John Quincy Adams – Sec of State for President Monroe – Monroe read a speech to
Congress in 1823, and part of it was later labeled the Monroe Doctrine – no more colonization in the Americas
(Western Hemisphere) – no European intervention – it was aimed at Russia & Europe – British wanted a joint
declartation to this effect w/the USA, but the USA, knowing the British would enforce it, decided to announce it
themselves – therefore, Latin America was somewhat protected from Europe (by the British – and Latin
America knew it too) – thus, the USA sounded tough while the British had the muscle to back it up.
Ch. 13 The Rise Of Jacksonian Democracy, 1824-1830
Slavery & politics:
In the 1820s and 1830s one issue that greatly raised the political stakes was – slavery.
Two-Party System:
The new two party political system that emerged in the 1830s and 1840s
        – became an important part of the nation’s checks and balances. [traps us in the world of South Park too]
In the 1820s and 1830s the public’s attitude regarding political parties
        – accepted the sometimes wild contentiousness of political life. [radical parties of the political parties]
By the 1840s new techniques of politicking included all of the following:
        the use of banners - free drinks – parades - baby kissing
1824 Election – Our first son of a President as President – JQA – JQA wins!:
The presidential election of 1824 – was the first one to see the election of a minority president
Each individual below is matched with the correct description:
        Andrew Jackson – received more popular votes than any other candidate in 1824
        Henry Clay – was eliminated as a candidate when 1824 election was thrown to House of Representatives
        John C. Calhoun – was vice president on the ticket of two presidential candidates in 1824
The House of Representatives decided the 1824 presidential election when
        – no candidate received a majority of the vote in the Electoral College.
John Quincy Adams, elected president in 1825, was charged by his political opponents with having struck a
        “corrupt bargain” when he appointed – Henry Clay – to become – secretary of state.
As president, John Quincy Adams – was one of the least successful presidents in American history.
John Quincy Adams could be described as – possessing almost none of the arts of the politician.
John Quincy Adams’s weaknesses as president included all of the following:
        a deep nationalistic view - only 1/3rd of voters voted for him - his sarcastic personality - he was tactless
During his long political career, John Quincy Adams was at one time or another -
        a nationalist, secretary of state, a congressman, and president (not necessarily in that order).
While he was president, John Quincy Adams was roundly criticized for his -
        land policy - Indian policy - support for internal improvements - supposed aristocratic life style
1828 Election Gets Ugly:
The presidential election of 1828 was characterized by -
        mudslinging tactics by both parties against the opposing candidate
        an unusually high voter turnout
        both sides using trees to symbolize their candidate.
Increased voter participation by the 1840s – why?:
By the 1840s voter participation in the presidential election reached – nearly 80 percent.
Andrew Jackson is urninated, wants revenge, becomes President, and as before, becomes a bane to Indians:
Andrew Jackson’s political philosophy was based on his – suspicion of the federal government. {except his of course}
Andrew Jackson’s inauguration as president symbolized the – newly won ascendancy of the masses. (how?)
        {That dude was a rich slave owner who was poor at one time but arose to aristocratic status}
Spoils System & Jackson:
The purpose behinds the spoils system was – to reward political supporters with public office.
The spoils system under Andrew Jackson resulted in
        – the appointment of many corrupt and incompetent officials to federal jobs.
Tariff of 1828:
The people who proposed the exceptionally high rates of the Tariff of 1828 were
        – ardent supporters of Andrew Jackson
The section of the United States most hurt by the Tariff of 1828 was – the South
Southerners feared the Tariff of 1828 because – this same power could be used to suppress slavery.
Jackson’s don-in-law, John C. Calhoun:
John C. Calhoun’s “South Carolina Exposition” was an argument for – states’ rights.
Jackson, Calhoun, South Carolina, and “nullification”:
The “nullification crisis” of 1832-1833 erupted over – tariff policy.
The strong regional support for the Tariff of 1833 came from – the South.
The Force Bill of 1833 provided that
        – the President could use the army and navy to collect federal tariff duties.
        [Jackson threatens to hang Calhoun – mobilizes army to invade SC]
The person most responsible for defusing the tariff controversy that began in 1828 was – Henry Clay.
The nullification crisis of 1833 resulted in a clear-cut victory for – neither Andrew Jackson nor the nullifiers
In response to South Carolina’s nullification of the Tariff of 1828, Andrew Jackson
        – dispatched military forces to South Carolina.
The nullification crisis started by South Carolina over the Tariff of 1828 ended when
        – Congress passed the compromise Tariff of 1833.
Southerners disliked the Tariff of 1828 because it -
        raised the price of manufactured goods
        represented the growing power of the federal government
The South Carolina nullifying convention -
        declared the tariff of 1832 null and void within South Carolina
        ordered the South Carolina state legislature to make military preparations to defend the state
        nullified the Force Bill passed by Congress
        threatened to secede from the Union if the national government tried to force the state into compliance
        with congressional law.
Jackson removes Indians:
Andrew Jackson’s administration supported the removal of Native Americans from the eastern states because
        – whites wanted the Indians’ lands.
In their treatment of Native Americans, white Americans did all of the following:
        recognize the tribes as separate nations
        try to civilize them
        trick them into ceding land to whites.
        promise to acquire land only through formal treaties
In an effort to assimilate themselves into white society, the Cherokees did all of the following:
        adopt a system of settled agriculture
        develop a written constitution
        become cotton planters
        develop a notion of private property
The policy of the Jackson administration toward the eastern Indian tribes was – forced removal.
Jackson and the Bank War:
Andrew Jackson and his supporters disliked the Bank of the United States for all of the following reasons
        except it – put public service first, not profits
Andrew Jackson made all of the following charges against the Bank of the United States except that
        – it refused to lend money to politicians.
One of the positive aspects of the Bank of the United States was – its promotion of economic expansion by
making credit abundant.
While in existence, the Second Bank of the United States
        – was the depository of the funds of the national government.
Andrew Jackson’s veto of the re-charter bill for the Bank of the United States was
        – a major expansion of presidential power.
Andrew Jackson based his veto of the re-charter bill for the Bank of the United States on
        – the fact that he found the bill harmful to the nation.
One of the main reasons Andrew Jackson decided to weaken the Bank of the United States after the 1832
        election was – his fear that Nicholas Biddle might try to manipulate the bank to force its re-charter.
        [Biddle & Jackson intensely disliked each other – personal for Jackson]
In his veto of the bank re-charter bill, President Jackson claimed that the bank was -
        unconstitutional
        anti-western
        too much influenced by aristocrats and foreigners
        corrupt and monopolistic
Following his election in 1832, President Jackson decided to -
        remove federal funds from the Bank of the United States gradually
        stop depositing federal funds in the Bank of the United States
        start depositing federal funds in several “pet” state banks
Masons & Anti-Masons:
The Anti-Masonic party of 1832 appealed to – American suspicions of secret societies.
The Anti-Masonic party - was an anti-Jackson party & was the nation’s first third party.
Political Parties Innovate:
Innovations in the election of 1832 included – adoption of written party platforms.
Whigs:
Supporters of the Whig party included all of the following:
        backers of southern states’ rights
        large northern industrialists
        many evangelical Protestants
        backers of the American System
        did not include opponents of public education
The “cement” that held the Whig party together in its formative days was – hatred of Andrew Jackson.
The Whigs hoped to win the 1836 election by – forcing the election into the House of Representatives.
The Whigs offered all of the following proposals for the remedies of the economic ills facing America in 1837 -
        expansion of bank credit
        proposal of higher tariffs
        proposal of subsidies for internal improvements
        more active involvement on the part of the government
The Whig party drew support from -
        Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun
        southerners and states’ rights
        large northern industrialists and merchants
Panic again!:
The Panic of 1837 was caused by all of the following:
        rampant speculation
        the Bank War
        financial problems abroad
        failure of wheat crops
        But not by taking the country off the gold standard


Van Buren followed Jackson & “panics” plus inherits Jackson’s enemies:
President Martin Van Buren’s administration was troubled by -
       his lack of personal popularity
       antislavery agitation against the annexation of Texas
       a serious economic depression
       the inherited enemies of former president Andrew Jackson
The panic of 1837 was the result of -
       over-speculation in internal improvements
       the Bank War and Specie Circular
       economic distress in Europe
Texas experiences illegal immigration in the 1830s – Mexico cannot permit immigrants to come illegally:
Americans moved into Texas
        – after an agreement was concluded between Mexican authorities and Stephen Austin.
Stephen F. Austin’s grant from the Mexican government required that immigrants whom he helped settle in
        Texas - become Mexican citizens & be Roman Catholics
Spanish authorities allowed Moses Austin to settle in Texas because
        – they believed that Austin and his settlers might be able to civilize the territory.
The government of Mexico and the Americans who settled in Mexican-controlled Texas clashed over all of the
        following issues:                                                              ;
                slavery – immigration - local rights - Santa Anna raising an army to use against Texas
                        But not over allegiance to Spain
Texas asserts its independence from Mexico over slavery:
Texans won their independence as a result of the victory over Mexican armies at the Battle of – San Jacinto.
Texas gained its independence with – help from Americans.
One reason for the Angle-Texan rebellion against Mexican rule was that
        – the Anglo-Texans wanted to break away from a government that had grown too authoritarian. [relative]
Presidents Jackson and Van Buren hesitated to extend recognition to and to annex the new Texas Republic
        because – antislavery groups in the United States opposed the expansion of slavery.
Most of the early American settlers in Texas came from – the South and Southwest. [many came with slaves]
“Tippecanoe and Tyler Too!”:
The “Tippecanoe” in the Whigs’ 1840 campaign slogan was – William Harrison.
William Henry Harrison, the Whig party’s presidential candidate in 1840, was
        – made to look like a poor western farmer.
Political Parties:
Both the Democratic party and the Whig party – were mass-based political parties.
The two political parties of the Jacksonian era tended to – be socially and geographically diverse.



Ch. 14 Forging The National Economy, 1790-1860
Frontier life:
Life on the frontier was – downright grim for most pioneer families
Pioneering Americans marooned by geography – became ill informed and individualistic in their attitudes
Economy:
All of the following gave rise to a more dynamic, market-oriented, national economy in early nineteenth-
        century America
                the push west in search of cheap land
                a vast number of European immigrants settling in the cities
                newly invented machinery
                better roads, faster steamboats, further-reaching canals, and tentacle-stretching railroads
                But not government regulation of all major economic industry

Growth of cities:
In early nineteenth-century America – the urban population was growing at an unprecedented rate
The dramatic growth of American cities between 1800 and 1860
        – resulted in unsanitary conditions in many communities
European economic imperialism in the Western Hemisphere:
“Ecological imperialism” can best be described as – the aggressive exploitation of the West’s bounty
Preservationist efforts:
George Caitlin advocated – the preservation of nature as a national policy
Immigration – Irish & Germans:
The influx of immigrants to the United States tripled, then quadrupled, in the – 1840s and 1850s
Ireland’s great export in the 1840s was – people (Irish immigrants – Irish potato famine & general hard-times)
The Irish immigrants to early nineteenth-century America – were mostly Roman Catholics and hated the British
When the Irish flocked to the United States in the 1840s, they stayed in the larger seaboard cities because they
        – were too poor to move west and buy land
When the “famine Irish” came to America, they - mostly remained in the port cities of the Northeast
German immigrants in the early nineteenth century tended to – preserve their own language and culture
German immigrants to the United States – came to escape economic hardships and autocratic government
When German immigrants came to the United States, they – prospered with astonishing ease
Immigrants coming to the United States before 1860 – helped to fuel economic expansion
Factors encouraging the growth of immigration rates in the first half of the nineteenth century included the:
        rapid growth rate of the European population
        perception of America as the land of freedom and opportunity
        introduction of transoceanic steamships
        economic and political turmoil in Europe
        religious oppression by European state churches
Nativism [xenophobic bigots]:
Native-born Protestant Americans distrusted and resented the Irish mostly because these immigrants
        – were Roman Catholic (not Protestant) [xenophobia – fear of foreigners] {Bill the Butcher – Gangs of New York}
Those who were frightened by the rapid influx of Irish immigrants organized
        – the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner
The sentiment of fear and opposition to open immigration was called – nativism
Native-born Americans feared that Catholic immigrants to the United States would
        – “establish” the Catholic church at the expense of Protestantism
Industrialism – Factories – Textiles in New England:
The “Father of the Factory System” in the United States was – Samuel Slater
The American phase of the industrial revolution first blossomed – with textile mills
The underlying basis for modern mass production was the – use of interchangeable parts (Eli Whitney)
The early factory system distributed its benefits – mostly to the owners
        [exploitation of workers, particularly Mill Girls]
The growth of industry and the factory system in the United States was slowed by -
        the scarcity of labor – limited investment capital – a small domestic market
The Northeast became the center of early-nineteenth-century American industry because it had -
        abundant water power
        investment capital available
        a relatively large labor supply
The growth of early-nineteenth-century American manufacturing was stimulated by the
        – War of 1812 and the Tariff of 1816
By 1850, America’s factory system was producing -
        textiles – boots and shoes – firearms – sewing machines
The concentration of capital for investment in large-scale enterprises in the early nineteenth century was
        promoted by the wider acceptance of the principle of limited liability & passage of state free
                 incorporation laws
Cotton Engine 1793 Increases Need for Slaves:
Eli Whitney was instrumental in the invention of the – cotton gin
Most of the cotton produced in the American South after the invention of the cotton gin was – sold to England
As a result of the development of the cotton gin – slavery revived and expanded
Early 19th Century American Industrialists:
Each individual below is matched with the correct invention:
        Samuel Morse – telegraph
        Cyrus McCormick – mower-reaper
        Elias Howe – sewing machine
        Robert Fulton – steamboat
Exploitation of Workers, Increasing Male Suffrage, & the Results:
The American work force in the early nineteenth century was characterized by
        – substantial employment of women and children in factories
One reason that the lot of adult wage earners improved was – the enfranchisement of the laboring man
In the case of Commonwealth v. Hunt, the supreme court of Massachusetts ruled that
        – labor unions were not illegal conspiracies
Status of women in early 19th century America:
The “cult of domesticity” – glorified the traditional role of women as homemakers
American families in the early 19th century:
Early-nineteenth-century American families – were getting smaller
One of the goals of the child-centered family of the 1800s was to – raise independent individuals
Cash-Crop Agriculture:
The effect of early-nineteenth-century industrialization on the trans-Allegheny West was to encourage
        – specialized, cash-crop agriculture
With the development of cash-crop agriculture in the trans-Allegheny West,
        - farmers quickly faced mounting indebtedness
Early 19th century infrastructure:
In the 1790s a major transportation project linking the East to the trans-Allegheny West was the
        – Lancaster Turnpike
Western road building faced all of the following problems:
        the expense
        states’ rights advocates’ opposition
        eastern states’ opposition
        wartime interruptions
        But not competition from canals
The major application for steamboats transporting freight and passengers in the United States was on
        – western and southern rivers
The “canal era” of American history began with the construction of the – Erie Canal in New York
Construction of the Erie Canal – forced some New England farmers to move or change occupations
Most early railroads in the United States were built in the – North
Compared with canals, railroads – could be built almost anywhere
As a result of the transportation revolution
        – each region in the nation specialized in a particular type of economic activity
In general – steamboats – tended to bind the West and South together, while
        – canals and – steamboats – connected West to East
The turnpikes, canals, and steamboats as new transportation links generally encourages -
        lowering of freight rates
        economic growth
        rising land values
        migration of peoples
Clipper ships and the Pony Express had in common -
        speedy service and a brief existence
Continental Economy:
In the new continental economy, each region specialized in a particular economic activity:
        the South – grew cotton – for export
        the West grew grains and livestock to feed eastern factory workers
        the (North) East – made machines and textiles – for the other two regions
All of the following were legal questions raised as a result of the new market economy:
        how tightly should patents protect inventions?
        should the government regulate monopolies?
        can a democratic government still support slavery?
        who should own these new technologies?
       But not who should own the new transportation network?
As the new continental market economy grew
       – the home came to be viewed as a refuge from the workday world
A major economic consequence of the transportation and marketing revolutions was
       – a steady improvement in average wages and standards of living [not as significant as this sounds]
Advances in manufacturing and transportation brought -
       more prosperity and opportunity to most Americans increased immigration from Europe to the
               United States




Ch. 15 The Ferment of Reform and Culture, 1790-1860
Religious beliefs in America – including those of many Founders:
The Deist faith embraced all of the following:
        the reliance on reason rather then revolution
        belief in a Supreme Being
        belief in human beings’ capacity for moral behavior
        denial of the divinity of Jesus
        But not the concept of original sin
Deists like Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin endorsed the concept of
        – a Supreme Being who created the universe
By 1850, organized religion in America – had lost some of its austere Calvinist rigor
Unitarians endorsed the concept of – salvation through good works
An early-nineteenth-century religious rationalist sect devoted to the rule of reason and free will was the
        – Unitarians
Second Great Awakening:
All of the following are true of the Second Great Awakening:
        it resulted in the conversion of countless souls
        it encouraged a variety of humanitarian reforms
        it strengthened democratic denominations like the Baptists and Methodists
        it was a reaction against the growing liberalism in religion
        But it was not as large as the First Great Awakening
Religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening resulted in
        – a strong religious influence in many areas of American life
As a revivalist preacher, Charles Grandison Finney advocated:
        opposition to slavery
        a perfect Christian kingdom on earth
        opposition to alcohol
        public prayer by women
The greatest of the revival preachers of the Second Great Awakening was – Charles G. Finney
The Second Great Awakening tended to – promote religious diversity
The religious sects that gained most from the revivalism of the Second Great Awakening were the
        – Methodists and Baptists
The Second Great Awakening tended to – widen the lines between classes and regions
Many of the denominational liberal arts colleges founded as a result of the Second Great Awakening
        – lacked much intellectual vitality (many of those universities are around still but now academic)
Latter Day Saints [Mormons]:
The Mormon religion originated in – the Burned-Over District of New York
The original prophet of the Mormon religion was – Joseph Smith
Brigham Young, The Book of Mormon, Salt Lake City, and polygamy (do not take out of context or exaggerate)
One characteristic of the Mormons that angered many non-Mormons was their
        – emphasis on cooperative or group effort
        [Utah, violence against, violence of, persecution – why?]
The Mormons were advocates or practitioners of – theocracy and polygamy (do not take out of context or exaggerate)
Public education:
Tax-supported public education – was deemed essential for social stability and democracy
In the first half of the nineteenth century, tax-supported schools were
        – chiefly available to educate the children of the poor
Webster’s Dictionary:
Noah Webster’s dictionary – helped to standardize the American language
Status of Women:
One strong prejudice inhibiting women from obtaining higher education in the early nineteenth century was the
        belief that – too much learning would injure women’s brains and ruin their health
Women became especially active in the social reforms stimulated by the Second Great Awakening because
        – evangelical religion emphasized their spiritual dignity and religious social reform legitimized their
                 activity outside the home
Two areas where women in the nineteenth century were widely thought to be superior to men were
        – moral sensibility and artistic refinement
New England reformer Dorothea Dix is most notable for her efforts on behalf of – prison and asylum reform
Temperance movement (prohibition of alcohol):
The excessive consumption of alcohol by Americans in the 1800s
        – stemmed from the hard and monotonous life of many
        [women were active in this movement – why?]
Neal Dow sponsored the Main Law of 1851, which called for
        – a ban on the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor
Gender Roles of Men & Women in the Economy:
Sexual differences were strongly emphasized in nineteenth-century America because
        – the market economy increasingly separated men and women into distinct economic roles
Abolition (puts women’s rights on hold):
By the 1850s, the crusade for women’s rights was eclipsed by – abolitionism
Utopian communities (interesting in a way):
According to John Humphrey Noyes, the key to happiness is – the suppression of selfishness
The beliefs advocated by John Humphrey Noyes included all of the following:
        no private property
        sharing of ALL material goods
        belief in a vengeful deity
        improvement of the human race through eugenics
        But not in strictly monogamous marriages
The key to Oneida’s financial success was – the manufacture of steel animal traps and silverware
The Oneida colony declined due to – widespread criticism of its sexual practices
Most of the utopian communities in pre-1860s America held – cooperative social and economic practices
        – as one of their founding ideals
The most successful of the early-nineteenth-century communitarian experiments was at – Oneida, New York

American medical profession used to be a joke:
The American medical profession by 1860 was noted for – its still primitive standards
American science:
When it came to scientific achievement, America in the 1800s was – more interested in practical matters [$$$]
Each individual below is matched with the correct description:
       Louis Agassiz – Harvard biologist
       Gilbert Stuart – portrait artist
       John J. Audubon – author of Birds of America
American art:
America’s artistic achievements in the first half of the nineteenth century – were least notable in architecture
The Hudson River school excelled in the art of painting – landscapes
American literature:
A genuinely American literature received a strong boost from the
        – wave of nationalism that followed the War of 1812
Each writer below is matched with his work:
        Washington Irving – The Sketch Book, with “Rip Van Winkle”
        James Fenimore Cooper – Leatherstocking Tales
        Ralph Waldo Emerson – “The American Scholar”
Transcendentalists believed that all knowledge came through – an inner light
All of the following influenced transcendental thought:
        German philosophers
        Oriental religions
        individualism
        love of nature
        But not Catholic belief
“Civil Disobedience,” an essay that later influenced both Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., was
        written by the transcendentalist – Henry David Thoreau
The Poet Laureate of Democracy, whose emotional and explicit writings expressed a deep love of the masses
        and enthusiasm for an expanding America, was – Walt Whitman
The most noteworthy southern novelist before the Civil War was – William Gilmore Simms
One American writer who did not believe in human goodness and social progress was – Edgar Allan Poe
Each writer below is matched with his work:
        Henry Wadsworth Longfellow – “Hiawatha”
        Edgar Allan Poe – The Scarlet Letter
        Herman Melville – Moby Dick
The Knickerbocker group of American writers included - Washington Irving and William Cullen Bryant
American transcendentalist writers included -
        Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller
Transcendentalists were dedicated to - Individualism and self-reliance
American historians tend to be from New England in the 19th century:
Virtually all the distinguished historians of the early-nineteenth-century America came from – New England
American education:
Early-nineteenth-century American educators included:
        Horace Mann
        William H. McGuffey
        Noah Webster
        Emma Willard
        Mary Lyon



Social reformers in early 19th century America:
Social reformers of the early nineteenth century wanted to -
        find a practical application for their evangelical religion
        reaffirm traditional values in the confusion of industrialization
        fulfill the ideals of American democracy
Women in America (again):
In early-nineteenth-century America -
        women could not vote
        married women could not retain ownership of their property
In early-nineteenth-century America, men usually regarded women as -
       having a sharply distinct economic role in society
       physically and emotionally weak but morally superior to men
       having their proper place in the home
The leaders of the women’s rights movement in the early nineteenth century included -
       Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony




Ch. 16: The South and the Slavery Controversy, 1793-1860
Slavery gets new life (death):
As a result of the introduction of the cotton gin – slavery was reinvigorated
Members of the planter aristocracy – dominated society and politics in the South
All of the following were true of the American economy under Cotton Kingdom -
        cotton accounted for half the value of all American exports after 1840
        the South produced more than half the entire world’s supply of cotton.
        75% of the British supply of cotton came from the South
        quick profits from cotton drew planters to its economic enterprise
        But the South did not reap all the profits from the cotton trade
Plantation agriculture was wasteful largely because – its excessive cultivation of cotton despoiled good land
Plantation mistresses – commanded a sizeable staff of mostly female slaves
Plantation agriculture – was economically unstable and wasteful
The plantation system of the Cotton South was – increasingly monopolistic
All the following were weaknesses of the slave plantation system:
        it relied on a one-crop economy
        it repelled a large-scale European immigration
        it stimulated racism among poor whites
        it created an aristocratic political elite
        But it was not a weakness that its land continued to remain in the hands of the small farmers
All told, only about – one-fourth – of white southerners owned slaves or belonged to a slaveholding family
        ~36% maximum is what I usually remember!
The following quote, “I think we must get rid of slavery or we must get rid of freedom” was said by
        – Ralph Waldo Emerson
By the mid-nineteenth century – most slaves lived on large plantations
Most slaves in the South were owned by – plantation owners (the largest numbers total)
The majority of southern whites owned no slaves because – they could not afford the purchase price
The great increase of the slave population in the first half of the nineteenth century was largely due to
        – natural reproduction
Regarding work assignments, slaves were – generally spared dangerous work [why?]
Slave economies are not good for the economy:
The profitable southern slave system – hobbled the economic development of the region as a whole

Slave deomographics:
By 1860, slaves were concentrated in the “black belt” located in the
        – Deep South states of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana [why? cotton of course!]
As a substitute for the wage-incentive system, slave owners most often used the – whip as a motivator
        [yes & no]
By 1860, life for slaves was most difficult in the – newer states of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana
Forced separation of spouses, parents, and children was most common
        – on small plantations and in the upper South
All of the following were true of slavery in the South:
        slave life on the frontier was harder than that of life in the more settled areas
        a distinctive African American slave culture developed
        a typical planter had too much of his own prosperity riding on the backs of his slaves to beat them on a
        regular basis
        by 1860 most slaves were concentrated in the “black belt” of the Deep South
        It was not true that most slaves were raised in single unstable parent households
Most slaves were raised – in stable two-parent households
Slaves fought the system of slavery in all the following ways:
        slowing down the work pace
        sabotaging expensive equipment
        pilfering goods that their labor had produced
        running away when possible
        Refusing to get an education was not a way they fought slavery
As a result of white southerners’ brutal treatment of their slaves and their fear of potential slave rebellions, the
        South – developed a theory of biological racial superiority
In the pre-Civil War South, the most uncommon and least successful form of slave resistance was
        – armed insurrection
Nat Turner, David Walker, Denmark Vesey, and Gabriel
The idea of re-colonizing blacks back to Africa was – supported by the black leader Martin Delaney
Slaves were -
        regarded primarily as financial investments by their owners
        the primary form of wealth in the South
        profitable for their owners
The slave culture was characterized by -
        a hybrid religion of Christian and African elements
        widespread illiteracy among slaves
        subtle forms of resistance to slavery
The South’s “positive good” argument for slavery claimed that -
        slavery was supported by the authority of both the Bible and the Constitution
        slavery was good for the barbarous Africans because enslavement introduced them to Christianity’
        slaves were usually treated as members of the family
        slaves were better off then most northern wage earners
Immigrants in the South:
German and Irish immigration to the South was discouraged by – competition with slave labor
Most Southern farmers grow corn b/c it’s cheap & easy:
As their main crop, southern subsistence farmers raised – corn
Most white southerners were – subsistence farmers
Southerners loyal to the Union – why?:
The most pro-Union of the white southerners were – mountain whites
Some southern slaves gained their freedom as a result of – purchasing their way out of slavery
Were Northerners bigots too?:
Northern attitudes toward free blacks can best be described as – disliking the individuals but liking the race
For free blacks living in the North – discrimination was common
“So you’re the little lady whose book started this great war.”:
Perhaps the slave’s greatest psychological horror, and the theme of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s
        Cabin, was – the enforced separation of slave families
Abolitionists:
Each abolitionist below is matched with his publication:
        William Lloyd Garrison – The Liberator
        Theodore Dwight Weld – American Slavery as It Is
        Frederick Douglass – Narration of the Life of
        David Walker – Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World
The following are arranged in chronological order: the founding of the -
        American Colonization Society
        American Anti-Slavery Society
        Liberty Party
William Lloyd Garrison pledged his dedication to – the immediate abolition of slavery in the South
Each abolitionist below is matched with his role in the movement:
        Wendell Phillips – abolitionist golden trumpet
        Frederick Douglass – black abolitionist
        Elijah P. Lovejoy – abolitionist martyr
        William Lloyd Garrison – abolitionist newspaper publisher
Many abolitionists turned to political action in 1840 when they backed the presidential candidate of the
        – Liberty Party
The voice of white southern abolitionism fell silent at the beginning of the – 1830s [except for Grimké sisters]
In arguing for the continuation of slavery after 1830, southerners
        – placed themselves in opposition to much of the rest of the Western world
Those in the North who opposed the abolitionists believed that these opponents of slavery
        – were creating disorder in America
After 1830, the abolitionist movement took a new, more energetic tone, encouraged by the -
        success of the British abolitionists in having slavery abolished in the British West Indies
        religious spirit of the Second Great Awakening
How did the North feel about slavery?:
After 1830, most people in the North -
        held that the Constitution sanctioned slavery
        were alarmed by the radicalism of abolitionists like William Lloyd Garrison
“Cotton is king!”:
The South became the Cotton Kingdom in the early nineteenth century because of -
        Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin
        the new profitability of short-staple cotton
        the opening of rich river bottomlands in the Gulf Coast states
Cotton became important to the prosperity of the North as well as the South because -
        northern merchants handled the shipping of southern cotton
        cotton accounted for about half the value of all United States exports after 1840
The Antebellum South:
The pre-Civil War South was characterized by -
        a well-developed martial spirit
        the lack of free, tax-supported public education
        a widening gap between rich and poor
        a ruling planter aristocracy
        a growing hostility to free speech and a free press
Even those who did not own slaves in the pre-Civil War South supported that institution because they -
        dreamed of one day owning slaves themselves
        presumed themselves racially superior to black slaves [those in the N, S, E, & W too]

Free Blacks:
Before the Civil War, free blacks -
       were often the mulatto offspring of white fathers and black mothers
       were often forbidden basic civil rights
       were disliked in the North as well as the South
Ch 17 Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy, 1841-1848
Tippecanoe croaks so John Tyler asserts the Presidency as the former VP:
John Tyler joined Whigs b/c he did not agree with the dictator, Andy Jackson
        - Whigs chose him as VP in 1840 to attract votes of states’ rightists
        - He vetoed bill to establish a new Bank of the USA – resulting in his expulsion from the Whigs, all
            but 1 cabinet member resigned, Daniel Webster, the House tried to impeach him unsuccessfully, and
            he vetoed a Whig high tariff bill, & vetoed bill to distribute public land sales’ revenue to the states
USA justs wants to invade Canada – like South Park:
1837 Canadian insurrection vs. Great Britain – GB attacked USA supporters of insurrection on US soil who
        were bringing weapons and aide to the Canadians
Oregon:
Most Americans who migrated to OR were attracted by the rich soil of the Willamette River Valley
The primary group that helped strengthen and save US claims to Oregon - US missionaries to Indians
        - later immigrants/migrants/settlers who occupied the land
        - Area in dispute in 1845 lay b/t Columbia River, the 49 parallel, & Pacific Ocean
        - Group most supportive of gaining control of all of the Oregon territory to the 54 40 - N. Democrats
        - 1846 Treaty w/ Great Britain – N. boundary of USA established at the 49 parallel
        - British compromise partly b/c they believed the territory was not worth fighting over
        [settlement of the Oregon territory’s boundary]
Panic (depression) of 1837 again:
Panic of 1837 – result – several states default on debts owed to British
Canadians & Americans fight over part of Maine:
British-US dispute over Maine’s border was solved by compromise to split the territory – British got a road
        - Aroostook War was fought by Lumberjacks in disputed Maine border area
            [Aroostook War & Webster-Ashburton Treaty (Maine border)]
Annexation of Texas:
Some British wanted alliance w/ Texas b/c it would allow abolitionists the opportunity to free Texas’ slaves
One argument against the annexation of Texas was it would give more power to the “slavocracy”
Texas was annexed in 1845 b/c Tyler wanted to help his administration look better
Order of acquisition: Texas, Oregon, & California
President James K. Polk & Manifest Destiny:
James K. Polk – Democratic Presidential nominee in 1844 – supported and secured by Southern expansionists
“Manifest Destiny” – view that God ordained growth/expansion of USA from “sea to shining sea”
Polk wants California and other northern Mexican territory – How does he propose to get it initially (at first)?
Polk’s administration’s programs included lowering tariffs, creation of a new independent treasury system for
        the Federal government, the acquisition of CA and NM from Mexico, and settling the OR boundary
                dispute with Great Britain, what about the annexation of Texas?
Henry Clay:
Henry Clay – 1844 Whig Presidential candidate favored both annexation of Texas and postponing it until later


Mexican-American War 1846-1848:
John Slidell’s mission, US troops ordered to Rio Grande River valley, declaration of war w/ Mexico,
       Frémont and the Bear Flag Revolt
USA went to war with Mexico in 1846 over the ideology of “Manifest Destiny,” US soldiers’ deaths in disputed
       territory, desire for collection of money claimed to be owed to US citizens by the Mexican government,
       & Polk’s desire to acquire California, What about to satisfy those asking about the “spot” resolutions?
Polk’s claim of “American blood on American soil” referred to a clash with whom and where?
Abraham Lincoln’s “spot” resolutions – what were they?
One Mexican goal in 1846-48 war with the USA was to free black slaves
Polk hoped the war with Mexico would be limited and resolved once the USA took California – but it did not
Kearny – Santa Fe, NM & San Pascual (Yes it’s spelled correctly), Taylor – N. Mexico, Scott – Vera Cruz &
        Mexico City, Frémont – N. California
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo Of 1848 ended the war – US got Mexican Cession (largest single land acquisition
        for USA – larger than LA Purchase) and paid Mexico how much? What had they offered before the war
                for just California?
Anti-slavery and abolitionist forces opposed Polk’s expansionist policies regarding Mexico – why?
Wilmot Proviso – symbolized issue of slavery in territories – a hot issue – introduced in Congress during the
        Mexican war - never adopted – would have banned slavery from all territories gained from Mexico
Points of controversy b/t the USA and Mexico in 1845-46 included damage claims by US citizens against the
        Mexican government, refusal of Mexico to receive John Slidell (Polk’s envoy),
        & US annexation of Tejas (Yes, this is how it is actually spelled)
Results of the Mexican War – 1/3 increase in the size of the USA (Mexico lost almost ½ of its territory), future
        American officers distinguished themselves and prepared for the future Civil War, increased respect for
        the US military and naval capabilities, deeper sectional tensions over slavery,
        How did Latin American countries feel about US actions in Mexico?
Spanish immigration – Mexicans & Californios:
First “Old World” Europeans in California were Spaniards
        - Spanish Franciscan missionaries – Father Serra –treated Native American Indians in CA very
            harshly
        - Mexican government secularized authority in CA – Californios rose to political power and control of
            land from CA Catholic authorities which ended eventually with the influx of Anglo gold seekers
            (‘49ers) coming to CA after the 1848 gold discovery at Sutter’s mill
Why would Britain want an independent Texas?:
Britain was interested in the Texas Republic b/c an independent Texas was a political counterweight to future
        growth/expansion of USA & Texas would be an important alternative source of cotton for England as
                opposed to the American South




Ch 18 Renewing the Sectional Struggle, 1848-1854
Slavery too hot of an issue in Congress:
Both Whigs and Democrats avoided public discussion of slavery in order to maintain national unity
Mexican War resulted in internal issues in Congress over the balance of power based on slavery:
US victory over Mexico resulted in a renewed controversy over expansion and slavery in the territories, the
       possible split within both the Whig and Democratic parties over slavery, the Mexican Cession of land,
       & a rush of settlers following the discovery of gold in California
Debate over slavery and the Mexican Cession threatened a split of national politics along N-S sectional lines
Free Soil Party:
Free Soilers argued slavery b/c it would cause more costly white wage labor to wither away
       Condemn slavery b/c it destroyed the chances of free white workers to rise to self employment
       It competed with white wage labor
1848 Free Soil Party platform included opposition of slavery in the territories, support for the Wilmot Proviso,
       free government homesteads for settlers, & Federal aid for internal improvements (infrastructure),
       What about female suffrage?
       Major support from those who favored high tariffs, wanted all of OR territory up to the 54 40 line,
               condemned slavery was immoral and destructive to white wage labor
Popular sovereignty – let the people vote/choose:
“Popular Sovereignty” – free soil or slavery determined by a vote of the people within a territory
       - Public liked it b/c it fit the democratic tradition of self-determination
1848 Election:
1848 election – Both Whigs and Democrats were silent on slavery as an issue
        - Both parties did focus on the personalities of the candidates
        - (Zachary Taylor –Whig, Lewis Cass – Democrat, Martin Van Buren – Free Soil)
General Zachary Taylor (Whig) wins in 1848 – same year that they find gold in them there hills! [of CA]:
Problem for Taylor’s administration – created turmoil – Gold discovery in CA 1848
        - b/c of slavery issue and application for statehood
California attracts the best & brightest:
Many people going to California were criminals (lawless men)
Southern Politics & Economics:
By 1850, the South was relatively well off politically and economically for the upper and middle classes
“The Black Moses”:
Harriet Tubman – the “Black Moses” – famous “conductor” of the Underground RR
        – helped escapee/runaway slaves get through to Canada
        – Many slaves escaped to the North and Canada using the Underground RR
Underground RR:
1850 – South deeply worried about the Underground RR helping hundreds of slaves escaping every year &
        California’s potential admission to the Union as a free state [see Compromise of 1850 below]
Could slaves purchase themselves/their own freedom?:
During the 1850s – slaves tended to gain their freedom most frequently (often) by self-purchase (manumission)
Calhoun’s impractical solution to the slavery issue:
John C. Calhoun’s plan to protect the South and preserve its ways was to have 2 presidents – 1 South & 1 North
Famous Northern Republican Upsets Abolitionists:
Daniel Webster’s Seventh of March Speech (1850) results - shift toward compromise w/ the South in the North
        - It urged reasonable concessions to the South (by the North)
        - It also brought vicious condemnation of Webster by abolitionists who thought he “sold out”
Republican idealists:
The Young Guard from the North – more interested in purging and purifying the Union than in compromise
William H. Seward – Young Guard – argued in Congress in 1850 that slavery should be excluded from the
        territories b/c Christian legislators must obey God’s moral law or a “higher law” rather than the sacred
        US Constitution
Southerners react to compromises:
Nashville Convention of 1850 – Southern leaders condemn compromises being worked out in Congress
Compromise of 1850:
Compromise of 1850
        Taylor dies after blocking it, gets help from Taylor’s VP turned President, Millard Fillmore, supported it
        Congress determined to allow “popular sovereignty” for MN & UT territories regarding slavery
        North most upset over new Fugitive Slave Law/Act of 1850 Compromise
        Fugitive Slave Law/Act – denied jury trials to runaways, fleeing slaves could not testify on their own
                 behalf, penalty for helping slaves escape was fine and/or imprisonment, higher payments for
                 officials who determine runaway slave ($10) versus freeman ($5), & What about requiring slaves
                         be returned from Canada?
                 In response, many N states passed “personal liberty laws” in response to Fugitive Slave Law/Act
                 The law/act was a tactical blunder for the South b/c N people reacted against it so strongly
Whigs die:
1852 – death of the Whig party – cause – slavery
Interesting & kind of weird history:
1850s – William Walker – American who took over Nicaragua to become a slave state – executed eventually
USA forces Japan to take “the carrot or the stick”:
Com. Matthew Perry – man who led fleet to Japan to force Japan to trade w/ USA in 1853
Southern slavers want Cuba:
Cuba and the USA in the 1850s
        Southern expansionists like the idea of taking Cuba, protested heavily by Free Soilers
        Southern expansionists want to annex Cuba, then controlled by Spain – why did they want it?
               Sugar-rich productive economy, had a large population of enslaved blacks, could be carved into
               several slave states for balance in Congress, particularly the Senate, & geographically close to
               Florida, USA
       Ostend Manifesto – offer to Spain for Cuba for $120 million & if Spain refuses, then USA justified to
               take it by force if necessary
How to join the East & West?:
Most American leaders believed only way to keep new Pacific coast territories from breaking away from the
       USA was with the building of a transcontinental RR
       South argued for a southern route for a transcontinental RR would be easier to build and would run
       through territories already organized compared to the Great Plains
       (North pushed through northern route in 1862 when South was at war and not in Congress to object)
“The Little Giant” from Illinois & the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854:
Stephan A. Douglas – Congressman – wants Chicago to prosper
       – advocates the Kansas-Nebraska Act
               Proposes “popular sovereignty” for the two territories
               KS-NB Act – required the repeal of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 (3630 line for slavery)
               He underestimated the depth of N opposition to the spread of slavery
               Impact of KS-NB Act included enraged anti-slavery forces and abolitionists & lessening of the
                        prospect of compromises b/t the N & S in the future
               Consequences of KS-NB Act included the splitting of the Democratic Party over slavery with the
                        N & W vs. the S & the demise of the Whig Party (1852) over the slavery controversy
                        (That helped lead to a new party – Republicans)


 AP US History Review 2009 Session #3 1850- Imperialism
Ch 19 Drifting Toward Disunion, 1854-1861
“So you’re the little lady who wrote the book that started this great war?”:
[“No. You and every politician is responsible for this war as you are all wars, so shut your bearded face dude!”]
Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin
        – intended to show the cruelty of slavery, a powerful political force
        – Many Northerners would not help enforce the Fugitive Slave Law/Act after reading it
        – British & French citizens read it – Their governments knew the common citizens would not support
            intervention on the side of the South and slavery
Other books about slavery from the time:
Hinton R. Helper’s The Impending Crisis of the South
                        - argued that non-slaveholding white southerners suffered the most from slavery
“Bleeding Kansas”:
Proslavery southerners regarded Kansas as slave territory by 1855
“Bleeding Kansas” in mid-1850s – Lecompton Constitution was identified with proslavery (Border Ruffians
        from MO/”Bushwackers”), and The New England Immigrant Aid Society was associated with
        anti-slavery/free soilers (“Jayhawkers” from Lawrence, KS)
        1856 – Breaking point in Kansas – attack on Lawrence by proslavery raiders
        Pres. Buchanan backed the Lecompton Constitution which hopelessly divided the Democratic Party
        Lecompton Constitution proposed the state of KS (1861) protect slavery already in KS
        Mid-1850s – KS indicated the impracticality of “popular sovereignty” in territories (“Bleeding Kansas”)
Kansas’s Lecompton Constitution allowed slavery in territory - supported by Buchanan & proslavery settlers
“Bleeding Sumner”:
“Bleeding Sumner” – MA Sen. Charles Sumner insulted Sen. Butler and the South – “the harlot slavery”
                        - So, Preston Brooks, southern congressman and cousin of Sen. Butler, beat Sumner
                            severely with his cane in the Capital bldg – Sumner never completely recovered from
                          the severe assault – Brooks was sent canes to replace the one he broke while beating
                          Sumner
                      -   This revealed the inflamed passion over slavery in North & South
1856 Election:
Candidates & Parties for 1856 election: Frémont – Republican (1st Rep candidate ever),
Fillmore – Know-Nothing (the American Party), & Buchanan – Democrat (He won!)
A Weak President Does Nothing:
James Buchanan - chosen Democratic nominee for the 1856 election b/c he was not associated w/ KS-NB Act
“Lame Duck” President Buchanan did not believe the Constitution gave him authority to use force to keep the
       South in the Union (USA). He was a lawyer from PA.
       (“Lame Duck’ presidents are waiting for the president-elect to take office)
President Buchanan declined using force to keep the South in the Union b/c:
       He believed secession was unconstitutional. He believed the Constitution did not give him the authority
       to use force to preserve the Union. He thought Northern public opinion would not support the use of
       force as many felt the South should be let go peacefully from the Union if they so chose. The US Army
       was small (~15,000) and was out West fighting Native Americans. He believed there was still a slim
       chance at reconciliation. His advisers were pro-Southern.
Xenophobic (fear of foreigners) Racist Political Party - Nativism:
The Know Nothing Party (the American Party) – 1856 platform was – Nativism
Nativists of the 1850s known for their anti-Catholic and anti-foreign sentiments
Republicans lost the 1856 election partly b/c South threatened a declaration of war if the Republicans won

Late 1856, many Northerners still voted for the Democratic presidential candidate b/c of valuable economic
       business connections w/ the South
Economic Troubles in 1857:
Panic of 1857 – Result for South – belief that “Cotton was King” b/c cotton prices were fairly stable while N
       industrialists were hit hard by the Panic of 1857. The Northern industrialists wanted a higher
       (protective) tariff as a result, Northeastern grain growers who had overproduced wheat for the Crimean
       War, once over, created a surplus which caused the price of grains to drop, & Republicans responded by
       offering to pass protective tariffs and free land for homesteaders (Act of 1862).
The Supreme Court in 1857 Rules Slaves Are Property – Not People with Any Rights Anywhere, Anytime:
Dred Scott 1857 – Supreme Court case based on Scott’s slave status after having lived on free-soil with his
       master; Scott believed he was free as a result.
                        - The Supreme Court expected the case to settle the issue of slavery in the territories
                            once and for all
                        - Supreme Court said Scott was not a citizen, so he had no right to bring suit in federal
                            court in the first place
                        - The Missouri Compromise of 1820 was unconstitutional
                        - Majority of northerners were most outraged by the Supreme Court’s ruling that
                            Congress never had the authority to regulate/prohibit slavery in the territories
                        - Proslavery southerners liked the Supreme decision
Dred Scott case of 1857
       – Slave with family who sued his master for his freedom b/c his master had taken Scott into free
           territories and states, which Scott and abolitionists believed entitled him to his freedom. The court
           said he was property, like a mule, and was owned anywhere that he was taken.
       - Supreme Court case ruled Scott was not a citizen, and he therefore had no right to sue in federal
           court, the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was unconstitutional, and Congress never had the authority
           to ban slavery from any territory at any time.
Debates for a Senate Seat in Illinois:
Lincoln-Douglas debates
       - Douglas won the 1858 Illinois Senate seat
       -   Douglas argued his Freeport Doctrine – After the Dred Scott case and the Supreme Court’s decision
           that Congress had no constitutional authority to prohibit slavery in the territories, Douglas argued
           that popular sovereignty ruled supreme – that if the people of the territory voted down slavery, it
           would in fact stay down
A Misguided Zealot or a Principled Man Who Resorted to Violence (as many have before and since)?:
Harpers Ferry, VA (today in WV) – October, 1859
       - John Brown intended to raid the Federal arsenal there with his white and black abolitionists. He
           would foment a slave rebellion as slaves would flock to his location to be armed and create a
           sanctuary for runaway slaves
Brown’s raid convinced the South, although incorrectly, that all northern abolitionists were crazy zealots like
       Brown and that the North was dominated by “Brown-loving” Republicans, which was not really true
       Lincoln won the 1860 Republican presidential nomination b/c he had fewer enemies than
       front-runner William H. Seward, who was even more despised by the South and
       even some in the West and North
1860 Election & Session:
1860 presidential candidates and their party’s stance on slavery:
       Abraham Lincoln (IL) (Republican) – ban slavery from the territories
       Stephan Douglas (IL) (Democrat) – supported popular sovereignty in territories
       John Breckenridge (KY) (Democrat) – for extension of slavery in territories
       John Bell (TN) (Constitutional Union) – preserve the Union by compromise
New party for 1860 election – Constitutional Union Party – John Bell (TN) – moderates
1860 Republican platform favored – protective tariffs, a transcontinental railroad (1862), free homesteads
       (1862), and non-extension of slavery
Before his 1860 presidential nomination, Lincoln had been a (corporate) lawyer, a rail splitter, a militia officer
       who never actually fought against Indians, a state legislator of Illinois, a US Congressman, and a failed
       candidate for Senator of Illinois in 1858 – lost to Douglas
1860 election – Lincoln was a minority candidate receiving less than the majority of the popular vote but did
       receive the majority of the electoral votes in Electoral College
Lincoln’s victory in 1860 – South Carolina’s reaction – glad somewhat b/c they had excuse for secession
Secessionists supported leaving the Union b/c they were dismayed by the success of the Republicans, believed
       the North would not oppose secession, political balance was tipping against them, and they were tired of
       abolitionist attacks (both rhetorical and violent such as Harpers Ferry)
Confederate States of America:
Confederate States of America (CSA) – first capitol in Montgomery, Alabama until VA seceded
       – capitol moved to Richmond, Virginia
Southern Debts:
The South owed an immense debt to Northern creditors, and the South repudiated those debts refusing to
       acknowledge and refusing to pay them at all.
President Lincoln & the Crisis:
Lincoln opposed the Crittenden Compromise (Sen. Henry James Crittenden) – which proposed (but was never
       adopted) that slavery be prohibited north of the 36 30 line, guaranteed federal protection of slavery in
       territories south of the 36 30 line, and permitted the expansion of slavery into new territories south of
       the 36 30 line such as AZ, NM, & Cuba – b/c Lincoln stayed loyal to the Republican platform and his
       promise if elected to ban the expansion of slavery into the territories.



Ch 20 Girding for War: The North and the South, 1861-1865
Europeans like and study the American Civil War:
Europeans favored a civil war in the USA b/c it would weaken US power in the W. Hemisphere
Did Lincoln provoke a war as much as the Confederacy?:
Lincoln’s decision to re-supply rather than reinforce Ft Sumter in Charleston harbor in South Carolina
        (April 1861) was moderate and led to the 1st official battle of the Civil War when CSA attacked
States that joined the CSA after Ft Sumter – VA, NC, TN, AK (Arkansas)
What prompted people to fight for the Union?:
Many Northerners were willing to fight the South to preserve the Union only after the attack on Ft Sumter
“It’s nice to have God on your side, but I’ve got to have Kentucky”:
In order to keep the Border States (MO, KY, MD, & Delaware (later W. VA in 1863) in the Union, Lincoln
        used legally dubious methods such as imposing martial law, sending troops to occupy and control
        radicals in the W VA region and in MO, suspending habeas corpus, and suspension of free speech and
        free press (1st Amendment)
Border States offered certain advantages (shipbuilding was not one of them) Advantages: a large population, a
        good supply of horses and mules, a valuable manufacturing capacity, & large navigable rivers
Lincoln’s declaration that the North sought only to preserve the Union with or without slavery – revealed
        influence of the Border States on his policies (the need for the Union to keep)
Border States that remained loyal to the Union – MO, KY, MD, & DE (Delaware)
        Later in 1863 W VA, which stayed in the Union, was carved out of VA
Southeastern & Native Americans of the Plains during the Civil War:
During the Civil War – most of the “Five Civilized Tribes” (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek, Choctaw, &
        Seminole) in Indian Territory (present day OK) supported and fought for the CSA
For their loyalty to the USA/Union, the USA waged war on and put on reservations the Plains Indians
The Confederate States of America had some advantages and disadvantages as did the USA/Union:
To achieve independence, the CSA had to fight a defensive war to fight the invading Federal forces to a draw in
        order to win, whereas the USA had to invade and occupy the South to defeat the CSA
As the Civil War began, the South had the advantage of more talented military leaders, particularly early in the
        war, plus the tenacity of Southern fighting men.
The greatest weakness of the South during the war was it lack of a diversified economy.
The greatest strength of the North during the war was its diversified economy.
Much of the hunger suffered by Confederate soldiers during the war was the result of the South’s poor
        transportation system.
Northern advantages at the outset of the Civil War included control of the seas with the USN and more banks,
        factories, RRs, and people
Soldiers:
All of the following were similar characteristics of both the Southern and Northern soldiers, “Johnny Reb” and
        “Billy Yank” respectively:
        most had been farmers or farm laborers prior to the war, most were native born Americans although the
        North had many immigrants fighting for Union, almost half were under the age of 22 years old, & they
        were committed to the patriotism of their “countries.”
“Johnny Reb” was typically jocular, emotional, religious, & bred to fight.
“Billy Yank” was typically literate, intellectual, practical, & efficient
Of all of the hardships of soldiers suffered during the war, the greatest was disease, which was often more life
        threatening to soldiers than death in combat.
Northern soldiers eventually became known for their discipline and determination.
Leadership issues:
The Union and Lincoln had to find good commanders through a series of trials and errors.
European alliances for the South – hoped for, but not going to happen:
A supposed asset of the South at the beginning of the war that never materialized to a real advantage was
        foreign intervention – help from Britain and/or France.
One reason Britain did not try to break the USA’s naval blockade of the CSA was fear of losing the needed US
        grain shipments to sustain lost crops from bad harvests.
The South believed the British would come to their aid b/c “Cotton was King” and Britain needed Southern
        cotton, but the British had a surplus of cotton and needed the grains from the North more than cotton
        from the South (They had surpluses and turned to Egypt and India)
“King Cotton” failed for the South as a tool of diplomacy b/c: the British had a surplus of cotton, British textile
       workers favored the North’s cause and were antislavery, the North sent captured contraband cotton to
       Britain, & alternative sources of cotton could be had by the British in Egypt and India, both of which
       were controlled by the British more or less
During the Civil War, the USA and the CSA needed foreign diplomacy to maintain their war effort.
       {North is making sure that Europe does not ally with the CSA – using diplomacy to make that happen}
“One war at a time.”:
Trent Affair – HMS Trent had two Southern diplomats aboard when a US warship stopped the British steamer
       near Cuba. The Southern diplomats were seized which outraged Britain, which threatened war and even
       mobilized troops in Canada. Lincoln said, “One war at a time.” The USA released the diplomats of the
       CSA to avoid escalating the war as England would have joined the war over the incident.
CSA’s Small Navy:
CSA commerce-raiders (ships) such as the famous and most effective raider the CSS Alabama proved to be
       very effective in attacking US merchant shipping abroad (around the world)
CSA commerce-raiders (Ex. CSS Alabama): dealt devastating blows to the Union’s merchant marine and
       almost all of them were built in England until the British no longer allowed it realizing that the tactic
       could be used against them in the future of allowing enemy ships to be built in other countries
France sees an opportunity that ultimately fails and creates to Cinco de Mayo (1862 Battle of Puebla):
Napoleon III’s attempt to install Maximillian on the Mexican throne during the 1860s was a clear violation of
       JQA’s Monroe Doctrine - forbade Europeans from further conquest & colonization in W. Hemisphere.
France abandoned its attempt to control Mexico in 1867 when the USA threatened war with France over
       Mexico after the Civil War ended (1865).
USA vs. Canada again – see why South Park is kind of funny but also historical reality:
During the Civil War, relations b/t the USA and Canada were at times poor – spurred Canadian nationalism –
       led to the Dominion status of Canada in 1867 giving self-rule for domestic affairs
Did the CSA’s states’ rights position advocating a weak central government hurt its own war effort?:
Southern cause was weakened by the CSA’s focus on states’ rights –weakened the central gov’t of the CSA
       CSA President Jefferson Davis defied public opinion whereas Lincoln led public opinion
       Problems Lincoln had were less prostrating than Davis’s b/c of states’ rights and the problems related to
       it that the CSA had the USA’s government was long-established and fully recognized, unlike the CSA’s
       newly formed gov’t emphasizing states’ rights w/ weak central authority Davis did not exercise arbitrary
       power as did Lincoln b/c of states’ rights
How to raise an army? Volunteers and Conscription (drafting soldiers):
North relied mainly on volunteers to fill the ranks, as did the South
       Bounty Jumpers – paid the bounty ($) for enlistment then leave to join another regiment for another bounty
Both the North and the South: exempted the wealthy from military service
       ($300 exemption, substitutes, or slave ownership in the South – “a rich man’s war and a poor man’s
       fight,” had high desertion rates, relied mainly on volunteers, and drafted men by conscription (first the
       CSA in 1862, then the USA in 1863 – the USA’s very first draft for men to fight in war.
       (July 1863 NYC Draft Riots – Gangs of New York)
How to finance the war?:
Union established a National Banking System –first significant step toward unified banking network since 1836
       During the Civil War, the USA launched a new national banking system to help stimulate the sale of
       gov’t bonds for the war and establish a standard bank-note currency to stabilize “rag money”
       (“Greenbacks”)
To help pay for the war, both the North and the South: raised taxes, printed paper money that lost value over
       time b/c of war time inflation, and sold war bonds
Did northern industry benefit from this industrial war?:
The Civil War saw Northern industries emerge more prosperous than before the war, except for Union foreign
       shipping, whose merchant marine was hit hard by Confederate commerce-raiders and suffered an
       economic reversal
CSA commerce-raiders (Ex. CSS Alabama): dealt devastating blows to the Union’s merchant marine and
       almost all of them were built in England until the British no longer allowed it realizing that the tactic
       could be used against them in the future of allowing enemy ships to be built in other countries
Northern women gain some opportunities from the war:
During the Civil War (middle class) women in the North saw new opportunities to fill jobs in clerical work and
       particularly industries that previously did not employ women
       Other women were important such as Clara Barton, Dorothea Dix, and Sally Thompkins, all associated
       with nursing in either the N or the S
President Lincoln and civil liberties during the Civil War:
President Lincoln’s loose interpretation of civil liberties during the Civil War: resulted in suspension of the
       privilege of habeas corpus, led to the arrest of several critical newspaper editors, and Lincoln defended
       his actions as necessary to save the Union



Ch 21 The Furnace of Civil War, 1861-1865
Battles, Generals, Politicians, & Soldiers in the Civil War:
At the beginning of the Civil War, Lincoln favored a quick military action to show the folly of secession
        Lincoln hoped a victory at First Bull Run (Manassas Junction) would – lead to the capture of Richmond,
        VA, bring an end to slavery, destroy the economy of the South, pull Border States out of the CSA
Know chronology: First Bull Run/Manassas, Antietam (Sharpsburg), Gettysburg, Appomattox Court House
Southern victory at First Bull Run in 1861 actually reduced enlistments in the South b/c they thought they
        would not need to prepare for a long, costly war
        South won both the First and the Second Battles of Bull Run (Manassas)
Federal loss at Bull Run – a big picnic in panic – better than victory in that the North had to prepare for a long,
        protracted war
US Army General George B. McClellan – “Little Mac” – Commander of the Army of the Potomac – twice
        Best described as cautious, pompous, self-righteous, not self-critical, treated Lincoln with disdain
        Consistently overestimated Confederate strength leading to lack of offensive strategy and indecision
        Launched the Peninsula Campaign which failed
        He did train, prepare, and build the morale of the Army of the Potomac
        Fired by Lincoln then rehired then fired again – Ran as Democrat against Lincoln in 1864 and lost
Result of Union loss in the Peninsula Campaign (VA)
        – Union strategy changed to total war against the CSA
        – Lincoln began drafting the Emancipation Proclamation but needed victory to not seem desperate and
             weak and to be coming from a position of strength
        – After Peninsula campaign, Union strategy was to cut the CSA in half, march through Georgia and
             the Carolinas, blockade the CSA coast, liberate (free) the slaves, capture the CSA capitol of
             Richmond, VA
As a result of the failed Union Peninsula Campaign, Lincoln began drafting the Emancipation Proclamation, the
        Union adopted a strategy of total war against the South, and shifted Union strategy to capture the
        Confederate capitol at Richmond, VA, cut the CSA into two halves, march through Georgia and then the
        Carolinas, blockade the CSA’s coast, and liberate slaves
Final strategy for Union victory (the Anaconda plan) included – a naval blockade of southern ports,
        undermining the southern economy, seize control of the Mississippi River to cut the CSA into two
        halves, capture Richmond, VA, the CSA capitol, What about guerrilla warfare? South considered
        – Lee said no!
Great Britain did not protest the USA’s blockade of the CSA too much b/c GB may want to use similar tactics
        in the future wars (as they did in WWI)
Most alarming threat to Union’s naval blockade of the CSA were Confederate ironclad warships such as the
        CSA blockade runner Merrimack (CSS Virginia) – which after a classic naval battle at Hampton Roads,
        VA in 1862 against the Union’s Monitor ironclad which was fought to a draw – the CSA scuttled (sank)
        its own ship so the Union would not get their hands on it
After halting Lee’s troops at Antietam (Sharpsburg) in Maryland, Gen McClellan was removed from his
        command of the Army of the Potomac in 1862 (2nd time he lost his command of that Union army)
Robert E. Lee invaded the North the first time into Maryland to bring MD into the CSA and force the North to
        sue for peace and to get foreign aid in the CSA’s war effort
McClellan found Lee’s battle plans for Antietam, but he did nothing significant with the intelligence
        information, but he did stop Lee’s advance on the bloodiest single day in American history
2 major battles of the Civil War – Antietam 1862 – bloodiest single day battle of the war – and – Gettysburg –
        the bloodiest battle of the war, but it was 3 days, July 1st-3rd, 1863
Antietam was critical because it probably prevented intervention by Britain and France on behalf of the CSA
        North’s “victory” at Antietam (a draw really) allowed Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
        b/c he needed to announce it not after defeats which would make the Union look weak and desperate,
        but from a position of strength after a “victory” (Antietam’s draw was close enough)
Slavery was legally abolished in the USA as a result of the 13th Amendment
Emancipation Proclamation
        Strengthened the moral cause and diplomatic position of the Union to a degree
        Officially issued in Jan. 1863 – declared slaves free only in the CSA,
                not the slaves of the slave holding Border States
        Strengthened European working class support for the Union b/c of slavery
        Caused mounting opposition in the North to an “abolition war”
        Caused sharp increases in Union desertions from the army
        Caused heavy congressional defeats for Lincoln’s administration
        Caused complaints from abolitionists that it did not go far enough b/c of who it freed/who it did not free
        Allowed blacks to enlist in the Union Army [Glory]
African Americans who fought in the Civil War served bravely and suffered extremely heavy casualties
        180,000 served and 38,000 died segregated and led by white officers often used for manual labor until
                the 54th Massachusetts [Glory] and other units distinguished themselves in battle won
                Congressional Medals of Honor (CMH) many years after the war was over
        They were tortured and murdered by Confederates often upon capture
CSA enlisted blacks as soldiers too late – it went against the social Darwinistic theories of white supremacy and
        black incompetence – one month before the war ended Robert E. Lee decided to invade the North
        through Pennsylvania the second time he invaded the North in order to deliver a decisive blow that
        would agitate the northern peace movement
      st rd
July 1 -3 , 1863, Union victory at Gettysburg, PA – significant b/c Union victory meant South’s cause was
        Doomed – Bloodiest battle of the Civil War (Not the one day battle that Antietam was)
After 47 days of siege on July 4th, 1863, Union victory at Vicksburg, MS – reopened the MS River to Northern
        trade, along w/ Gettysburg, foreign help irretrievably lost, helped quell (quiet down) Northern peace
        agitation, cut the CSA into 2 halves – cut off supply & cattle & other goods from TX & LA
One consequence of Union Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman’s style of total war was that it saved lives by
        shortening the war
        Sherman’s march through GA & the Carolinas – burned Atlanta, GA & destroyed those states
        – He made “Georgia howl” like he said he was – He also said “War is hell.”
Gen. Ullysses S. Grant’s basic strategy was to attack/assail the CSA’s armies simultaneously (at the same time)
        & directly – a war of attrition – earning Grant the nickname “the Butcher” b/c his casualties were very
        high – He also stopped POW (Prisoner of War) exchanges b/c the CSA could not easily replace soldiers
        killed or captured
Grant lost 1 man for every 10 serving, while Lee lost 1 man for every 5 serving
Northern Peace Democrats – “Copperheads” (poisonous snakes):
The group in the North most dangerous to Union cause were – Northern Peace Democrats
Clement L. Vallandigham – Southern sympathizer & vocal opponent of the war who
        lived in the North – willing to settle for peace – those like him called
        “copperheads” – after poisonous snake that strikes w/out warning – no rattle
1864 Election:
1864 election – Republicans joined the pro-war Democrats & founded the Union Party
       Lincoln’s running mate was Andrew Johnson – only southern Senator who
       remained loyal to the Union (Johnson from TN)
       Democrats ran George McClellan who lost to Lincoln
Lincoln’s reelection in 1864 was largely affected by the Union’s victory at Atlanta, GA –
       Sherman’s “March to the Sea”
Lincoln’s victory in 1864 election was aided by Union victories (Ex. Sherman & Sheridan) & backing from
       Union soldiers who voted for him (on furloughs/leave or by absentee voting)
Lincoln’s Assassination:
Assassination of Lincoln – calamity for South b/c Lincoln was lenient on the South
       Intricate plot to kill Lincoln and other heads of state to hurt the USA – only Lincoln was actually killed
Results of the Civil War:
Civil War resulted in the following: expanded Federal taxation powers, ended nullification and secession as real
       issues, created the first Federal social welfare agency (Freedmen’s Bureau),
       & an end to slavery (13th Amendment)
Casualties of the Civil War:
Casualties of the Civil War – black slavery, extreme states’ rights, & over a million men dead or wounded
       (~620,000 killed in the war – high casualties)


Ch 22 The Ordeal of Reconstruction, 1865-1877
President after Lincoln:
Andrew Johnson was made Lincoln’s running mate for the 1864 election for the Union Party b/c he was a
        pro-war Democrat, was loyal to the USA/Union (only S Senator to do so – he was from TN), & he
        would attract votes for Lincoln that would not have been cast if Johnson was not Lincoln’s VP
After Lincoln, President was Andrew Johnson (Lincoln’s VP in his second term as President)
What happened to the leaders of the CSA after the war?:
Fate of defeated CSA leaders was – after brief jail terms, they were all pardoned in 1868 by Pres. Johnson
What was life like in the war-torn South after the war?:
Post-war South – economy devastated, buildings, etc. destroyed in cities that were attacked, etc…
At the end of the Civil War, many white southerners still believed that secession was correct
Slavery without submission; emancipation without freedom:
Freedom for southern blacks at end of war came haltingly and unevenly in different parts of the conquered CSA
For blacks, emancipation meant that many did not move north, many searched for lost family, many got
        married, an opportunity to form their own churches, & opportunity for education, many traveled to test
        their new freedom, & seek economic opportunity
“Exodusters” – blacks who migrated from the South to Kansas – finally ended when MS River boat captains
        refused to take more across the MS River to go to KS
Most ended up agricultural wage laborers or sharecroppers/tenant farmers for the same plantation owners or
        nearby plantations as they had as slaves & in effect became wage slaves with black codes restricting
        their new “freedom” under the Civil War Amendments (13th, 14th, & 15th Amendments)
Main purpose of Black Codes (MS first to pass them) was to ensure a stable, subservient labor supply – blacks
        could not vote, blacks were not allowed to serve on juries, blacks could not rent land, blacks could be
        punished for black “idleness,” & blacks could be fined for jumping labor contracts (bounty hunters
        would retrieve them and force them to return to labor) – a form of slavery or serfdom
Black Codes indicated to many Northerners that the arrogant South acted as if it had not lost the war
Freedmen’s Bureau (helped the “freedpeople” and poor and even middle class whites too):
Greatest achievements of the Freedmen’s Bureau were in education provided by brave teachers and pupils –
        also provided some distribution of land, food & clothing, & help provide employment services
White South viewed Freedmen’s Bureau (which also helped poor whites too) as meddlesome agency that upset
        the racial and social balance of the South
        – Pres. Johnson agreed with that assertion & vetoed the bill for its extension which upset Congress
Freedmen’s Bureau intended to be a post-war welfare agency for former slaves (& poor whites) & was quite
       successful in providing an education for former slaves (& many poor whites)
Incident caused clash b/t Congress and Johnson was his veto of the bill to extend the Freedmen’s Bureau
President Andrew Johnson again:
Andrew Johnson (former Senator from Tennessee – only Southern Senator who remained loyal to the Union)
       – 1864 VP for Lincoln – chosen to politically attract War Democrats & Pro-Union Southern
           sympathizers in the “Butternut” region of southern OH, IN, IL – he was considered a champion for
           poor whites – he taught himself how to read & his wife taught him basic math – he was very bigoted
Radical Republicans want to punish the former Confederate States (rightly and wrongly):
Controversial Wade-Davis Bill for readmission of CSA states to Union – 50% eligible voters of a former CSA
       state must take oaths of loyalty to the Union/USA along with stronger emancipation guarantees as well
       – Lincoln “pocket vetoed” the bill by not signing it after Congress had disbanded its secession – shows
           the differences b/t Lincoln and Congress (particularly Radical Republicans)
Congressional Republicans viewed S states as “conquered provinces” that completely left the Union, so were
       therefore at the mercy of Congress for readmission
Incident caused clash b/t Congress and Johnson was his veto of the bill to extend the Freedmen’s Bureau
What did the Radical Republicans want, and why did they have a major problem with President Johnson?:
As part of Reconstruction plan – Radical Republicans originally expected to secure rights for freedmen, punish
       the planter aristocracy, restructure Southern society, have Pres. Johnson on their side, & use Federal
       power to aid blacks
Root cause of battle b/t Congress and Johnson was Johnson’s “soft” treatment of the white South
Both moderate and Radical Republicans did agree that freed male slaves be given the right of suffrage
       (the vote/enfranchisement) – although they disagreed about many other issues related to Reconstruction
       [for many Republicans, the ones who were not idealists, the issue was about Republican votes in the South to be harvested]
Radical Congressional Reconstruction finally ended when the last Federal troops left the South in 1877
        [see Compromise of 1877/1876 election]
Reconstruction might have been more successful if Thaddeus Stevens’s radical Reconstruction program of
        drastic economic reforms & stronger protection of political rights had been enacted?
Reconstruction involved extended controversies over readmission of S states, civil & political rights for
        freedmen, direction & control of Reconstruction process, treatment of former CSA leaders
Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner (“Bleeding Sumner”) were leading Radical Republicans
Radical Republican leaders in Congress included Thaddeus Stevens (Rep from PA), Charles Sumner (Sen from
        MA), & Hiram Revels (Af-Am Sen from MS – One of the first two Af-Am Senators in US history)
What did Congress want for Reconstruction?:
Congressional Reconstruction hoped to provide basic rights & protection for freedpeople in the South through
        the Military Reconstruction Act, the Freedmen’s Bureau Act, the Force Acts (to stop the KKK), & the
        14th Amendment
Under Congressional Reconstruction, Southern states had to ratify the 14th Amendment & give freedmen the
        vote (only males – sorry ladies )
Lincoln’s lenient plan for Reconstruction:
Lincoln’s 10% plan for Reconstruction promised rapid (very quick) readmission of Southern states into the
        Union – oath of loyalty to Union/USA to be given by only 10% of eligible voters & readmission
        (very lenient – this is a major reason why the South mourned his assassination)
Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction is not at all what Radical Republicans expected, wanted, or will tolerate:
Pres. Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction aimed at swift (very quick) restoration of S states after a few basic
        conditions were met
What did Congress think of Johnson’s plan?:
Congress objected to readmission of Southern states to the Union under Johnson’s plan b/c states adopted
        Black Codes that limited black civil rights, states readmitted w/out consulting or approval of Congress,
        many former CSA leaders were elected to high political office, & feared a restored South reentered the
        Union with greater representation in Congress (House of Reps – based on population) b/c former slaves
        now counted as a whole person (5/5ths) instead of 3/5ths of a person (3/5ths Compromise)
How could the South be stronger in Congress than they were before the Civil War?:
Congressional Republicans – a most troubling aspect of Southern readmission to the Union was that their
        political representation was now stronger in national politics as the House based on population now
        counted former slaves, once as 3/5ths of a person, now counted as 5/5ths or a whole person – therefore
        more representation in the House of Representatives than before the war
Tennessee (Johnson’s home state) was the first to meet all the conditions to be readmitted to the Union:
1st and only CSA state to be immediately readmitted to the Union/USA in 1866 under Congressional
        Reconstruction was Tennessee b/c it ratified the 14th Amendment
Civil War Amendments to the US Constitution:
The Civil War Amendments – 13th, 14th, & 15th Amendments
(13th – free slaves, 14th citizenship & due process, 15th suffrage for black males)
Fourteenth Amendment:
14th Amendment – guaranteed citizenship & civil rights to freed slaves (or loss of Congressional representation)
        – it also prohibited Ex-Confederates leaders from holding public office
How did women who sought suffrage feel about the 14th Amendment, and even the 15th Amendment?:
Many feminist leaders (Anthony, Stanton, etc.) were especially disappointed with the 14th Amendment b/c it
        specified for the first time in the US Constitution that only males could vote – so they would not support
        the vote for black men and not for women – Susan B. Anthony said she would sooner cut off her right
        arm than support the 14th Amendment despite the pleas from black leaders such as Frederick Douglas
        who claimed it was now the “Negro’s hour”
1866 mid-term (congressional) elections:
1866 Congressional elections – voters endorsed/confirmed/supported Congressional Reconstruction
        [because Radical Republicans did well]
What resources did Blacks have to combat racism and violence during Reconstruction?:
The violence of the Reconstruction period was directed at blacks and whites who challenged the status quo
Blacks in the South relied on the Union League to educate them on civic duties and participation in government
        – later expanded their role to building churches, schools, formed unions, militias for protection against
             white violence from the KKK and others like them
What about African-American women, how did they deal with Reconstruction in the South?:
During Reconstruction, Af-Am women assumed new political roles including participation in black church life,
        monitor state constitutional conventions, participate in political rallies, organize mass meetings, but they
        could not vote!
Pejorative terms associated with Reconstruction – “The Confederate Myth of Reconstruction” – Loewen:
Scalawags – Southern Unionists and Whigs – see Loewen Ch 6
Carpetbaggers – Northerners who came south to make $ - but what about school teachers for example?
        - see Loewen Ch 6
These terms are relative to white southerners who pushed this version of history during the black nadir (1890-
        1940) that still resonate in textbooks today
Radical Reconstruction state gov’ts passed a lot of desirable and badly needed reforms – and many “Redeemer”
        gov’ts that replaced them eventually kept those reforms b/c the South needed them
Political corruption during the Reconstruction period was common N, S, E, & W
Legacies of Reconstruction:
Among the legacies of Reconstruction efforts were the long-term eclipse of Republican strength in the South,
        perpetuation of the ideas of states’ rights & local self-government under the Constitution, & a sense of
        resentment & grievance among white Southerners
Federal Government – abandoned Blacks & did not enforce the law leaving Blacks to fall into the “nadir”
       [“nadir” – a low point, trough, opposite of an apex – the “Black Nadir” from ~1890-1940 saw lynchings, race riots,
               and civil rights and other laws ignored as Blacks suffered social, political, and economic hardships]
Ku Klux Klan – Idiots:
Primary motive for formation of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was to protect the virtues of white women – but
       really it was formed to intimidate and harass blacks who were successful in government and in life after
       slavery in general
Even though the Force Acts (to stop the KKK) & the US Army helped suppress the KKK, the KKK was
        successful in achieving its goal of intimidating blacks & undermining them politically
Most radical Reconstruction gov’ts in South expanded rights for women, although limited in scope [not myth].
        They established public school systems [not myth] & were troubled by corruption and graft [myth].
Our first “official” impeachment of a President & his acquital:
Official charge that the House of Reps used to impeach Pres Johnson was his dismissal of Sec of War Edwin
        Stanton contrary to the newly passed Tenure of Office Act which forbade the Pres from firing officials
        appointed to government positions such as the cabinet – like Sec of State or War, etc. – without
        congressional approval
All of the following were reasons the Senate voted to acquit Johnson: many Senators felt the Tenure of Office
        Act was an abuse of Constitutional checks and balances, many were concerned that Wade would replace
        him as President – he was considered too radical by many, many feared creating a destabilizing period if
        Johnson were removed from office, Johnson promised to stop obstructing Republican Reconstruction
        policies as he had done so many times (29 vetoes – the most so far in US history – over twice as many
        as Andy Jackson, Johnson’s hero), & What about Johnson promising to step down as President?
When and how did the USA acquire Alaska? (not a state – 49th, same year as Hawaii – 50th, until 1959):
1867 – Sec of State William Seward purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million – he was made fun of for
        purchasing “Seward’s Folly” “Seward’s Icebox” “Frigidia” b/c people could not see the value of the
        territory at the time

Ch 23 Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age, 1869-1896
Rewards of service for Grant:
At the end of the Civil War, Ulysses S. Grant accepted gifts such as houses & money from citizens in NY, IL,
        PA, & Washington DC
1868 Election:
Election of 1868 – Grant owed his victory to the votes of Freedmen/former slaves (~500,000)
Civil War results:
Result of the Civil War – waste, extravagance, speculation, & graft (corruption) reduced the moral stature of the
        Republic/the USA
Politics & Graft (Corruption) in the Gilded Age:
Late 19th century – political candidates who campaigned “waving the bloody shirt” reminded voters – of treason
        of Confederate Democrats during the Civil War
Most presidents of the 1870s & 1880s – were Civil War veterans (except Cleveland, who hired a substitute),
        were Republicans (“wave the bloody shirt”) (except Cleveland – Democrat), & won narrow victories
Jim Fisk & Jay Gould, “Black Friday,” Wall Street gold market scheme to corner the market that almost worked
Successful politicians in the post-Civil War decades usually – were party loyalists
During the Gilded Age, Democrats & Republicans – had few significant economic differences (still battled)
        - like today in many ways – especially the political & economic aspects
Late 19th century – Republicans associated w/ cultural values of – Puritanism, personal morality, community
        welfare, active gov’t regulation, not toleration
Late 19th century elections – Democrats could count on support of – South, Northern industrial cities,
        immigrant groups, Catholics & Lutherans, not Midwestern rural USA
“Spoils System” (Patronage) & Politics of the Gilded Age:
During the Gilded Age, the lifeblood of both the Democratic and Republican parties – political patronage
        The Spoils System – to pay off supporters with government jobs that were highly profitable
“Spoilsmen” – label attached to those who – expected gov’t jobs from their party’s elected office holders
Elections & Voter Turnout:
Presidential elections of the 1870s & 1880s – aroused great voter interest (up to 80% voter turn out)
One reason for the high voter turn out rates & partisan fervor (supporting one’s party) of the Gilded Age
        – sharp ethnic & cultural differences in 2 parties
        – Republicans – Puritan, personal morality, gov’t should regulate economy & morality
                 o Northeast & Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) & Freedmen & rural community support
       –    Democrats – Tolerant, Lutheran, Catholic members
                 o South & Northern industrial cities & immigrants & political machines of cities
William Marcy “Boss” Tweed (Gangs of New York):
One weapon used to put William Marcy “Boss” Tweed of the Tammany Hall political machine in NYC
        “Tweed Ring” – put in jail for corruption, fled to Spain & was recognized b/c of political cartoons, died
        in jail when returned to USA, cartoon satirist Thomas Nast would not take bribe to quit lampooning him,
         Tweed said, “my constituents can’t read, but they can see those damn pictures!”
        Weapon – Thomas Nast’s cartoons
Scandal related to the first transcontinental railroad:
Crédit Mobilier scandal – RR construction – A Holding Company that over paid itself to do construction for the
        Union Pacific on the first transcontinental RR – corruption in form of “kickbacks”
        Attempt to avoid prosecution for corruption, owners of Crédit Mobilier distributed shares of the valuable
                 stock in the company & Union Pacific RR to congressmen
Sequence of presidential terms of “forgettable presidents” of the Gilded Age
(including Cleveland’s 2 nonconsecutive terms) – Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, Harrison, Cleveland
1872 Election:
President Grant – reelected in 1872 b/c – his opponents chose poor candidates for president, Horace Greeley



Noteworthy Republicans of the Gilded Age:
Match Republicans with their political factions within the party:
       Roscoe Conkling – Stalwarts (“spoilists”) James Blaine – “Half-Breeds” (“Mugwumps”)
       Horace Greeley – Liberal Republican             Ulysses S. Grant – Regular Republicans
Economic Crisis in 1873:
One cause of Panic of 1873 – construction of more factories and production of more goods than the market
       could handle – OVERPRODUCTION – causes recessions/panics/depressions
As solution to the Panic of 1873, debtors suggested – inflationary policies (“cheap money”)
       Gold Bugs – bankers/businessmen – want gold standard – money backed only on gold
               “Tight Money” “Hard Money” Less in circulation Loans repaid in stable money
                       Deflation – prices fall, value of money increases, fewer people have money
                               Policy of Republicans & Most Democrats
       Silverites – farmers/laborers – bimetallism – gold (Au) & silver (Ag) – money backed by both metals
               “Cheap Money” More in circulation Products sold at higher prices (to repay debt)
                       Inflation – prices rise, value of money decreases, more people have money
                               Policy of Populists & Some Democrats
One result of Republican “hard money” policies – formation of the Greenback Labor Party in 1878
       Another result was that Republicans lost the House of Representatives to the Democrats in 1874
1876 Election/Compromise of 1877/Reconstruction Formally Ends in Last 3 Southern States:
Major problem in 1876 presidential election centered on – 2 sets of election returns from FL, SC, & LA
Compromise of 1877 resulted in – withdrawal of (the last) Federal troops in the South (SC & LA) in exchange
       for the South to let Rutherford B. Hayes become president over New Yorker, Samuel Tildon, who had
       prosecuted “Boss” Tweed and the “Tweed Ring”
“Separate but equal” makes Jim Crow segregation legal according to the venerable Supreme Court in 1896:
{Remember Dred Scott?}
1896 Plessy v. Ferguson – Supreme Court case ruled – “separate but equal”
       Homer Plessy, 1/8th black, an octrune, boarded whites only Pullman train car in LA. He was arrested,
       which he wanted, and he took his case through the courts to challenge segregation using the 14th
       Amendment. His case went to the US Sup Crt, which ruled that “Jim Crow” segregation of blacks and
       whites did not violate the Constitution as long as facilities were “separate but equal” – which was legal
       & Constitutional
What was Jim Crow again?:
Legal codes established a system of segregation in the South and Midwest to a degree – called – Jim Crow laws
        {Legalized federally by the Supreme Court in 1896 in Homer Plessy’s infamous case – see above}
How did powerful whites keep blacks from using their 15th Amendment rights (& sometimes poor whites too)?:
At the end of Reconstruction, Southern whites disenfranchised (took the vote away from) African-Americans
        using – literacy tests, poll taxes, economic intimidation, & grandfather clauses – Literacy test – had to
        prove literacy reading Shakespeare or something very difficult, Poll taxes – had to pay to vote, economic
        intimidation – threats to themselves and their ability to survive if they did not go along, & grandfather
        clauses – said if your grandfather voted in 1860, then you can vote, thus former slaves were kept from
        voting as their grandfathers were slaves in 1860 and did not vote. Tactics successful and also kept poor
         illiterate whites from voting, which the white aristocracy in the South wanted too.
Who was the dude who won the 1876 election again, and what did he do/what did he deal with?:
President Rutherford B. Hayes opened his administration with – scenes of class warfare
        – Ex. 1877 RR strike, Irish anti-Chinese in CA & 1882 Exclusion Act, & B & O RR strike
                  [plus economic turmoil – Panic of 1873]
Labor struggles against powerful forces that do not want change:
RR strike of 1877 started when – the 4 largest RRs in the USA cut back employee salaries by 10%
Labor unrest during the Hayes administration stemmed from – long years of depression and deflation
Labor unrest in the 1870s & 1880s resulted in – use of Federal troops as strike breakers to force workers back to
        work – so they always sided with management/employers/corporations rather than labor/workers/unions

Racism against the Chinese:
In the wake of anti-Chinese violence in CA, the US Congress – passed a law prohibiting immigration of
        Chinese laborers to the USA (1882 Chinese Exclusion Act)
Internal developments in China resulted in Chinese immigration to USA – disintegration of Chinese empire,
        seizure of farmlands by landlords, intrusion of European/USA/Japanese, internal political turmoil
One of the main reasons Chinese came to USA in 19th century – was to dig for gold
        Most ended up doing manual labor or opened small businesses – suffered severe discrimination
Chinese word “tong” means – meeting hall (but came to be associated with Chinese gangs)
How many Presidents have been assassinated, and who was the second one after Lincoln?;
Four have been assassinated.
Lincoln was the first US president assassinated – James Garfield was the second
Pres. James Garfield was assassinated – by a deranged, disappointed office seeker (a Stalwart)
Who was third?:
William McKinley in 1901 in Buffalo, New York at the World’s Fair, making TR the President
Wasn’t JFK the fourth?:
Yes!
Civil Service Reform:
The Pendleton Act (1883) required appointees to public office to
        – take a competitive examination (to prove merit for appointment to office)
With the passage of the Pendleton Act, politicians now sought money from - big corporations
        - No longer get money from immigrants through the political machine, civil service workers, etc…
1884 Election:
1884 election b/t James Blaine and Grover Cleveland noted for – personal attacks on candidates
        Blaine’s corruption – Mulligan letters – “Burn this letter” – scandal over RR
        Cleveland’s child out-of-wedlock w/ a widow – He honestly admitted to it – many people liked that
Which of the following Gilded Age presidents was not a Republican like all of the rest?
        Grant, Hayes, Harrison, Arthur, Garfield, Cleveland
President Grover Cleveland – I guess that’s where Sesame Street got the name:
President Grover Cleveland’s “hands-off” approach to gov’t gained the support of (laissez-faire) – big business
        [very Republican despite being a Democrat]
On the tariff issue, Cleveland – advocated a lower rate (which hurt him politically)
Major campaign issue of 1888 presidential election – the tariff policy
Congress used to be more important than the president, which is what was intended politically in 1787:
Late 19th century, it was generally true that the locus of political power was – Congress – not the President
Congress spends lots of $$$:
The “Billion-Dollar Congress” quickly disposed of rising gov’t surpluses by
        – expanding pensions for Civil War veterans
Populism:
Populist Party platform at their 1892 convention:
        Gov’t ownership of RR, telephone, & telegraph, free & unlimited coinage of silver in ratio of 16 ounces
        to 1 ounce of gold, a one-term limit for the president, immigration restrictions (Nativist xenophobia),
        direct election of Senators (have to wait for the 17th Amendment), What about gov’t guarantees of “price
        parity” for farmers?
Four states completely carried by Populists in 1893 – KS, CO, ID, & NV
Early Populist campaign to create a coalition of white & black farmers ended in – racist backlash that
        eliminated black voting in the South [which was a shame because the party may have changed America]
Politics of the 1890s affected by the Panic of 1873:
Political development of 1890s largely shaped by – the most severe & extended economic depression up to that
        time – Panic of 1873



The Boy Orator of the Platte – William Jennings Bryan:
Economic unrest & repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act led to rise of pro-silver leader
        – William Jennings Bryan – Cross of Gold speech, failed presidential candidate several times, Populist
            w/ Democratic leanings, 1925 Scopes Monkey Trial – died just after winning, but losing face
How did JP Morgan help out the USA but hurt President Cleveland politically?:
President Cleveland aroused widespread public anger by his action of (to stop “endless chain” of US Au for Ag)
        – borrowing $65 million in gold from JP Morgan’s banking syndicate
Greatest political beneficiary of backlash against Cleveland in Congressional 1894 elections - Republicans
What did Liberal Republicans want?:
Liberal Republican movement favored –end to Military Reconstruction & civil service reform (spoils system)
        In Gilded Age, “hard money” policies were reflected in – Resumption Act of 1875 – US gov’t to remove
        all Greenbacks & redeem at face value in gold as of 1879, the “Crime of 1873” – coinage of silver began
        as 1873 but silver prices fell b/c of silver strikes out West – so now Western miners w/ debtors who
        want the “Dollar of Our Daddies” to coin silver & promote inflation, Contraction – holding back
        money/Greenbacks – less printed & fewer gold pay outs so value of money increases – fewer dollars in
         circulation – therefore, deflation to stabilize US money of foreign creditors – bad for average people
        during the Panic of 1873



Ch 24 Industry Comes of Age, 1865-1900
Railroads receive massive “welfare,” formed monopolies, & transform transportation and the continent:
When private RR promoters asked the US gov’t for subsidies to build RRs, they gave reasons:
       Too risky w/out gov’t help, too costly w/out gov’t help, private investors would not accept initial
       financial losses, impossible to serve military & postal needs w/out gov’t help, What about the RRs
       repaying subsidies by paying higher taxes?
During the Gilded Age, most RR barons – built RRs w/gov’t assistance – (except Hill’s Great Norther)
National gov’t helped finance transcontinental RR construction in the late 19th century by providing RR
       corporations w/ - land grants (checker board pattern)
Match each RR company w/ correct entrepreneur – James Hill – Great Norther, Cornelius Vanderbilt – New
       York Central, Leland Stanford – Central Pacific (from Sacramento, CA)
Only transcontinental RR built w/out gov’t aid was – Great Norther – built by Canadian-American James Hill
One by-product of development of RRs was – movement of people to cities (eventually)
        - initially, RRs hauled only freight, not passengers – cost was not efficient for transporting people
Greatest single factor helping to spur amazing industrialization of post-Civil War years was – the RR network
The USA changed to standard time zones when – major RRs decreed common fixed time zones to keep
        schedules for commerce & avoid nasty train wrecks – very common back then
Agreements b/t RR corporations to divide business in a given area & share the profits were called – pools
Early RR owners formed “pools” in order to avoid competition by dividing business in a given area
Efforts to regulate RR monopolies first came in action by – state legislatures (later found unconstitutional)
Feeble attempts to regulate the RRs:
First Federal regulatory agency designed to protect public interest from business combinations such as
        (pools/trusts/monopolies) was – Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 (Interstate Commerce Commission)
        One of the most significant aspects of the ICC was – represented first large scale attempt of Fed gov’t to
        regulate commerce/business
Labor builds the nation while being exploited by big business:
After the Civil War, plentiful supply of unskilled labor in USA – helped build nation in to an industrial giant
When Monopoly Was More Than Just a Game:
One of the methods by which post-Civil War business leaders increased their profits was – elimination of as
        much competition as possible through consolidation, monopoly, trusts, pools, etc…


Entrepreneurs/Robber Barons:
Match entrepreneur w/ business combination & enterprise:
        Andrew Carnegie – vertical integration - Steel
        John D. Rockefeller – trust – control stock – rebates – Standard Oil
        JP Morgan – interlocking directorate – banking, then steel
        James Duke – tobacco
JP Morgan undermined competition by placing officers of his bank on the boards of supposedly independent
        companies that he wanted to control, Method known as interlocking directorate
Steel industry owed much to inventive genius of – Henry Bessemer-British (& William Kelly-American)
USA’s first billion-dollar corporation was – United States Steel (JP Morgan after buying out Carnegie)
Standard Oil Trust:
1st major product of oil industry – kerosene (for oil lamps for lighting) [threw away by-product – gasoline]
Oil industry – huge business – w/ invention of internal combustion engine (for cars – need oil & gas)
To dominate oil industry, John D. Rockefeller used tactics such as employing spies, extorting rebates from RRs,
        pursued policy of rule or ruin, used high-pressure sales methods,
        What about Federal agents to break his competition?
The elites embrace Social Darwinism crediting themselves, blaming others, and pretending to be charitable:
“Gospel of wealth” – Carnegie said this – associated “Godliness” w/ riches – believed wealth should display
        moral responsibility for their God-given money
{There was no income tax back then; all money made was pure, take-home profit}
Business is supported by Courts & the 14th Amendment, intended to help blacks, but helps corporations instead:
To help corporations, courts ingeniously interpreted 14th Amendment – to protect rights of ex-slaves – to avoid
        corporate regulation by states
   th
14 Amendment – especially helpful to giant corporations when defending themselves against state gov’t
        regulation b/c corporations were considered the same as an individual concerning rights
Trust busting or union busting?:
Sherman Antitrust Act [1890] – at first was primarily used to curb power of – labor unions (considered trusts)
The South is slow to industrialize:
During age of industrialization, South – remained overwhelmingly rural & agricultural
South’s major attraction for potential investors was – cheap labor (& no unions)
Late 19th century, tax benefits & cheap, non-union labor especially attracted textiles to the “new” South
Many southerners saw employment in textile mills as – only steady jobs & wages available
       (whole families could stay together and work together in mills for example)
Changes brought by industrialization:
One of the greatest changes that industrialization brought for workers’ lives – need to adjust lives to time clock
Changes for women brought by industrialization:
Group most affected by new industrial age was – women (new opportunities for work)
       {Poor women have always had to work out of economic necessity – see below}
Economic challenges:
Despite generally rising wages in the late 19th century, industrial workers were extremely vulnerable to
       economic swings & depressions, employers’ whims, sudden unemployment, illness & accident,
       What about new educational requirements for jobs? Not until the 1920s & in particular the 1950s.
The status of women:
Image of “Gibson Girl” represented – a romantic ideal of the independent athletic woman
Most female workers of the 1890s worked for – economic necessity!
Ways in which labor was controlled by business:
Which is least like the others? Lockout, yellow dog contract, blacklist, company town
       [look these up if you don’t remember]
       What about a “closed shop?” [no – why?]
Was the Supreme Court neutral or on the side of business rather than labor?
Generally, the Supreme Court in late 19th century interpreted the Constitution to favor – corporations (not labor)

Labor unions & their struggles:
Match labor organizations:
        National Labor Union – social reform union defeated by the Panic of 1873 & 1870s economy
        Knights of Labor – “one big union” – skilled & unskilled workers, like NLU, but women & Af-Am’s
                 too, not Chinese – championed producer cooperatives & industrial arbitration
                          - Terence V. Powderly was their leader
Efforts on behalf of workers – National Labor Union won – an 8 hour day for gov’t workers (only)
One group barred membership from Knights of Labor – Chinese (Blazing Saddles – Mel Brooks)
Knights of Labor believed conflict b/t capital & labor would disappear when
        – labor would own & operate business & industries
Knights of Labor believed that republican traditions & institutions of democracy could be preserved from
        corrupt monopolies – by strengthening economic & political independence of workers
One major reason Knights of Labor failed was its – lack of class consciousness
Knights of Labor weakened by – association in public mind w/ Haymarket riot/Haymarket Square massacre
        & inclusion of both skilled & unskilled workers
Most effective & most enduring labor union of post-Civil War was – American Federation of Labor (AF of L)
By 1900, American attitudes toward labor began to change as public recognized right of workers to bargain
        collectively & strike, yet – vast majority of employers continued to fight organized labor (unions)
By 1900, organized labor (unions) in USA – had begun to develop a more positive image w/ the public
“Captains of Industry” or Robber Barons?:
People & historians found fault w/ “captains of industry” mostly argued (robber barons) – built their
        corporations’ wealth & power by exploiting workers
Even historians critical of “captains of industry” (robber barons) & capitalism generally concede that class-
        based protest has never been a powerful force in USA b/c – USA has greater social mobility than Europe
        [Is this really true or something we like to tell ourselves in every single case?]
Over last century, historians’ criticisms of Gilded Age industrial capitalism – romantic idea that
        industrialization diminished workers spiritual life, assertion that workers were brutalized by the
        industrial system, claim US industrialization sharpened class divisions
Why did industry thrive and expand during and after the Civil War?:
Important factors in post-Civil War industrial expansion were large pool of unskilled labor, abundance of
        natural resources, US ingenuity & inventiveness, political climate favored business,
        What about immigration restrictions?
Factors promoting growth of manufacturing in post-Civil War USA included – plentiful cheap labor, available
          investment capital, abundant natural resources, massive immigration,
         What about effective gov’t planning? No, there was none of that really, only massive subsidies/welfare
Changes in national economy in late 19th century USA resulted in – decline in agriculture relative to
         manufacturing, sharper class distinctions, a movement of more women into the workforce
The first transcontinental railroad:
1st transcontinental RR – completed – constructed by – [act passed and begun in 1862, finished in 1869 – Utah]
         – Union Pacific RR (Omaha, NB – built west) & Central Pacific (Sacramento, CA – built east)
Railroads:
Vital improvements in RR building in late 19th century included standard gauge track (width b/t tracks),
         air brakes (increased safety tremendously – many brakemen died before air brakes – more train wrecks
         too), steel rails (replaced iron – rusts and bends – much more dangerous), Pullman cars (nice first class
         cars double as sleeper cars too), & the block signal
Railroading in late 19th century provided significant stimulus to – agriculture, urbanization, immigration,
         industrialization, What about feminism? No!
American inventors & entrepreneurs:
Thomas Edison was instrumental in invention of – electric light (bulb), mimeograph machine, motion pictures
         What about the telephone? No, that was Alexander Graham Bell.


Ch 25 America Moves to the City, 1865-1900
Growth of the cities:
American cities experienced tremendous, rapid growth b/t 1865-1900 – Europe experienced the same trend
Major factor drawing people from farms in the country to the cities was – available industrial jobs
Problems in the cities:
Which has the least in common with the others? Slums, dumbbell tenements, flophouses, “lung block,”
       [look these up if you don’t know them]
       - What about bedroom communities? No!
How did living in the city contribute to the rising divorce rate?:
One of the most important factors leading to increased divorce rate of late 19th century was – stress of urban life
Opportunities in the city:
The place offering the greatest opportunities for women in the USA b/t 1865-1900 was – the big city
Consumerism on the rise:
One early symbol of the dawning era of US urban consumerism was – the rise of large department stores
Immigrants:
“New Immigrants” who came to the USA after 1880 – were culturally different from previous immigrants
       Old were northern European Protestants
       New were southern and eastern Europeans
       - such as Italians and Poles who often brought traditions of anarchy, socialism, etc…
Most Italian immigrants to USA b/t 1880 & 1920 came to escape – poverty and backwardness
       - (ugly way to say underdevelopment) of southern Italy, which was poorer than northern Italy
“Bird of Passage” –immigrant who came to the USA to work for a short time & return home (to Europe, etc…)
Most “New Immigrants” – tried to preserve their Old Country culture in USA
       - (Thank God – think of the awesome food!)
       - (2nd & 3rd generations Americanize - often ashamed of Old Country culture – sad and unfortunate)
The “New Immigrants” who came to USA after 1880 – were from S & E Europe (not northern Protestant
       Euro’s), tended to settle in NE cities like Boston, NY, Philadelphia, etc…, & were largely Roman
       Catholic or Jewish (many pogroms – violent acts directed at Jews) in E Europe, like Russia ( a “push”
       factor like war, refugee, famine, discrimination, etc…), primarily sought economic opportunity (the
       “pull” factor), & had been highly mobile even before coming to the USA
Reaction to immigrants:
Many native born Americans tended to blame “New Immigrants” for – corruption of city gov’t, lower industrial
       wages (b/c of some much cheap, unskilled labor available), degradation of life in US cities, & importing
       alien social & economic doctrines (like anarchism & socialism)
By 1900, congressional legislation barred The Chinese & Contract Laborers from immigrating to the USA
Labor unions do not want immigrants – why not?:
Labor unions favored immigration restriction b/c most immigrants were not opposed to factory labor, used as
       scabs/strikebreakers, willing to work for lower wages, difficult to unionize, and non-English speaking
Other groups that opposed immigration – why?:
The American Protective Association (APA)
       – supported immigration restrictions to support labor in USA (like a labor tariff)
Did anyone like immigrants?:
[Employers did – why? Cheap labor.]
Religious denomination that responded most favorably to “New Immigration” – Roman Catholics
       Why? B/c many were Catholics from Ireland, Italy, and other nations.
Religion in America:
New urban environment – most liberal Protestants – rejected Biblical literalism & adapted religious ideas to
       modern culture (the way Darwin intended)
Late 19th century, orthodox Protestant churches were challenged by - Darwin’s theory, mounting emphasis on
       materialism (consumerism), social doctrines of Catholicism & Judaism


Social Darwinism:
Darwinian theory of organic evolution through natural selection (“survival of the fittest”) affected US religion
        by – creating a split between religious conservatives who denied evolution and “accomodationists” who
        supported it
Settlement Houses & Jane Addams:
Settlement Houses such as Hull House engaged in child care, English instruction, cultural activities,
        social reform lobbying, What about instruction in socialism? No! [Jane Addams ran Hull House]
Job opportunities for women:
In the 1890s, positions for women as secretaries, department store clerks, and/or telephone operators
        were largely reserved for native born (white) women
American higher education:
The new, research-oriented, modern American university tended to – deemphasize religious & moral instruction
        in favor of practical subjects & professional specialization
American pragmatism:
The “pragmatists” were a school of American philosophers who emphasized – the provisional & fallible nature
        of knowledge & valued ideas that (practically) solved problems
Free, mandatory public education:
Americans offered growing support for a free public education system – b/c people accepted the idea that a free
        & democratic gov’t cannot function w/out educated citizens
Post-Civil War era witnessed – an increase in compulsory (mandatory) school attendance laws
African-American struggles as personified by Booker T. Washington and WEB DuBois:
Booker T. Washington believed the key to political & civil rights for Af-Am’s was – economic independence
Af-Am leader, Booker T. Washington – promoted black self-help but did not challenge segregation
[Washington – born a slave – wrote biography Up from Slavery – built Tuskegee Institute in Alabama]
W E B Du Bois – “talented tenth” of Af-Am’s should lead the race to full social & political equality – now!
[Du Bois – born free in North – 1st black to graduate from Harvard “I assure you the honor was Harvard’s.”]
{The two men disagreed – Washington accepted Jim Crow but sought economic equality & independence,
while Du Bois demanded total equality – thought Washington’s opinions were bad b/c it kept blacks subservient
to white authority and power – Washington recognized inability to achieve equality in USA at that time b/c of
opposition – Du Bois helped start the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People – NAACP}
Black leader Dr. W E B Du Bois - demanded complete (and immediate) equality for Af-Am’s
Important milestone for higher education:
Morrill Act of 1862 – granted public lands to states to support higher education
        (creating state universities through gov’t land grants – research oriented & trained military too)
Women go to college, some get their MRS degree:
In decades sfter Civil War, college education for women increased – became much more common
        (1 in 4 graduates were women)
        {Often earning an MRS degree, settling down as a wife and homemaker in her “cult of domesticity”}
New institutions of higher learning:
Major research universities founded after the Civil War
        – University of California (Davis), Johns Hopkins, University of Chicago (Rockefeller), Stanford (jr)
Quality of life during industrialization:
During the industrial revolution, life expectancy – measurably increased (eventually for most all in society)
Public libraries spread literacy – thanks in no small part to the Carnegie Foundation:
The public library movement in Gilded Age USA greatly aided by generous philanthropy of - Andrew Carnegie
        {Rockefeller gave & his son set up the Rockefeller Foundation which supported all kinds of things}
Newspapers expand:
American newspapers expanded circulation & public attention by
        – printing sensationalist stories of sex and scandal (like today)
        – [Called “Yellow Journalism” – Pulitzer’s newspaper’s “Yellow Kid” – Pulitzer & Hearst]


Reformers seek to right economic inequalities and injustices:
Henry George believed the root of social inequality & social injustice lay in - landowners who gained unearned
        money from rising land values – wrote Progress and Poverty – argued windfall real estate profits caused
        by rising land prices should be – taxed at 100% rate by gov’t (& used to help the poor)
Social critics defend Christianity against Darwinism:
Gen. Lewis Wallace’s book Ben Hur – defended Christianity against Darwinism
Literature that was socially critical:
19th century authors: Lewis Wallace – anti-Darwinism & support for Bible (Ex. Ben Hur), Horatio Alger –
        success & honor as products of honesty & hard work (“rags to riches” through virtue), Henry James –
        psychological realism & dilemmas of sophisticated women (Ex. The Bostonians), William Dean
        Howells – contemporary social problems – divorce, labor strikes, socialism (taboo subjects for the time
        – so people liked the realism)
American novelists’ turn from romanticism & transcendentalism to rugged social realism reflected –
        materialism (consumerism) & conflicts of new industrial society
Authors who reflected increased attention on social problems by those from less affluence in late 19th century –
        Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens), William Dean Howells, Stephen Crane (The Red Badge of Courage),
        Kate Chopin, What about Henry Adams?
Late 19th century novels often pusued themes of – social problems & conflict, the American West (always
        popular – “dime novels” like the Deadwood Dick series – I know – funny – huh?), corrupting influences
        of the city, & dilemmas of the “new woman”
SEX! – Now that got your attention – huh? See below :
1865-1900, changes in sexual attitudes & practices were reflected – soaring (higher) divorce rates, spreading
        practice of birth control (Comstock & Sanger), more frank (open) sexual discussion, & more women
        working outside of the home
Margaret Sanger (operating mostly between 1900-1920s – so a bit out of chronology here:
Margaret Sanger vs. Anthony Comstock - Not in text book, but well worth knowing! [Why is it not in the book?]
Anthony Comstock was responsible for getting obscenity laws passed in the USA – The Comstock Laws (p.582
in 12th ed. of The American Pageant) – which forbade doctors from conducting abortions, distributing birth
control information, distributing any sexual material or literature by mail which was a Federal crime (Comstock
personally determined what was obscene and what was not – everything was to him – an overly self-pious
tyrannical egomaniac), or speak publicly about birth control. Margaret Sanger was a nurse and a bit of a
radical. Married with a few children, she believed in socialism. She saw many women who had birthed 10-15
children give themselves nasty self-abortions. Sadie Sachs was a Russian Jew who had been pregnant several
times and had given herself a self-abortion b/c she could not feed another child as she was so poor. She pled for
help from the male doctor who replied, “Tell your husband to sleep on the couch.” Sachs got pregnant again
and again self-aborted, but that time, the doctor could not save her. Sanger then committed herself to helping
women by breaking the law and distributing birth control information on the street and through the mail. She
spoke publicly and was arrested. Comstock crusaded against her, and she eventually fled to England, returning
years later after Comstock’s death. Eventually the issued died down, she returned and was vindicated for her
actions by a public that changed its perception of social reform to help poor women in such a predicament. She
went on to help start Planned Parenthood & was instrumental in the birth control pill - came out in the 1960s.
Did families get bigger or smaller – why?:
In course of late 19th century, family size – gradually decreased
Sufferin’ till suffrage:
By 1900, advocates for women’s suffrage – argued vote enabled women to extend roles as mothers &
        homemakers in public world – not as equals to men and therefore deserving – this was a strategic shift
        from earlier emphasis on equality
National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA) – limited its membership to whites only
Carrie Chapman Catt (new head of NAWSA) argued women should be granted suffrage b/c – in city, women
        needed to affect such issues as public health & education & suffrage was a logical extension of a
        women’s traditional role/”sphere” (“cult of domesticity”) in caring for the home & family – not equality
        w/ men – a shift away from past arguments for women’s suffrage
Temperance (prohibition of alcohol):
Growing prohibition/temperance movement especially reflected the concerns of – many middle class women
        Husbands often drank away paycheck &/or w/ prostitutes
        {Escondido was a dry city – no alcohol except “moonshine” - in the late 19th century – incorporated as a
        city in 1888} {Carrie Nation – used a hatchet to smash liquor bottles – Temperance avenger – scary!}
Architecture:
Term “Richardson” in late 19th century pertained to – architecture
Rise of a standard popular culture:
During industrialization, Americans increasingly – shared a common & standard popular culture
Leading pastimes of late 19th century included – bicycling, watching college football, watching baseball, the
        circus (P.T. Barnum – walked elephants across the new Brooklyn Bridge – suspension steel cable bridge
        – many people did not trust it at first), & vaudeville (variety acts such as comedians, acrobats, jugglers,
                 etc… - like a big variety show – very cool for the time – even for our time)
Sports:
Sports developed after the Civil War – basketball, bicycling (huge craze once “safety bicycle” was invented –
        Wright Brothers owned a bicycle shop in Dayton, Ohio), croquet, college football (very dangerous
        compared to today b/c of rules not yet applied, lack of protection, etc…),
        What about baseball? Already popular.
Ethnic enclaves in the cities:
By 1900, American cities were becoming – heavily populated, segregated by race & ethnicity (neighborhoods),
        & more homogenous


Ch 26 The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution, 1865-1896
Native Americans on the Great Plains:
Post-Civil War USA, Indians surrendered their lands only when they – received solemn promises from US
       gov’t to be left alone & provided w/supplies on remaining (reservation) lands – {Indian agents from the
       Bureau of Indian Affairs were often corrupt and cheated Indians – Ex. Give them rancid meat)
Warfare b/t Indians & US military after (and during) the Civil War – there was often great cruelty & massacre
       on both sides (but almost always initiated by whites)
Indians baffled whites – avenged savage massacres of Indians by whites, punished whites for breaking treaties,
       defend their lands against white invaders, & preserved “nomadic” way of life against forced
        “settlement” – What would Loewen say about their settled and nomadic conditions?
Match Native American Indian chief to tribe:
        Chief Joseph – Nez Percé, Sitting Bull – Sioux/Lakota, Geronimo - Apache
As a result of complete defeat of Cpt. William Fetterman’s command (of 80 men) in 1866 – gov’t abandoned
        the Bozeman Trail & guaranteed Sioux/Lakota their lands
        (American Pageant 12th ed. p.593 – not very truthful)
Plains Indians finally forced to surrender – b/c of RRs & virtual extinction of buffalo (often from trains)
Nez Percé of Idaho goaded (pushed) in to war when – gold was discovered on their reservation land
        (the fate of many Indians when Au was discovered – Ex. Cherokee & Sioux/Lakota)
        {Not in book - Truth about Fetterman, Custer, Wounded Knee, etc… - the text sucks!}
Buffalo nearly exterminated entirely – through wholesale slaughter/butchery of whites (Train hunting)
        {Gov’t policy for defeating Plains Indians was to eliminate their primary resource – very successful}
A Century of Dishonor (1881) chronicled dismal Indian-white history in USA – Helen Hunt Jackson
19th century humanitarians who advocated “kind” treatment of Indians – had no more respect for traditional
        Indian culture than those who sought to exterminate them
To assimilate Indians into US society, Dawes Act (1887) – did not outlaw the sacred Sun Dance, dissolved
        many tribes as legal entities, tried to make rugged individualists of Indians (What would Loewen say?),
        promised Indians US citizenship in 25 years (but full citizenship for all Indians did not come until 1924),
        & wiped out tribal ownership of land (by allotting portions of that land to individual Indian farmers –
        more scandals took more Indian lands –like corruption of Indian agents from the B. of I. A.)
Dawes Severalty Act (1887) was designed to promote Indian – assimilation (into white culture as farmers)
What would Loewen say?
The US gov’t’s outlawing of the Indian Sun (Ghost) Dance in 1890 resulted in – the Battle of Wounded Knee
        - Disgraceful slaughter of ~200 Indians, mostly elderly people, women, and children
Chronological order – Dawes Act, Oklahoma Land Rush (“Far and Away”), Indians granted full citizenship,
        Congress restores tribes (Indian New Deal)
Factors eventually leading to defeat of Plains Indians included: RRs, disease, near-extermination of buffalo
        (“Tatanka” – Sioux word for buffalo), & war w/ US Army
Mining:
Bitter conflict b/t whites & Indians intensified – as mining frontier expanded
        *Hydraulic mining – Ex. CA strip mining
        {Cowboys – Cow Towns – Dodge City, KS or Boom Towns like Virginia City, NV or Deadwood, SD}
Mining frontier played a vital role in – attracting first substantial white population to the West (plus capital $)
Enormous mineral wealth taken from mining frontier of west – helped finance the Civil War (& cause it too)
Wild frontier towns where major cattle trails through Texas into Kansas or farther north were
        – Abilene, KS; Ogallala, NB; & Cheyenne, WY
        {Homesteads and “Soddies”}
Settlers on the Great Plains:
Homestead Act (1862) – a problem was 160 acres was inadequate for productive farming on rain-scarce Plains,
        assumed public land should be administered to promote frontier settlement – but many settlers did not
        buy homesteads – speculators did, drastic departure from previous gov’t land policies designed to raise $
Major problem faced by Great Plains settlers in 1870s was – scarcity of water (and wood)
 “Sooners” – settlers who “jumped the gun” to – claim land in the Oklahoma Land Rush (“Far and Away”)
Was Frederick Jackson Turner’s thesis correct?:
Eastern city dwellers were the least likely to migrate to the West to cattle country or to farm the frontier
1890 – superintendent of census announced the frontier line was gone – Americans were disturbed that free land
        (If it ever was “free” – think Davidson & Lytle Ch 5) West of MS River was gone
        (Enter Frederick Jackson Turner – Frontier Thesis – Grand Theory – Davidson & Lytle Ch 5)
Turner’s “safety valve” idea:
“Safety valve” for overflow of discontented in the East b/c of social & economic conflict (Turner says yes –
        research says no) – Eastern city dwellers headed west to get free homesteads during depressions
Western cities thrive:
Cities like Denver & San Francisco served as major “safety valves” by providing – homes for failed farmers &
        busted miners who were in the West – so real “safety valve” was the western city – Ex. Denver & SF
The American West & Water:
In long run, group probably did the most to shape the West were – hydraulic engineers (irrigated)
West – Federal gov’t gave the most aid to economic & social developments – Ex. Divert water – hydraulics
Post-Civil War Agriculture & Farmers’ Problems (You laugh, but this was the DBQ a few years ago):
1865-1900 – most US farmers – grew a single “cash crop” (perhaps tobacco or wheat – therefore dependent)
Root cause of US farmers’ problems after 1880 was – OVERPRODUCTION of agricultural goods!
Last decade of 19th century, volume of agricultural goods increased as prices for those goods decreased
        Ex. Cattle affected by overgrazing and bad winters while Argentina & other places produced more
        livestock or wheat prices drop due to overproduction in USA & other nations like Russia growing more
        wheat too – further causing declining prices
Late 19th century farmers believed their difficulties stemmed primarily from – deflated currency (Populism)
Agricultural production rose in post-Civil War years – tenet farming (like sharecropping – whites & blacks)
        spread rapidly through the Midwest & South
Farmers organize to stop abuses against them:
Farmers were slow to organize & promote their interest b/c they – were by nature independent & individualistic
        {Bonanza Farming}
First major farmers’ organization was – Patrons of Husbandry (The Grange/Grangers)
Original purpose of the Grange was to – stimulate improvement through educational & social activities
In several states, farmers helped pass “Granger Laws” which – regulated RR rates
        (from abuses – varying freight rates, free passes, rebates, etc…)
Farmers’ Alliance formed – to take action to break the strangling grip of RRs
        (Ex. Frank Norris The Octopus – RRs in CA)
Farmers’ Alliance especially weakened by - exclusion of black farmers
Populist Party arose as direct successor of – Farmers’ Alliance
Populist Party presidential candidate in 1892 was – James B. Weaver (Cleveland won)
Populist leaders included: William “Coin” Harvey, Ignatius Donnelley, James B. Weaver, &
        Mary Elizabeth Lease, What about Eugene V. Debs?
To win labor’s support, Populist Party – opposed use of court injunctions to force striking laborers back to work
        {Lots of influence on The Wizard of Oz}
Late 19th century Populists farmers held grievances against – RRs, state gov’ts, banks, grain-elevator operators,
        & both major political parties – Democrats & Republicans
Pro-farmer & Populist leaders of 1880s & 1890s – Oliver Kelley, James B. Weaver, & Mary Elizabeth Lease
Populists’ political program called for – graduated income tax (the more you have, the more you’re taxed),
        gov’t ownership of RRs & telephones, free, unlimited coinage of silver at ratio of 16 ounces of silver to
        1 ounce of gold Which was half of the going rate at 32:1 ratio), loans for farmers based on crops stored
        in gov’t warehouses
Populists & Labor Unions charged a conspiracy b/t gov’t & big business b/c Federal courts – declared an
        income tax unconstitutional (why we see the 16th Amendment authorizing constitutional right to tax),
        & the Federal court injunction forcing workers back to work in the 1894 Pullman Strike
1892 Election:
During 1892 presidential election – large numbers of Southern white farmers refused to desert the Democratic
        Party & support the Populist Party b/c (even though it was in their best interest to switch) – history of
        racial division in South made cooperation w/ Af-Am’s difficult
Coxey’s “army”:
Jacob Coxey and his “army” marched on Washington DC – to demand gov’t relieve unemployed w/public
        works program (build stuff w/gov’t jobs and pay laborers – FDR will do this during the Depression as
                part of the New Deal) – (Instead, Cleveland, who sympathized, had them arrested for trespassing,
                and he thought gov’t hand outs would make people dependent on the gov’t – apparently not
                businesses or the US gov’t when he borrowed gold from JP Morgan for the nation’s reserves –
                Did USA become dependent on JP Morgan for handouts? Think Zinn.)
Panic of 1893:
Was Richard Olney, US Attorney General, sympathetic to workers and farmers hard-pressed by the
       Panic/Depression of 1893? (Think Pullman strike of 1894)
1894 Pullman Strike:
Pres. Cleveland justified Federal intervention in 1894 Pullman Strike – b/c it prevented transit of the US mail
Match individual w/role in Pullman Strike of 1894 – Richard Olney – US Attny Gen used federal troops to
       crush strike, Eugene V. Debs – Head or American Railway Union organized strike, George Pullman –
       owner of “Palace Railroad Car” company & the company town, John Altgeld – Governor of Illinois who
       sympathized w/striking workers (another violent episode where gov’t supported business against labor)
Labor unions, Populists, & debtors saw in brutal Pullman strike – proof of alliance of Federal gov’t, big
       business, & the courts (b/c of use of federal injunction – court order – to stop strike & go back to work)
       to act against the interests of the working class to keep them oppressed & keep profits maximized
Pullman strike was first instance (not the last) of - gov’t use of Federal court injunction to break a strike
1896 Election:
Depression of 1890s & episodes like the Pullman Strike made 1896 presidential election – a battle b/t
       conservatives against workers & farmers {McKinley is “the Wizard, the wonderful Wizard of Oz”}
1896, McKinley is nominated for presidents by the Republicans (he’ll win too), not b/c he was an energetic &
       charismatic campaigner, but b/c he was an electoral favorite in Ohio, he was nationally known for the
       McKinley Tariff (high), was likeable and a Civil War vet, & was backed by the powerful Representative
       Mark Hanna who politically managed him and raised a huge sum of $ to get him elected
Mark Hanna (Ohio Representative – president maker) believed the prime function of gov’t was to - aid business
Democratic Party in 1896 nominated for president William Jennings Bryan
Republican Party in 1896 nominated for president William McKinley
       – winner – but loser – 3rd president assassinated
Populist Party in 1896 nominated for president William Jennings Bryan – same as Democrats
       Populism sold out to Democrats at this point really – no longer distinct – now tied to Democrats
William Jennings Bryan – 1896 – youthful, energetic & charismatic, excellent orator, honest & sincere,
       What about a brilliant mind? {Harsh, but probably not necessarily – textbook authors’ questions can be brutal!}
William Jennings Bryan got presidential nomination in 1896 (ran for president 4 times & lost 4 times) b/c
       - he supported farmers’ demands for unlimited coinage of silver (Think “Cross of Gold” speech)
1896 election’s major issue became – free, unlimited coinage of silver (Silverites vs. Gold Bugs)
One key to Republican victory in 1896 was – huge amount of $ raised by Mark Hanna
Strongest ally of Mark Hanna & Republicans in 1896 election was – fear of alleged radical Bryan & free silver
       cause (& cheap shots forcing industrial workers to vote for McKinley or lose their job)
1896 election marked last time that – serious effort was made to win the White House w/mostly agrarian votes
       (Zinn wonders what if they had really unified and included workers in their plight - what then?)
1896 McKinley victory ushered in long period of Republican presidential dominance
       along w/- diminishing voter turn outs
Pres Election of 1896, McKinley carried – upper Midwest (Wizard of Oz), most urban workers (b/c of tactics
       used to intimidate workers to vote for him, not Bryan, and/or actual fear of Populism & Bryan and their
       silver policy, & New England – Bryan was too popular in the West & South
President William McKinley:
As President, McKinley can best be described as – cautious & conservative (follower not a leader)
       “That McKinley’s mind is like a bed, you’ve got to make it up for him.”
Economics & Money based on gold, silver, or both:
Monetary inflation needed to relieve social & economic hardships of late 19th century eventually came as a
       result of – increased international gold supply (lowered value of gold, making US money, backed on
       gold, cheaper, increasing circulation, which was lessened by hard money policies)
Cowboys & cattle drives:
Frontier towns – cow towns – at end of “Long Drive” from Texas included – Dodge City, KS,
       Abilene, KS (Ike was from Abilene & then moved to Gettysburg after presidency), & Cheyenne, WY
Decline of long drive & cattle boom resulted from – homesteading (fencing – brutal range wars too), severe
       winters, overgrazing & overproduction, & barbed-wire fencing
How and why did Republicans consolidate their power at this time?:
Consolidation of Republican power & the eclipse of the Populists after 1896 (but not all of their ideas – typical
       3rd party influence to stimulate reforms) occurred b/c – eastern labor’s opposition to free silver – thought
       it would hurt their wages & cheap tactics of business to manipulate labor’s vote, a return of general
       economic prosperity (due to international gold market value dropping b/c of gold discoveries like
       South Africa and the Klondike), & a relative decline of rural population in USA relative to the cities



Ch 27 The Path to Empire, 1890-1899
Religious justification for American imperialism:
Reverend Josiah Strong’s book Our Century: Its Possible Future & Its Possible Crisis advocated American
        expansion – to spread American religion & values
1890’s demographics:
By 1890s, the USA was bursting w/ a new sense of power b/c of – the increasing population, wealth, &
        industrial production
US foreign policy & imperialism:
A major factor in the shift in US foreign policy toward imperialism in late 19th century was – need for overseas
        markets for increased industrial & agricultural production
Numerous near-wars & diplomatic crises of the USA in late 1880s & 1890s demonstrated – aggressive new
        national mood (National or American gov’t & military? What would Zinn Ch 12 say? Is this true?)
War with Samoa? Why did the US want to control Samoa?:
Clash b/t Germany & the USA over the Samoan Islands eventually resulted in – colonial division of islands b/t
        Germany & the USA
How did a US Naval officer influence the world’s navies?:
US naval Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan argued – that control of the sea was the key to world domination
        (Influence of Seapower on History …- argued that history has shown great naval powers have empires)
American economic imperialism and military imperialism in Latin America:
To justify US intervention in Venezuela (over Venezuela-British boundary dispute), Sec of State Olney invoked
        – Monroe Doctrine
During the boundary dispute b/t Venezuela and Great Britain, the USA – threatened war unless GB backed
        down & accepted Venezuela’s claim
A primary reason Great Britain submitted their border dispute (over Au discovered) w/ Venezuela to arbitration
        was – growing tensions w/ Germany made GB reluctant to engage in conflict w/ the USA
Venezuela boundary dispute was settled by – arbitration of Venezuelan & British claims (British got most of
        what they wanted anyway)
Which of the following was least enthusiastic about US imperialism in 1890s?
        Grover Cleveland, TR, William Randolph Hearst, Alfred T. Mahan, William McKinley
How did the USA steal Hawaii?:
One reason white American “sugar lords” tried to overthrow native Hawaiian rule & annex the islands the
        islands was – fear Japanese might intervene in Hawaii on behalf of abused Japanese imported laborers
Hawaii’s Queen Liliuokalani was removed from power b/c – she opposed US annexation & insisted native
        Hawaiians control Hawaii
                *US sugar planters, offspring of American missionaries who came in earlier 19th century, took
                        the island from the Hawaiians – Sanford B. Dole & other planters
Before treaty annexing Hawaii to USA could be rushed through the US Senate in 1893 when Hawaii fell to US
        business interests – Pres. Harrison’s term expired and anti-imperialist Pres Cleveland became President
Pres Cleveland rejected efforts to annex Hawaii b/c – he believed Hawaiians were wronged & the majority of
        the US population was against annexation
        [He also said he would not sign the order to mobilize the military if Congress declared war on Spain]
The Spanish-American-Cuban-Philippine War:
In an attempt to persuade Spain to leave Cuba or encourage USA to help Cuba gain independence, Cuban
        insurrectos (revolutionaries) [Eurocentric perspective] – adopted a scorched-earth policy of burning cane
        fields & sugar mills (to force US to do something – US had lots of $ invested in Cuban sugar)
Americans favored aid to Cuban revolutionaries for – popular outrage at Spanish reconcentration camps
        (Spanish General Weyler) [British in Boer War & US in Philippines & Indians], fear Spanish misrule in
        Cuba menaced the Gulf of Mexico (& Caribbean) [negatively affect commerce shipping], sympathy for
         Cuban patriots fighting for freedom, atrocity stories reported by the “Yellow Press” (some true, some
        exaggerated, some fabricated/lies) [Hearst told Frederick Remington, photographer in Cuba before the
        Sp-Am War, “You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war.”], What about the belief that Spain’s
        control of Cuba violated the anti-colonial provisions of Monroe Doctrine? No!
Battleship USS Maine officially sent to Cuba (Havana) to – protect & evacuate US citizens in case of war
Battleship USS Maine was sunk by – an explosion on the ship in Feb 1898 (~260 US sailors killed)
        [Officials at the time warned it may have been an accident, which later, in the 1960s/1970s?, it was
        proven to be an accident from heat radiating through the bulkhead to explode the black powder used for
        the big guns. USA blamed Spain for sinking it with an underwater mine – so “Remember the Maine,
        and to Hell with Spain.”]
Pres McKinley asked Congress to declare war on Spain mainly b/c the – US people demanded it.
        Bad question really – What would Zinn say in Ch 12 about the people of the USA wanting war?
        Who really wanted war? People? Government? Military? Business? Imperialists? Expansionists?
US declared war on Spain even though Spanish had already agreed to - an armistice w/ Cuban revolutionaries
Teller Amendment (to declaration of war) – USA would not annex Cuba & would uphold Cuban independence
US military strength during the Sp-Am War was enhanced by – its new steel navy; a major weakness of Spain
        was its aging naval fleet – looked good “on paper” but was antiquated by 1898 compared to US ships
The Philippine nationalist who led the insurrection against both Spanish rule & the later US occupation
        – Emilio Aguinaldo
When US captured Philippines from Spain – Hawaii was annexed by USA (1898) as key territory in Pacific
“Rough Riders” – organized largely by TR but commanded by Leonard Wood
        TR volunteered - resigning from Dept. of Navy as assistant secretary – went to war in tailored uniform
        Mostly made up of cowboys, criminals, & eastern polo players & athletes
During the Spanish-American War, entire Spanish fleet was destroyed at the Battles of - (first) Manila Bay
        (Dewey) & (later) Santiago – not Havana, Guantanamo Bay, Samoa, El Canay, San Juan & Kettle Hills
When US invaded Puerto Rico during SP –Am War – most of population greeted as liberators rather than
        military occupationists & conquerors
        *But Puerto Rican nationalism, then & today, sought/seek independence
        **Today a Commonwealth of the USA since early 20th century
Greatest loss of life for USA in Sp-Am War resulted from – sickness in both Cuba & USA (disease Ex, Yellow
        Fever – summer in Cuba, Typhoid, dysentery, etc… Plus bad canned meat – “embalmed beef”)
At the time, most controversial event associated w/ Sp-Am War was – acquisition of Philippines
        Imperialists wanted them – Anti-imperialists did not want USA to take them
All became US possessions under Treaty of Paris (Sp-Am War) – Puerto Rico (Caribbean), Guam (Pacific), &
        the Philippines & capitol city, Manila (Pacific/Asia) [US controlled Cuba – Caribbean]
        {Hawaii was not acquired through the war w/ Spain}
Pres McKinley justified US acquisition of Philippines primarily emphasizing that – no acceptable alternative
        [Paid Spain $20 million for our acquisitions from them due to war]
        {fear of other nations taking them, etc… plus US ambitions would need them, so no choice to him}
        ***Taft who went to Philippines as a military governor more or less to modernize the islands, called
                them his “little brown brothers”
US imperialists presented arguments against acquiring the Philippines:
        Violation of “consent of the governed” philosophy of Declaration of Independence, despotism abroad
        would or might lead to despotism at home, annexation propel US in to political & military cauldron of
        the Far East, Filipinos wanted freedom – not colonial rule (US replacing Spain) {Filipinos had been
        mostly Catholics since time of Jamestown ~1607 see p.637 in 12th edition}, What about the idea that the
        islands were rightfully Spain’s possession?
By acquiring the Philippines at end of Sp-Am War, USA – assumed rule over (7) millions of Asians (Filipinos),
        became a full-fledged East Asian (& Pacific) power, assumed commitments difficult to defend
        (Ex. 12-7-1941 in WWII), & developed popular support for a big navy (& a Panama Canal)
Know chronology of the sinking of the USS Maine, the US declaration of war on Spain, the Teller Amendment,
        & the Platt Amendment passing & then adoption by the Cubans for their constitution
Puerto Ricans:
Starting in 1917, many Puerto Ricans came to mainland USA seeking – employment (mostly in NYC)
        *citizenship granted in 1917 – all PRs are citizens of USA since 1917 when granted citizenship
        **Foraker Act of 1900 – limited popular gov’t for PR – see p.639 in 12th edition
Would the USA extend its laws and protections to the people it acquired through imperialism?:
On the question of whether US laws applied to overseas territory acquired in Sp-Am War, Supreme Court ruled
        that – US laws did not necessarily apply (to those in newly acquired territories – I wonder why?)
If the USA promised (by law – Teller Amendment) not to take over Cuba, how would it control Cuba?:
USA gained a virtual right of intervention in Cuba in the – Platt Amendment (to Cuban Constitution)
        [1901 – forced into Cuban Constitution or US troops would not leave Cuba – allowed US intervention in
        Cuban affairs if independence was threatened (in US eyes), Cubans could not go in to debt w/ countries
        other than the USA, & USA got USN/USMC bases such as Guantanamo Bay – see p.639 in 12th edition]


Ch 28 America on the World Stage, 1899-1909 [12th edition] (Ch 28 is part of Ch 27 in the 13th edition)
American-Philippine War (the old Filipino Insurrection):
In 1899, guerrilla warfare broke out in the Philippines b/c – US refused to give the Filipinos their independence
Philippine insurrection (war) [insurrection is a Eurocentric term] finally broke (ended) when in 1901
        – Emilio Aguinaldo, Filipino insurrecto leader, was captured
NOTE: Philippine Islands (named after King Philip of Spain) but the people are Filipinos with an “F”,
        whereas the Philippine fighters, an adjective, uses the “Ph” spelling.
US war against the Philippine insurrectionists promoting independence – resulted in torture and atrocities on
        both sides [Book acts like the US only retaliated in kind, but reconcentration/concentration camps and
        atrocities were part of US strategy – see p.646 [12th edition]
Pres McKinley’s policy of “benevolent assimilation” in the Philippines – was not appreciated by the Filipinos
Filipino Immigrants:
When Filipinos first came to USA, worked mainly as – agricultural labor
        (replacing Chinese & Japanese now excluded since 1882 & 1907-08 respectively)
The exploitation of China and the “Open Door” policy:
Many Americans became concerned about the increasing foreign intervention in China b/c they – feared US
        missions & missionaries would be jeopardized & Chinese markets would be closed to non-Europeans
        (like the USA who are non-Europeans – Euro’s were carving up China)
America’s “Open Door’ policy was essentially an argument for – free trade in China (free trade means low or no tariffs)
        Euro’s, Japan, & USA would not restrict trade in China – an “open door” for all
China’s Boxer Rebellion (1900) [Eurocentric term] was an attempt to – throw out or kill all foreigners
        (“Foreign Devils”) {Nationalistic response to “spheres of influence” of Euro’s, Japan, & USA}
Response to Boxer Rebellion, USA – abandoned its general principles of non-entanglement & noninvolvement
        in overseas conflict (w/ Europe, not Latin Am.) [“Isolationism” – if we ever were truly “isolationist”]
Once Boxer uprising ended, - China was spared further partition by foreign powers
Extended “Open Door” policy advocated in Sec of State John Hay’s second note called on all big powers,
        including the USA, to – observe the territorial integrity of China
1900 Election & an American Imperialist who stressed the “strenuous life”:
Theodore Roosevelt (TR) received Republican nomination in 1900 mainly b/c – NY party bosses (such as Platt)
        wanted him out of the NY governorship (where he was a liberal Republican progressive reformer)
        *”Kick him upstairs” to the VP – political dead end unless the President dies
        **Mark Hanna (McKinley backer & Republican Representative from Ohio, said TR was “one heartbeat
                away from the Presidency”
Just before his nomination for VP on Republican ticket in 1900, TR served as – Governor of New York & was
        before that Assistant Secretary of the Navy, & was before that NYC Police Commissioner too
In 1900 presidential election, Democrats & candidate William Jennings Bryan, insisted that – US imperialism –
        was the “paramount (most important) issue” of the campaign
As a VP candidate in 1900, TR – matched Bryan’s travels in a flamboyant campaign (around the country)
        [McKinley did not really campaign the same way by traveling and speaking]
President Roosevelt – the first one:
Regarding the presidency, TR believed that – the President could take any action not specifically prohibited by
        laws and the Constitution (He is considered to have started the “Modern Presidency”)
Panama Canal:
Construction of an isthmian canal (across the Panamanian isthmus – shortest distance across Central America
        where the shortest canal route could be dug) was motivated mainly by – a desire to improve US defense
         (USS Oregon took a long time during Sp-Am War to go around Tierra del Fuego (South America) to
        get to the Caribbean from the Pacific) {and the canal would enhance commerce of the seas of course}
British gave up their opposition to an American-controlled isthmian canal b/c they confronted an unfriendly
        Europe and were bogged down in the Boer War (in South Africa over discovery of Au & later diamonds
        & the British use of concentration camps fighting the Boer guerrillas – no prisoners taken either side)
Alternative route for a canal b/t Atlantic/Gulf & Pacific that was seriously considered was - Nicaragua
        {Longer & not over mountains & no war needed to build – 1904 election made that impossible for TR}
US entered the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty with – Panama – the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty with – Britain - & the
        Gentlemen’s Agreement with Japan (Hay-Pauncefote Treaty – British allowed US built canal)
        *Hay-Pauncefote Treaty in 13th edition – I could not find in 12th edition
US gained a perpetual (never-ending/continual) lease on the Panama Canal Zone in the - Hay-Bunau Treaty
        Bunau was a French citizen, not really a Panamanian
        Panama controls the canal today
        So how does a ship go over mountains as the canal crosses a mountain range? How does it work?
Colombian senate rejected treaty w/ USA for canal b/c – USA was not going to pay Colombian gov’t enough
        So were they greedy, or did they just think it was worth more than the US was willing to pay?
TR’s role in Panamanian revolution involved – using the US Navy to block Colombian troops from crossing the
        isthmus & crushing the revolt (in their own country)
Panamanian revolution began when – a Chinese citizen & a donkey were killed (interesting but not a test question)
TR wanted an isthmian canal constructed quickly b/c – presidential election of 1904 was approaching
        He could/would not wait for Nicaraguan canal – route w/out war or land snatching – b/c of 1904 election
During the building of Panama Canal the following difficulties were encountered – labor troubles (shortages,
        segregation, better pay & living quarters, fatalities, etc. for some) (imported workers), landslides, poor
        sanitation (disease of Yellow Fever – mosquitos – finally eradicated by Dr. Gorgas), Yellow Fever
        [nature, accidents, explosives, noise, – Ex. Trains often crushed people who could not hear them]
        What about Panamanian rebels fighting a guerrilla war and sabotage? No!
TR defended his building of Panama Canal claimed that – he had received a “mandate from civilization”
        Typical TR – He got in trouble once for saying, “I took the isthmus!” – cost US $ to Colombia
US involvement in Latin American affairs as usual:
US involvement in affairs of Latin American nations at turn of 20th century usually stemmed from – the fact that
        those nations were constantly in debt [to whom? European and US creditors who prodded their gov’ts
       to intervene in the affairs of Latin Am gov’ts – people there resenting Euro & US economic imperialism]
TR adds to the Monroe Doctrine:
Roosevelt Corollary (addition to the Monroe Doctrine – sort of – but not in the original spirit of the
      Monroe Doctrine written by Monroe’s then Sec of State John Quincy Adams) – added new provision to
      Monroe Doctrine specifically designed to justify US intervention in affairs of Latin American countries
      (see p.657 in 12th edition)
      {USA to be an “international police power” in W. Hemisphere – Latin America – who resented it!!!!!!}
               {Message is still Euro’s stay out – if Latin Am owed them money, USA would collect for them –
                          no Euro invasions to collect debts – USA would invade Latin Am many times using this
                          approach to foreign policy w/ our neighbors to the south, back then & today}
TR carries his “big stick” and rarely speaks softly:
TR promoted what might what might be called a “Bad Neighbor Policy” in Latin America by – adding the
         Roosevelt Corollary (like a corollary to a theorem in geometry – an addition that is related to the
         original) to the Monroe Doctrine {Later US will initial a “Good Neighbor Policy” w/ Latin America}
US foreign policy in Latin America in the early 20th century:
US’s frequent interventions in the affairs of Latin American countries in the early 20th century – left a legacy of
         ill will & distrust of the USA throughout Latin America – Gee, I wonder why?
         *Opportunity was there for example if USA had backed Venezuela over border dispute in interests of
                  that Latin American country rather than the British independent of any Anglo-American rivalries
                  (b/t England & the USA) that existed at the time
What is a jingo or jingoism?:
Jingoism – advocating extreme chauvinism, patriotism, paternalism, and an aggressive foreign policy such as
                  imperialism and war of conquest and/or submission
Japan experiences discrimination and racism from the USA:
“Gentlemen’s Agreement” of 1907-1908 b/t TR & Japanese gov’t – caused Japan to stop immigration of
         Japanese laborers to the US in return for the repeal of a racist, segregationist school decree in SF, CA to
         segregate all Asian students.
{“Yellow Peril” – fear by some Euro’s & Americans that Asians would rise up & take over the world}
Japanese immigrants first entered US territory to work as – laborers on Hawaii’s sugar plantations (then
         immigrated from there to the mainland for agricultural, construction, & mining jobs
         – just as Filipinos did later)
Root-Takahira agreement of 1908 – US & Japan agreed to respect each other’s territorial holdings in Pacific
         (*foresee future conflict – WWII) Also, agreement upheld an “Open Door” in China
What was the Great White Fleet?:
[“Great White Fleet” – new US Navy sailed around the world to show what we had – a good will tour I guess?
         Japanese loved our ships – USN got new slogan, “Join the Navy and See the World”]
Little, yet modern, imperial Japan defeats the antiquated and technologically unsophisticated Russians:
In 1904, the Russo-Japanese War started b/c – Russia sought ice-free ports in Chinese Manchuria. TR became
         involved when the Japanese, who were seriously winning – they sank the entire Russian Baltic fleet
         which steamed all the way from the Baltic around Africa to off the coast of Japan to be completely
         destroyed by the Japanese Imperial Navy – way more modern than Russian navy at the time. Japan
         asked for help b/c they were running out of “Men and Yen” (soldiers & $). Pres TR organized a
         conference at Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1905 to mediate an end to the war. He also helped
         arrange an international conference in Algrecias, Spain in 1906 over North African conflicts. These two
         efforts won him a Nobel Peace Prize. Ironic that Nobel invents dynamite & a peace prize is named after
         him. Also ironic, Mr. Imperialism & war-lover (war brings out the finest in humanity – he believed),
         won a Nobel Peace Prize for actually arranging peace. He was a jingoist! He held the belief of Social
         Darwinism that whites carried Rudyard Kipling’s {The Jungle Book guy – don’t get me started on this
         British Imperialist poet} so called “white man’s burden” to civilize the rest of the inferior, backward,
         heathen races of the world. Philippine War occurred when TR was President after McKinley’s
         assassination as well as many other aggressive “big stick” acts – “Carry a big stick and speak softly, and
         you will go far.”
         As a result of the war, Japan won Sakhalin Island (near Russia – will take it back at the end of WWII)
                AP US History Review Progressivism-Truman
Ch 29 Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt, 1901-1912
Progressivism:
The “real heart” of the progressive movement was effort by reformers to
        – use gov’t as an agency of humanitarian welfare
The political roots of progressive movement lay in – Greenback Labor Party & Populists
Progressive Authors/Muckrakers:
Late 19th century social critics & their criticisms:
        Thorstein Veblen – “conspicuous consumption” & “predatory wealth”
                - new rich class 1899 The Theory of the Leisure Class p.665 (12th ed.)
        Jack London – destruction of nature – 1903 The Call of the Wild, etc… p.677 (12th ed.)
        Jacob Riis – slum conditions in cities – 1890 How the Other Half Lives p.665
        Henry Demarest Lloyd – exposed Standard Oil Co. corruption before Ida Tarbell
                - 1894 Wealth Against Commonwealth p.665
        Theodore Dreiser – big business – 1912 The Financier & 1914 The Titan p.665
        Not in book – Frank Norris – CA RR abuses – 1901 The Octopus
Women & the Progressive Movement:
Progressivism – was closely tied to feminist movement & women’s causes
Female progressives often justified their reformist political activities on the basis of – their being essentially an
        extension of women’s traditional roles as wives & mothers (their “sphere” – the “cult of domesticity”)
Early 20th century muckrakers & their targets:
        David G, Phillips – Corruption in the US Senate in Cosmopolitan in 1906 p.666
        Ida Tarbell – Standard Oil Co. in McClure’s in 1904 p.666 (Her father was run out of the oil business by Rockefeller)
        Lincoln Steffens – corruption of city gov’t in “The Shame of the Cities” in McClure’s in 1902 p.666
        Ray Stannard Baker – conditions of Af-Am’s in Following the Color Line in 1908 p.667
        *John Spargo – child labor in The Bitter Cry of the Children in 1906 p.667
Lincoln Steffens in a series of articles (for McClure’s magazine) entitled “The Shame of the Cities”
        – unmasked corrupt alliance b/t big business & municipal gov’t (local city gov’t)
The muckrakers signified much about the nature of progressive reform movement b/c they
        – sought not to overthrow capitalism but to cleanse it w/democratic controls
            (TR felt they needed to propose solutions too – not just expose ills & wrongs w/out solutions)
Most muckrakers believed their primary function in progressive attack on social ills was to
        – make the public aware of the problems in society, politics, etc…
Progressive reformers were mainly men & women from the – middle class
Political progressivism – emerged in both parties, in all regions, at all levels of gov’t local/municipal,
        state, & federal
Temperance & Progressives (Prohibition of Alcohol):
Leading progressive organization advocating prohibition of liquor was
        – the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
        – {b/c many men spent paychecks in saloons, drinking & whoring & often came home w/disease}
            [Carrie Nation & her hatchet & the Anti-Saloon League – pp.585-586]
                *****Escondido was a “dry” city – no liquor sold here in late 19th century & early 20th century
From Ch 25 – p.584 Ida B. Wells – Af-Am woman who led anti-lynching campaign after lynchings in TN &
        then she was forced to move north and continued anti-lynching campaign
According to progressives, cure for all American democracy’s ills was – more democracy



To regain the power that the people had lost to the “interests,” progressives advocated all of the following:
               -    Initiative (propose laws w/out legislators – like propositions), referendum (vote on laws for
                    final approval like voting on propositions), & recall (vote to recall poor officials from
                    positions such as CA Gov. Gray Davis) p.667
               - Direct election of US senators p.667 (state legislatures used to appoint US senators – so they
                    were really owned by trusts) {This will eventually lead to the 17th Amendment which allows
                    for direct election of US senators}
All were prime goals of earnest progressives:
               - direct election of US senators, prohibition (for many but probably not all progressives),
                    women’s suffrage (not just in western states like WY, CO, UT, etc…), ending prostitution &
                    “white slavery” (of women)
               - What about abolishing special workplace protections for women? No!
Progressive movement was instrumental in getting the 17th Amendment added to the Constitution, which
       provided for – direct election of US senators (no longer appointed by state legislatures which helped end
       corruption and make Congress more democratic and accountable to constituents)
Jane Addams, Hull House, & Women in the Progressive Movement(Settlement Houses):
The settlement houses (Ex. Jane Addams Hull House in Chicago) & women’s club movement were crucial
       centers of female progressive activity b/c they – introduced many middle-class women to a broader
       array of urban social problems & civic concerns (gov’t concerns)
Women addressed the following issues in the progressive movement:
               - preventing child labor in factories & seatshops, insuring that food products were healthy &
                    safe, attacking Tuberculosis & other diseases that bred in slum tenements in cities, & creating
                    pensions for mothers w/dependent children, What about ending special regulations governing
                    women in the workplace?
Muller v. Oregon (pp.670-671 in 12th ed.) – 1908 – Supreme Court upheld principle promoted by progressives
       like Florence Kelly (1st chief factory inspector in IL & one-time volunteer at Hull House) &
       Louis Brandeis (lawyer, later Congressman) that - female workers required special rules & protection on
       the job (b/c of womanhood, so not truly equal w/men on the job – idea probably offensive today)
       So, legal to have separate laws for women in workplace b/c of the nature of womanhood at time
Tragic Fire:
Public outcry after horrible Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire (NYC 3/25/1911) (p.672) led many states to pass
       – restrictions on female employment in clothing industry
       – {Horrible fire raced across oiled machines w/combustible cloth all around – fire was too fast – doors
           were locked to prevent leaving early & unionization efforts – locked doors were tragedy – many
           girls leapt to their deaths rather than burn – fire escape was too weak & insufficient for the needs -
           huge tragedy in NYC – sparked outrage & reform}
Labor setbacks:
Lochner v. New York represented a setback for progressives & labor advocates b/c Supreme Court in ruling
       – declared a law limiting the work day (to 10 hours) was unconstitutional
City Government & Progressive Reform:
Progressivism inspired city-manager system of gov’t – was designed to remove politics from municipal
       administration (b/c of corruption w/old system & inefficiency) {But now how democratic was it?}
Progressive reform at level of city gov’t seemed to indicate progressives’ highest priority was – gov’t efficiency
Theodore Roosevelt:
While President, TR chose to label his reforms – the Square Deal
TR’s (Square Deal) reform program advocated control of corporations (What would Davidson & Lytle say in
       Ch 10 about this? What would Zinn say?), consumer protection, conservation of natural resources
       (conservation – some managed use vs. preservation – no use really, leave it preserved), & an end to RR
       rebates (Ex. 1st Trust Bust for TR was Northern Securities Co.), What about control of labor? pp.673-674
TR helped end the 1902 PA anthracite coal strike by – threatening to seize the mines & operate them w/federal
       troops (1st time US gov’t threatened owners of factories & mines rather than using federal troops to
       break up strikes & force workers back on the job) p.673
One unusual & significant characteristic of the PA anthracite coal strike of 1902 was that
       –    national/federal gov’t did not automatically side w/owners (of the mines/corporation) in the dispute
                 George F. Baer represented mine owners – see his quote about owners & workers on p.673
                        TR wanted to throw some of the owners’ representatives out of window but dignity of
                                 office restrained him from doing so.
        *****Forced arbitration & miners won 10% (of 20% desired) pay raise & won a 9 hour day
                        (a demand made by miners which they won), but no recognition of miners’ union
Elkins & Hepburn Acts dealt w/subject of – RR regulation
        p.673 Elkins Act 1903 – to stop RR & shippers from giving & receiving rebates
        p.673 Hepburn Act 1906 – to severely restrict/limit free passes – a form of bribery
        p.674 *****Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC from 1887) – strengthened & could now nullify
                        existing RR rates & stipulate (set) maximum rates
TR believed that trusts – were here to stay w/ their efficient means of production
        (TR believed in “good” trusts – public interest & profit too & “bad” trusts too – profit over people)
Real purpose of TR’s assault on trusts was to – prove gov’t, not private business, ruled the USA
        – not so much to break up all trusts, monopolies, combinations, etc…
President TR believed that the federal gov’t should adopt a policy of regulating trusts
Meat Inspection & The Jungle:
Passage of the Federal Meat Inspection Act (1906) was especially facilitated (helped) by publication of
        –   Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle [1906] (What would Davidson & Lytle Ch 10 say about this?) Not exactly
When (socialist) Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle (1906), he intended the book to focus attention on the
        – plight of workers in the stockyards and meat-packing industry
            *****Not the unsanitary conditions existing in meat-packing industry
                        *****Sinclair said he “aimed at the country’s heart and hit it in the stomach” b/c people
                                 focused on the sickening conditions he described in the industry
American Southwest Receives Water:
The Newlands Act (pp.676-677) [1902 reclamation act] was resource conservation legislation associated w/TR
        & brought water to the American southwest w/irrigation & dams
TR & the environment:
According to the text, TR’s most enduring achievement may have been – his efforts to support the environment
                 - his conservation efforts helped secure National Forests & National Parks (Ex. Yosemite)
Idea of “multiple-use resource management” included – recreation, sustaining-yield logging,
        summer stock grazing, & watershed protection, What about damming rivers?
TR & a 3rd Term:
TR weakened himself politically after his 1904 election when he – announced he would not run for a 3rd term as
        president (So he became a “lame duck” president who no one feared or felt they had to work with
        b/c he was on his way out!)
Economic crisis in 1907:
Panic of 1907 stimulated reform in banking policy p.681 (1908 Aldrich-Vreeland Act
        – issued emergency currency for banks in trouble – paved path for 1913 Fed Reserve Act)
TR progressive or not?:
TR is probably most accurately described as – a middle-of-the-road reformer (moderate, not liberal)
While President, TR greatly increased the power & prestige of the US Presidency (Modern Presidency)
During his Presidency, TR did not tame capitalism, expanded presidential power & prestige, shaped progressive
        movement (at the presidential level to a degree), aided the cause of environmentalism (conservationism),
        held rigidly to ideological principles (except jingoism & social Darwinistic ideas that today we would
        find racist, & imperialism, etc…), provided an international perspective for Americans (particularly
        gov’t), he rarely ”spoke softly and carried a big stick and he went far,” a good judge of public opinion,
        a total speaker, skillful in working w/Congress, and popular



William Howard Taft:
As President, William Howard Taft – was wedded more to status quo than progressive change (as was TR in
        reality) p.685 environmentalist even though Gifford Pinchot quit as chief forester of Ag Dept’s Div. Of
        Forestry - Did not judge public opinion well, let Republican party split – reformers vs. conservatives,
        did not carry on TR’s “my policies” legacy Ex. Payne-Aldrich Tariff – said it would lower tariffs but the
        bill he signed into law had so many riders (additions changing the original bill) that the tariff ultimately
        did not really lower the tariff duties
President Taft’s foreign policy was dubbed – “dollar diplomacy” (b/c US investments in Latin America before
        Euro’s invested, therefore, US helped to control W. hemisphere pp.683-684
                 Lots of US interventions in Latin America Ex. Nicaragua (see p.695 in Ch 30 in 12th ed.)
                 Future “Gun Boat” Diplomacy – (like movie The Sand Pebbles w/Steve McQueen 1962 set in
                                                                                        1926 China on US warship)
Pres Taft intervened militarily in Central America & the Caribbean to ease disorders threatening American
        investments (US $) in those places pp.684-685 (See Ch 30 p.695 map of US interventions)
Pres Taft’s image as a progressive was tarnished by – signing the Payne-Aldrich Tariff, refused to support
        progressive congressmen to challenge the power of the conservative Speaker of the House, dismissed
        Gifford Pinchot, & he aligned himself w/Republican senatorial reactionaries pp.685-686
[*Taft served in the Philippines & Cuba, then later as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, a job which
                 when he was asked, he preferred to the job of US president.]
Taft busted twice as many trusts as TR in half the time (90 to TR’s 44)
Standard Oil Trust Case:
Supreme Court’s “rule of reason” in antitrust law (p.684) was handed down in a case involving – Standard Oil
        Co. – used Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 to break up Standard Oil Co. (Rockefeller) – Rockefeller
        actually made more money once forced to break up the monopoly of the holding company called
        Standard Oil – similar to Bill Gates & Microsoft which was totally compared to Rockefeller’s case – but
        TR only went after combinations (trusts) that “unreasonably” restrained trade
The Bull Moose Party/Progressive Party in 1912:
TR – decided to run for President in 1912 b/c – Taft seemed to discard TR’s “my policies” pp.682-686
        *****He said he had not been elected for three terms, so he could run again and not break Washington’s
                 two term tradition – Pres 1st time as McKinley’s VP, so not elected in his own right except 1904
Social Critics of the Progressive Era:
In early 1900s, critics of social injustice included – socialists (like Upton Sinclair & Eugene V. Debs), feminists
        (like Alice Paul & Lucy Burns – suffragettes), & journalists (muckrakers)
Progressive beliefs:
Generally, progressives believed there was too much
        – political corruption, business monopoly, & social injustice
Progressives usually supported such political reform proposals as
        – initiative, referendum, & recall; the Australian (secret) ballot, women’s suffrage, direct election of
             US senators, & campaign spending controls
Early 20th century progressive state governors included (p.669)
        – Hiram W. Johnson (CA), Robert “Battling Bob” La Follete (WS), & Charles Evans Hughes (NY)
Conservationist:
Pres TR & chief forester Gifford Pinchot held conservation ideas of
        – efficient management of resource use & long-term planning for resource use



Ch 30 Wilsonian Progressivism at Home and Abroad, 1912-1916 [12th edition] (Ch 29 in 13th edition)
1912 Election:
1912 Presidential candidates: Woodrow Wilson-Democrat (winner), TR-Progressive/”Bull Moose,”
       William Howard Taft-Republican (1921 appointed Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court),
       Eugene V. Debs-Socialist
1912 election was notable b/c – it gave voters a clear choice of political & economic philosophies
According to textbook, run away philosophical winner in 1912 was – Progressivism
In 1912 presidential election, the incumbent president finished third in balloting (Taft behind Wilson #1-winner,
       then TR #2, with Eugene V. Debs coming in fourth), one party won both the presidency & control of
       Congress (Democrats under Wilson), & the winning candidate attracted less than a majority of the
       popular vote
TR – Progressive/Bull Moose Party:
When Jane Addams nominated TR for President in 1912, – it symbolized the rising political status of women
        {Odd b/c she was a pacifist & anti-imperialist while TR was a jingoist and imperialist of the highest order}
TR’s New Nationalism – supported a broad program of social welfare & gov’t
        p.688 Ex. Consolidation of trusts & labor unions, regulatory agencies, female suffrage, social insurance, min wage
        p.689 TR was shot while delivering a speech & was saved by a thick speech & his glasses’ case & he continued to speak even w/the bullet lodged in side is chest
TR’s New Nationalism platform in 1912 advocated – active role of gov’t in economy & social affairs, federal
       regulatory agencies to control trusts, female suffrage, social-welfare programs like min wage laws &
       social insurance, & consolidation of large trusts & labor unions
TR’s New Nationalism platform in 1912 advocated – active role of gov’t in economy & social affairs, federal
       regulatory agencies to control trusts, female suffrage, social-welfare programs like min wage laws &
       social insurance, & consolidation of large trusts & labor unions
Woodrow Wilson:
Before election as President in 1912, Woodrow Wilson had been – (progressive reform) state governor of NJ
       (Son of a Presbyterian minister & president of Princeton University)
As Gov of New Jersey (Democrat), Woodrow Wilson established a record a s a – passionate reformer
In 1912, Wilson ran for president on Democratic platform including – antitrust legislation, monetary reform,
       tariff reductions, support for small business, What about dollar diplomacy? No, that’s Taft!
Wilson’s New Freedom – favored small enterprise & entrepreneurship
       pp.688-689 Ex. Free functioning, unregulated, un-monopolized markets & no social welfare
                               Not regulation but fragmentation of combinations w/antitrust laws
In 1912, Wilson became the first person born in the South elected to the presidency since before the Civil War
       (Wilson born in VA – grew up in GA & Carolinas) (last Southern president was Zachary Taylor) pp.689-690
       {2nd Democrat since Civil War – other – Grover Cleveland – twice, nonconsecutive}
Wilson was most comfortable surrounded by – academic scholars (rather than politicians) {He was an elitist}
Wilson’s attitude toward the masses can best be described as – having faith in them if they were properly educated
Wilson’s political philosophy included faith in the masses (if properly educated), a belief that the president
       should provide leadership for Congress, a belief that the president should appeal over the heads of
       legislators to the sovereign people (unless it did not suit his needs apparently), a belief in the moral
       essence of politics [just not race relations – segregation], What about scorn for the ideal of
       self-determination for minority peoples in other countries?
As a politician, Wilson was – inflexible & stubborn
Wilson’s “triple wall of privilege” pp.691-693
       Tariff p.691 – 1913 passed w/help of public – also public helped w/income tax above $3,000 annually
       Banks pp.691-692 – Fed Reserve Act 1913 – 12 districts control banks – help w/$ when needed
       Trusts p.692 – Fed Trade Commission Act 1914 – look for unfair business practices
                        Clayton Anti-Trust Act 1914 – strengthened older Sherman Act defining illegalities
                               & made Unions exempt from prosecution
In 1913, Wilson broke custom dating back to Thomas Jefferson when he
       – personally delivered his presidential address to Congress (rather than have it read by a clerk)
When Wilson became President in 1912, the most serious shortcoming in USA’s financial structure was that
       the – currency was inelastic (not enough money for all banks during panic/runs on banks p.691)
Woodrow Wilson showed limits of his progressivism (and extent of his racism) by – accelerating segregation of
       blacks in federal bureaucracy (which had integrated since the Reconstruction period)


Wilson’s early efforts to conduct an anti-imperialist US foreign policy were first undermined when he
       – sent the USMC (United States Marine Corps – “Semer Fi, Do or Die, Gung Ho! – to Haiti)
       (Before that, he had discontinued Taft’s “dollar diplomacy” in Latin America (& China), repealed the
       Panama Canal Toll Acts – so USA had to pay tolls too, which made England happy, promised eventual
       independence to the Philippines & made it an official territory, & built up US forces in Hawaii)
       [US military sent to other places many times before – see p.695 for US in Caribbean & Central America
       Exs. Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Honduras, Mexico – Vera Cruz 1914 & hunting
       Pancho Villa in 1917 – 1917 bought US Virgin Islands from Denmark]
Which term best characterizes Woodrow Wilson’s approach to US foreign policy diplomacy? – moralistic
       (Make sure it is not imperialistic, realistic, balance-of-power, isolationist – although these may be true)
       [“teach Latin America to elect better men”]
Pres Wilson refused to intervene in affairs of Mexico until – US sailors were arrested in the port of Tampico
       (If you are Huerta in Mexico, make sure you give the USA its 21-gun salute despite your pride!)
Before his first term ended, Wilson had militarily intervened in or purchased Haiti, Dominican Republic,
       Virgin Islands, Mexico – Vera Cruz & Villa, What about Cuba under Wilson? No!
       [Although the US basically controlled in economically w/investments & ownership and politically w/Platt Amendment]
Wilson’s administration refused to extend formal diplomatic recognition to gov’t of Mexico headed by
        – Victoriano Huerta
Wilson’s New Freedom platform of 1912 advocated – active role of gov’t in economy & social affairs,
        dissolution of trusts & other forms of business monopoly, & reform of the monetary & banking system
Unlike TR, Woodrow Wilson tended to lack the common touch & he found it difficult to compromise
        (This is why the USA did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles nor join the League of Nations really)
Upon becoming president, Wilson launched an attack on the “triple wall of privilege” which he said included
        – high tariffs, powerful trusts, & conservative banking policies
        [*Not racial discrimination as he was a Southern segregationist bigot despite being “born between the
        Bible and the dictionary and never got far away from either.” Wife was a bigot too, and did not like
        suffragettes. She did function as the President behind closed doors when Wilson suffered from his
        incapacitating stroke – things got his signature, yet the stroke affected his ability to write at the time.]
President Wilson’s attack on monopolistic business combinations led to the
        – Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 – presidential commission appointed to monitor industries
        – & the Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914 – strengthened Sherman Anti-Trust Act, defined illegal
             activities, & exempt labor organizations/unions from prosecution under antitrust laws {as the
             Sherman Act of 1890 had been used many times}
*****Wilson not progressive for civil rights for Af-Am’s nor women’s suffrage until politically pressured to
        stick by his commitment to push for the 19th Amendment granting female suffrage – just after the
        18th Amendment – Volstead Act - Prohibition
Tariff:
Congress passed the Underwood Tariff b/c – Pres Wilson aroused public opinion to support its passage
When Congress passed the Underwood Tariff Bill (1913), it intended legislation to – lower tariffs (p.691)
        (Wilson used public to hold Congress accountable to the original bill which substantially reduced rates)
        (Also allowed for 16th Amendment to kick in the graduated income tax for yearly incomes over $3,000)
Income tax & the IRS:
16th Amendment provided for – a personal (graduated) income tax (for incomes over $3,000 annually) p.691
Federal Reserve System:
Fed Reserve Act of 1913 guaranteed a substantial measure of public control over the US banking system
        through financial authority given to – a presidentially appointed Federal Reserve Board
Fed Reserve Act of 1913 gave the Federal Reserve Board authority to – issue paper $ & increase the amount of
        money in circulation (by printing Federal Reserve Notes – like the ones in your wallet or purse)
        (It can also control/set interest rates)
Trust Busting (Strengthen Sherman Anti-Trust Act):
Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914 – explicitly legalized strikes & peaceful picketing
        ( & exempt labor organizations from antitrust prosecution) p.692
Samuel Gompers (AFL) called the Clayton AntiTrust Act “labor’s Magna Carta” b/c of benefits conferred on
        the working man by the law
Wilson Appoints the First Jew on Supreme Court:
The first Jewish person on the US Supreme Court, appointed by Wilson, was – Louis Brandeis
        (lawyer from Maine who helped argue & win the Muller v. Oregon case of 1908 granting women special consideration in the workplace)
Wilson & World War I:
As WWI began in Europe in 1914, the alliance system placed Germany & Austria-Hungary as leaders of the
       Central Powers, while Russia & France were among the Allies [along w/the British – later the USA in 1917]
From 1914 to 1916, trade b/t the USA & Great Britain – pulled the US economy out of a recession
With the outbreak of WWI in 1914, the great majority of Americans – earnestly hoped to stay out of the war
One primary effect of WWI on the USA was that it – conducted an immense amount of trade w/the Allies
        (It also traded w/Central Powers early on, but not nearly as much – USA loaned massive amounts of $ to Allies)
Pres Wilson insisted that he would hold Germany to “strict accountability” for the loss of American ships and
      lives to (unrestricted) submarine warfare.
        (GB had naval blockade of Central Powers causing shortages, starvation, etc.. – more lethal than U-Boat attacks)
German submarines began sinking unarmed (not always) and unresisting merchant and passenger ships without
        warning – in retaliation for the British naval blockade of Germany
        (GB cut trans-Atlantic cable b/t Germany & USA – why?)
        [Sympathy for Allies attacked by U-Boats – not starving in Germany, etc…]
        The Cunard line passenger ship sunk by a German U-Boat (U-20) on May 7th, 1915 was the Lusitania
                pp.699-700 ~1200 killed, including 128 Americans
                Germany warned passengers not to travel in war zone (p.701) – Lusitania had weapons on board
                {Others sunk after: Arabic (British), then Sussex (French), then the Arabic-Sussex Pledge from
                Germany to stop unrestricted submarine warfare, then others later as Germany saw the loss of
                her advantage to Britain’s naval supremacy above the waves of the Atlantic}
                       [Titanic was sunk in 1912 before the war; her sister ship, Britannic, sank during WWI on
                               duty as a hospital ship and troop carrier]
In the Sussex Pledge, Germany promised – not to sink passenger ships w/out warning
        (but they wanted Wilson to get GB to stop the naval blockade, knowing he could not & he could not)
        [Germany figured it could win the war before the USA could effectively mobilize & affect the war]
        *****U-Boat vulnerabilities & strengths vs. destroyers – loss of stealth can be loss of health
Election of 1916:
Progressive “Bull Moose” Party died when – TR refused to run as the party’s presidential candidate in 1916
When Wilson won reelection in 1916, he received strong support from the – working class
        (As well as West Coast which helped him get elected in 1912)
Progressive Reforms:
Other Acts:
        Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916 – credit to farmers @ low interest rates to stop foreclosures (Populism)
        Warehouse Act of 1916 – loans on staple crops for farmers (Populism)
        Workingmen’s Compensation Act of 1916 – civil service employees to receive compensation for injury
        Jones Act of 1916 – anti-imperial – territorial status & future independence for the Philippines
        Adamson Act of 1916 – RRs – 8 hr day w/overtime for working on trains used for interstate commerce
        Federal Reserve Act of 1913 – Fed Reserve Board to set interest rates, print $, fund banks
                 *Wilson put conservatives on the board to placate/satisfy business in order to get reelected in 1916
12 regional banks created by the Federal Reserve Act were – regulated by the Federal Reserve Board
       (presidentially appointed) & owned by private banks (also authorized to issue “Federal Reserve Notes”
       – no longer their own notes/$ & distribute emergency funds to banks that are in danger of failing b/c of
           a panic or run on the bank)
Flood of progressive legislation during Wilson’s first term included laws to – provide disability assistance to
       civil-service workers (Workingmen’s Compensation Act of 1916), establish 8 hr day for interstate RR
       workers (Adamson Act of 1916), provide credit & low-interest loans to farmers (Fed Farm Loan Act of
       1916), & prohibit false advertising & adulteration of consumer products (Part of the Fed Trade Commission/Act of 1914)
Ch 31 The War to End War, 1917-1918                                       [12th edition] (Ch 30 in 13th edition)
Wilson & World War I:
Pres Wilson broke diplomatic relations w/Germany when – Germany announced it would wage unrestricted
        submarine warfare (sink all ships in the war zone w/out warning) in Atlantic Ocean
        Was the USA forced to war b/c of this?
Zimmerman Note involved a proposed secret agreement b/t – Germany & Mexico
        (Promised to give Mexico back territory lost in the Mexican Cession if Mexico went to war w/USA)
        [Zimmerman used a British cable service to send this note; British intercepted it and gave it to USA]
US declared war on Germany – after German U-Boats sank four unarmed (really?) US merchant vessels
        Was the USA truly neutral in its actions between August 1914 & April 1917?
Pres Wilson persuaded the American people to enter WWI by – pledging a “war to end all wars” & to
        “make the world safe for democracy”
Wilson viewed US entry into WWI as US opportunity to
        – shape new international order based democratic ideals
Wilson’s Fourteen Points:
The following were among Wilson’s 14 Points upon which he based America’s idealistic foreign policy in
        WWI – reduction of armaments, abolition of secret treaties, a new international organization to
        guarantee collective security (League of Nations) (Ex. Poland but not Syria, Iraq, or Palestine),
        & principle of national self-determination for subject peoples,
        What about international religious freedom & toleration?
World War I on the American Home Front & Battlefields:
Major problem of George Creel’s Committee on Public Information was that – he oversold Wilson’s ideals
        which led the world to expect too much from Wilson
        (Propaganda – “Four-Minute Men” speeches)
Civilian administrators & WWI mobilization agencies:
        George Creel – Committee on Public Information
        Herbert Hoover – Food Administration
        Bernard Baruch – War Industries Board
        William Howard Taft – National War Labor Board
When US entered WWI, it was – poorly prepared to leap into the global war [USA’s military ill-prepared]
During WWI, civil liberties in the USA were – denied to many, especially those suspected of disloyalty
        Ex. Eugene V. Debs – Socialist (Ran for Pres)                *All things German were disliked too
*****1919 – 25 race riots Ex. Chicago – rocks thrown at teenage AF-Am boy who drown while swimming,
        accidentally into an all-white beach. Angry blacks retaliated which led to the riot
2 Constitutional amendments adopted in part b/c of wartime influences were the 18th, which dealt w/prohibition,
        and the 19th, which was women’s suffrage.
As a result of their work supporting the war effort, women – finally received the right to vote (nationally)
        - the 19th Amendment
During WWI, the gov’t’s treatment of labor could best be described as – fair
        *inflation nullified wage increases
        *****There were some 6,000 strikes during the war!
2 groups who suffered most from violations of civil liberties during WWI were – German-Americans & social
        radicals (What about Af-Am’s living in the “nadir” of race relations in the USA?)
Labor Issues during World War I:
Strikes & sabotage of Industrial Workers of the World (IWW – “Wobblies” – “I Won’t Works”) during WWI
        were – result of some of worst working conditions in USA p.710
Grievances of labor during & shortly after WWI include – inability to gain right to organize, war-spawned
        inflation, violence against workers by employers, & use of Af-Am’s as strike breakers
        – Ex. East St. Louis 1917 race riots p.711
        What about suppression of the AFL? No, b/c they supported the war effort.
1919 Steel Strike resulted in – a grievous setback crippling steel unions for a decade – into the 1930s
        (Typical pattern – scabs & violence)
African-American Migration during World War I:
Movement of tens of thousands of southern Af-Am’s to the north during WWI resulted in
        – racial violence in the north
        *****1919 saw 25 race riots – the Black “nadir”
Mobilization during WWI:
Most wartime mobilization agencies relied on voluntary compliance to prepare the economy for war.
In an effort to make economic mobilization more efficient during WWI, the federal gov’t took over & operated
         the – RRs (That is like socialization – RRs turned back over to pvt enterprise after the war)
*****Daylight savings time comes from WWI to get more efficient use of daylight hours for production
USA used all of the following methods to support the war effort – forcing some people to buy war bonds,
        having “heatless Mondays” to conserve fuel, seizing enemy merchant vessels trapped in US harbors,
        restricting manufacturing of beer (to conserve wheat), What about using gov’t power extensively to
        regulate the economy?
Financing WWI:
Most $ raised to finance WWI came from – loans from the US public
        – Bonds (2/3rds of total needed – other 1/3rd from taxes)
Would you sail on a concrete ship?:
*USA built some concrete ships for the war, but did not use them. Ex.USS Faith
Conscription:
WWI military draft – generally worked fairly (no substitutes, etc., exemptions for some industries) &
        effectively to provide military manpower (What would Zinn say?)
Those who protested conscription during WWI did so b/c –disliked the idea of compelling a person to serve
Also, conscientious objectors – Ex. Alvin York who was not exempt
What did most Americans think of WWI when the USA first entered the war?:
When the US entered the war in April of 1917, most Americans did not believe that
        – it was necessary to send a large army to Europe
Women in WWI:
WWI – saw women in US forces – US Navy, USMC, (Army?) – volunteers only
African-Americans in WWI:
Af-Am’s were segregated Ex. 369th Harlem Hellfighters, before war 1908 Brownsville, TX, or 1917 Houston
        p.715 & p.719 – caption for 369th – all receive the French Croix de Guerre
Places where US troops fought during WWI:
During WWI, US troops fought in all of the following countries: Russia (Civil War 1918-1920), Belgium (near
        Ypres), Italy, & France, What about Czechoslovakia? Wasn’t a country until after WWI!
2 major battles of WWI in which the USA forces engaged were – St. Mihiel & Meuse-Argonne Offensive
        p.718 Alvin York [Chateau-Thierry & Belleau Wood – USMC too & 2nd battle of the Marne River]
*****Ypres, Verdun, Somme, Gallipoli, Jutland, Tannenburg, etc…
2nd Battle of the Marne (River) was significant b/c it – marked the beginning of a German withdrawal that never
        reversed – used stormtroopers to attempt last offensive – effective shock troops
Impact of Russian Revolution on WWI:
Russia’s withdrawal from WWI in 1918 resulted in – release of thousands of Germans to move to the W Front
        *Revolutions in Russia: October 1917 & Nov-Dec 1917 plus 1918-1920 Civil War & Treaty of Brest-Litovisk
Famous Americans at war:
Supreme military commander of US forces during WWI was – John J “Black Jack” Pershing
        TR jr in both world wars, MacArthur, Marshall Foch-French, Eddie Rickenbacker, Patton, etc…
Contributions of the USA to WWI:
USA’s main contributions to Allied victory in WWI included – foodstuffs, oil, munitions, financial credit (got
        USA in war really), What about battlefield victories? The book says no, but I say yes to a degree.
Make sure you realize the main contributions would not include battlefield victories as far as the test goes – OK
Germans were heavily demoralized by – USA’s unlimited troop reserves (& attitudes)
Treaty conditions for ending the war:
As a condition of ending the war, Wilson demanded that – the German Kaiser, Wilhelm, abdicate
         *Allied armies would remain in Germany until signed treaty – they could not attend negotiation p.722
(neither could Russia) – reparations $33 billion & war-guilt clause, which really made them angry
Chief difference b/t Wilson & parliamentary statesmen at Paris peace table was that Wilson – lacked command
         of a legislative majority at home (election of 1916) p.719
Wilson’s ultimate goal at Paris Conference was to – establish the League of Nations
At Paris Peace Conference, Wilson sought all of the following goals – prevent seizure of territory, a world
         parliament to provide collective security, establish a League of Nations, & destroy the Austrian &
         Russian empires, What about an end to European colonial empires (other than Austria & Russia) in
         Africa & Asia?
Opposition to the League of Nations by many US senators during the Paris Peace Conference – gave Allied
         leaders in Paris a stronger bargaining position (b/c Wilson was weakened by US opposition to the treaty
          & the League, later he was weakened by the stroke he had)
After the Treaty of Versailles had been signed, Wilson – was condemned by both disillusioned liberals &
         frustrated nationalists & imperialists
In USA, most controversial aspect of Treaty of Versailles was – Article X p.723
         This meant alliance with Europe, which went against isolationist (toward Europe) attitudes in USA
         Therefore, USA could be drug into a European war, and it did not like that prospect in general
         Not arms limitations, open diplomacy, permanent US alliance w/France, self-determination of peoples
Initial Republican strategy regarding the Treaty of Versailles was to – delay & amend (change/alter) the treaty
Senate opponents of League of Nations as proposed by Treaty of Versailles argued that it
         –         violated Wilson’s own Fourteen Points Ex. Self-determination challenged in Japan getting
                   Germany’s sphere in China & her possessions in the Pacific p.722
         –         & mandates created in Middle East too
         –         Wilson talks like Christ, and acts like Lloyd George (of England)
         –         At Versailles, foreign leaders commented on Wilson saying, “God has only 10 points”
In Congress, the most reliable support for Wilson’s position on the League of Nations came from Democrats
Senate likely would have accepted US participation in League of Nations if Wilson had – been willing to
         compromise w/League opponents in Congress (such as Henry Cabot Lodge - Republican)
Who was finally most responsible for the Senate defeat of the Treaty of Versailles (for ratification)?
         –         Woodrow Wilson! (Stubborn and unyielding/uncompromising)
Wilson’s call for a “solemn referendum” in 1920 referred to – his belief that presidential election of 1920
         should determine fate of Treaty of Versailles
Republican isolationists successfully turned Warren G. Harding’s 1920 presidential victory into a
         – death sentence for the League of Nations
         (Apparently a death sentence for Harding too who died fairly shortly after coming into the office)
Major weakness of League of Nations was that it – did not include the USA
Pres Wilson’s Fourteen Points included – arms limitation, self-determination (for people in autonomous
         democratic gov’t), freedom of seas, & permanent internal organization (for collective security)
         – [League of Nations]
Pres Wilson’s position at the Paris Peace Conference was weakened by – Republican party victories in 1918
         midterm elections & his failure to appoint a leading Senate Republican (like Lodge) to the conference
         delegation – (No president had ever negotiated a treaty themselves before considering that Congress has
         the power to ratify treaties)
         Wilson was popular outside the USA initially
       He had a stroke while taking the Treaty to the “sovereign people” – wife functioned as president behind closed doors
1920 election:
1920 – Ohio Republican Harding beat Democrat Cox
       – Eugene V. Debs got votes from prison – almost a million!
       [Harding pardoned Debs in 1921 for his prosecution under the Espionage & Sedition Acts]
       (Wilson would not pardon him)
Election of 1920 – indicated public’s exhaustion w/moral idealism & self-sacrifice, was first presidential
         election since passage of women’s suffrage/19th Amendment, was used by Republican isolationists to
         kill the League (of Nations)
         Signaled end of widespread progressive domestic reform activity until later in the 20th century
Harding unclear on League – a League, but not the League (Wilson’s League)
Espionage and Sedition Acts:
Among major targets of wartime Espionage & Sedition Acts were
         –          Industrial Workers of the World (IWW/”Wobblies”), Eugene V. Debs (not a Supreme Court
                    Case but the Socialist), & German Americans
 Espionage Act 1917/Sedition Act 1918 (Sedition is treason.) pp.708-709 – Supreme Court presented in
         textbook as unbiased when ruling in Schenck v. USA in 1919 – can curb speech when “clear and present
         danger” to the nation exists – but who decides – think of US v. Spirit of ’76 b/c it portrayed British
         atrocities, which they did commit during the American Revolution, but as our WWI allies, the truth was
         not acceptable – why? What is so dangerous about the truth in the face of war propaganda?
Inflation and labor discontent in USA during WWI:
During the course of WWI – American prices approximately doubled (bad inflation – leads to black markets)
         Am wages did not double – maybe raised 20% in some cases
         ~6,000 strikes occurred in the USA
         Am farm production increased to feed USA & Allies (led to an early depression for farmers in 1920s)
         Women gained in the workforce – in “women’s work – teaching, typing, switchboard operator,
         secretary, & in some industries – but women and children will always work for less than men – “bread
         winners” – ridiculous thought – women are “bread winners” too – and it is exploitative to use women &
         children or anybody
Similarities of 1790s Alien & Sedition Acts and Espionage & Sedition Acts of the 1910s
Influenza pandemic:
*****1918 Spanish Flu pandemic 500,000 died in USA – 20-40 million died worldwide
John J. Pershing biography:
John J “Black Jack” Pershing – had been at San Juan and Kettle Hills commanding the 10th Cavalry – “Buffalo
         Soldiers” – Af-Am’s; served in Indian conflicts, the Philippines, Cuba, and commanded the US forces
         chasing Pancho Villa in 1916-1917 right before US entry into WWI (1914-1918) in 1917; lost his wife
         and all of his daughters, only his son survived, a horrible fire in their home abroad; jumped several ranks
         to receive the highest rank in the US military since George Washington, a rank no other General has
         achieved since, and commanded the AEF in WWI; at end of war he said that he feared that the Germans
         did not know they were beaten and that the same thing would have to be done again within another 20-
         30 years – he was correct!
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page numbers from The American Pageant 12th edition
p.690 Wilson’s righteous description
p.705 “a hesitant & peace-loving nation”
p.706 caption – sub attack forces Wilson’s hand & neutral trade – Bovine Excrement
         cause of war – munitions vs. $ loaned
         “gang of thieves” vs. “gang of murderers” U-Boats vs. British naval blockade
                  - refers to British harassing US ships vs. U-Boat attacks, but US ships carry war materials to
                       Allies, so how neutral is that? So, Wilson says there was no other choice but war whereas
                       earlier he had said the USA was “too proud to fight”
pp.706-707 Jeanette Rankin (Montana) – first female Congresswomen
         – she along w/51 Representatives & 6 Senators voted no to war
US altruism – war to end wars – make world safe for democracy – or is that “hypocrisy” – ask John Dos Pasos
         – US isolationists or crusaders – no middle ground for the US people – either or – not something
         more moderate than an isolationist or a crusader
(US has been imperialist, conqueror, invader, oppressor, colonizer, revolutionary, plus isolationist & crusader too)
p.707 “Political independence & territorial integrity of all nations” - more rhetorical Bovine Droppings
       14 Points/Commandments? How sacred were they really?
pp.708-709 Espionage & Sedition Acts
p.711 Alice Paul & Lucy Burns (Movie: Iron Jawed Angels) – militant suffragettes
p.711 Margaret Sanger & Birth Control
       – (remember Anthony Comstock and the Comstock Laws aimed at stopping obscene literature including
               birth control info – federal offense to send anything like that through the mail)
p.715 Af-Am’s in US military & USA prior to & during WWI - 369th “Harlem Hellfighters” [p.719 caption]
       Black “nadir” of race relations in the era of Jim Crow America (1896-late 1940s)
p.718 Alvin York
p.718 “US no arsenal of democracy yet”
Ch 30-31 Heroification of Wilson – see Loewen Ch 1, and Zinn Ch 13 & 14
pp.720-722 “Wilson like the mother of a sickly child who sacrifices it for the healthy firstborn.”
       – referring to compromises he had to make – what a lame simile!
Germans mad at Treaty of Versailles – Ex. Reparations led to depression & unemployment w/hyperinflation
       –         Adolf Hitler used this discontent to his advantage – Germans also resented war-guilt clause
                 given that Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia really started the ball rolling on the
                 alliance system that led to WWI.
p.723 Wilson’s wife functioning in many ways as president behind closed doors b/c of his incapacitating stroke


Ch 32 American Life in the “Roaring Twenties,” 1919-1929 (Ch 32 is Ch 31 in the 13th edition)
The Red Scare:
Red Scare or 1919-1920 was provoked by – public’s association of labor violence w/its fear of revolution
Businesspeople used the Red Scare to – break the backs of fledgling unions [claiming all unions were “Red”]
Most tenacious pursuer of “radical” elements during the Red Scare was – (Attorney Gen.) A. Mitchell Palmer
        [*Palmer raids – Sacco & Vanzetti – IWW – Emma Goldman – “Soviet Ark”]
During the Red Scare – hundreds of alien (immigrant) “radicals” were deported from USA, many states passed
        laws making it a crime to advocate violence, several socialists were elected yet denied their seats in NY
        state legislature
        (*labor union membership declined as the 1920s wore on b/c of socialism, communism, anarchism
        associated w/ unions & don’t forget the newly formed USSR, which US troops along w/other Allied
        powers – GB, France, Japan – tried, unsuccessfully, to defeat the Bolshevik communist gov’t of the
        Soviet Union in the 1918-1920 civil war following the Russian Revolution(s) of 1917)
American life entering the 1920s:
Disillusioned by war & peace, Americans in 1920s did not enter a decade of economic difficulties (in general),
        but they did denounce “radical” foreign ideas, condemn “un-American” life-styles, shun (ignore)
        diplomatic commitments to foreign countries, & restricted immigration
KKK revival in 1920s:
Post-WWI Ku Klux Klan (KKK) advocated fundamentalist religion, opposition to birth control, repression of
        pacifists, anti-Catholicism, What about opposition to prohibition?
[KKK - *anti-Semites – anti-African-American/racists – to protect white women – nativists – Not just in South]
KKK – of 1920s was a reaction against – forces of diversity & modernity transforming American culture
        *Harding was sworn into the KKK in the White House                                        Campaign of recruitment
        *Advertising & Kleagling (the Kleagle – clavern leader - collect $10 initiation fee & pocket $4 for yourself) helped increase membership
In the mid-1920s, the KKK turned its invective (Although I can tell from the context, I had to look that up
        – so it means – violent denunciation) against – recent immigrants (xenophobic nativism), Catholics
            (You guys are horrible – at least that what I always tell my wife jokingly of course ), gambling &
            adultery {plus drinking alcohol – I’m sure none of the “rednecks” drank ever – plus radicals,
            Af-Am’s of course – to protect white women, Jews (anti-Semitism), etc… - They sound fun don’t they?}
        - Popular, recruitment, advertising, Kleagling, scandals, crimes – Ex. Murder in Indiana
        - Controlled many local and state politicians – Ex. IA, OR, CA, etc….
        - Harding sworn in as member in the White House – That’s sweet isn’t it? 
Immigration in 1920s:
Immigration restrictions of 1920s were introduced as result of – nativist belief that N. Euro’s were superior to
        S. & E. Euro’s (Social Darwinism)
        - Emergency Quota Act of 1921 – 3% of pop living in USA in 1900 – 1924 cut down to 2% & shifted
                year to 1890 (both of these favored N. Euro’s) & in 1929 the year was shifted to 1920
                         (Those years favored N. Euro’s b/c of when & where immigrants had come from)
        - Immigration Act of 1924 imposed quotas based on nationality w/preference toward N. Euro’s
“Cultural Pluralists” like Horace Kallen and Randolph generally advocated that – immigrants should be able to
        retain their traditional cultures rather than blend into a single American “melting pot”
Immigration quota system adopted in 1920s discriminated directly against – S. & E. Europeans
        *Asians too
Religion of almost all Polish immigrants to USA was – Roman Catholicism
Many Polish peasants learned about USA from – agents from US railroad companies, letters from friends
        & family, agents from steamship lines, Polish-American business people,
        What about Catholic missionaries?
        *Complaint of US Immigration Commission against Polish immigrants was
                – they sent too much $ back home, so $ left USA
Labor unions & struggles:
One of the primary obstacles to working class solidarity & organization in USA was – ethnic diversity
Prohibition & Organized Crime (Mafia):
Enforcement of the Volstead Act (18th Amendment) met strongest resistance from – Eastern city dwellers
Most Americans assumed that prohibition – would be permanent
Most spectacular example of lawlessness & gangsterism in the 1920s was – Chicago (Al Capone)
        *Lots of gangsters in prohibition in many cities across the country – not just Chicago
“Noble experiment” of prohibition
        – was a complete failure (multiple reasons) & it encouraged (aided) organize crime & gang warfare
        *anti-immigrant & Eastern cities did not like it either
        *Drinking decreased, but it was more popular – people flaunted the law – pushed for by minority
        *speakeasies, bootlegging, moonshine, rum runners, Canada, Mexico –TJ, Kennedy, Others
        *Mabel Walker Wilibrant
        *Treasury Dept responsible
        *Chicago – Capone – St. Valentine’s Day 1929 – “Chicago Typewriter” – Drive-By shootings
American education in 1920s:
John Dewey can rightly be called the “father of progressive education.”
According to John Dewey, a teacher’s primary goal is to – educate a student for life
Progressive efficiency in business:
Frederick Taylor – scientific management
Frederick Taylor – prominent inventor & engineer – best known for
        – promotion of industrial efficiency & scientific management of factories, etc…
Scopes Monkey Trial:
John T. Scopes, Clarence Darrow, William Jennings Bryan, & Dayton, TN – 1925 Scopes “Monkey” Trial
Trial of John T. Scopes in 1925 centered on issue of – teaching evolution in public schools
After Scopes “Monkey” Trial – fundamentalist religion remained a vibrant force in Am spiritual life
Prosperity for some, poverty for others during the 1920s:
1920’s prosperity was helped by – rapid exchange of (post-war) capital, increased productivity of workers,
        perfection of assembly-line production [Scientific Management meets Progressive Efficiency],
        advertising & credit/installment buying,
        What about gov’t stimulation of the economy?
        (What would Zinn say about this? Ex. Tax breaks & mellon)
As Sec of Treasury, Andrew Mellon (one of the richest men in USA) placed the tax burden on
        – middle income groups (the middle class)
        Ex. Earn $1 million in one year in 1921, get taxed $663,000 (66.3%)
                Earn $1 million in 1926, get taxed $200,000 (20%) (graduated tax should be make more, get taxed more)
       [“Trickle Down” economical approach – Rich dig it obviously!]
       (*During Mellon’s long tenure as Sec of Treasury – for Harding, Coolidge, & Hoover – his policies –
       lowered the national debt – however – Laissez-Faire (unregulated policies for business) pro-business
       economics led to Depression)
Most innovative features of jazz age economy included – mass advertising & installment/credit buying
       *****not stock market – although it could be an answer too I think
Buying on the installment plan (credit):
The prosperity that developed in 1920s – was accompanied by a cloud of consumer debit (credit/installment)
Overproduction means USA needs new markets:
Main problem faced by Am manufacturers in 1920s involved
        – developing expanded markets of people to buy their products
Was Jesus Christ the best advertising man ever?:
Bruce Barton’s The Man Nobody Knows expressed great admiration for Jesus Christ b/c
        – (Barton believed that) Jesus was the best Ad-man (advertising man) ever
Sports in the 1920s:
Among major figures promoted by mass media image makers & the new “sports industry” in 1920s
        - Babe Ruth & Jack Dempsey (there were many others too – too many to list here)
Ford’s Model T & the assembly line make cars affordable & impact the 1920s:
Henry Ford’s contribution to automobile industry was – relatively cheap automobiles (w/good reliability & road clearance)
        *Ford - $5 per day wage, strikes, anti-Semitism, “goon squad,” prohibitionist, tinkerer/engineer,
        efficient use of assembly line in automotive industry, Model T every 10 seconds, black paint – why?
Industries that prospered mightily w/widespread use of the automobile included – rubber, highway construction
        (1920s-today) (& paint for highways & signs), oil, glass, motels (newly appearing to meet the needs of
        drivers and families on vacation), billboards (for advertising), camping, etc….
        What about aluminum? (not really used in automotive construction that early in the industry)
Automotive revolution resulted in – consolidation of schools, spread of suburbs, loss of population in less
        attractive states, altered youthful sexual behavior (Ex. “struggle buggy” – see 1920’s Jazz Age Slang)
        What about an increased dependence of women on men?
Mass production of automobiles in 1920s led to growth of petroleum industry (oil, gas, etc…), suburban
        communities (sprawl farther away from the cities), installment/credit buying (another reason Ford paid
        his workers $5 a day – so they could buy Model T’s, later Model A’s as of 1927 – choice of colors
        – not just black), life-style changes (“Keeping up with the Jones” – neighbors who have the newest stuff,
        so you gotta to have it too! Plus dating in cars, going to movies, going to speakeasies, dancing “the
        Charleston”, dance marathons, college football, baseball, racing, boxing, etc…all facilitated easier with
        the new mobility of average Americans) * Plus motels, gas stations, camping, billboards, highway
        construction, etc… [*Model T’s had good road clearance – why?]
“Lucky Lindy”:
Charles Lindbergh’s solo flight across the Atlantic made him an American (worldwide) hero especially b/c
        – his wholesome youthfulness contrasted w/cynicism & debunking of the jazz age of the 1920s
        *1932 Kidnapping – sad story – not so lucky
Radio & Movies in 1920s:
First “talkie” movie/motion picture was – The Jazz Singer (1927 starring Al Jolson)
Advent of radio & motion pictures – resulted in – much of rich diversity of immigrant culture was lost
        *Radio & movies homogenized culture & accents for many people in USA
*Radio “soap-operas” sponsored by detergent companies – so “soap operas”
Radio impacted popular culture reaching people nationwide with popular programs like “Amos and Andy” –
two white men pretending to be black men – racist by today’s standards, but very popular back then
Popular culture of 1920s:
Automobiles, radios, & motion pictures – contributed to the standardization of American life (popular culture)
Demographic changes of 1920s:
1920 census revealed for first time that most – Americans lived in cities (not in rural areas)
Margaret Sanger (see review session #3 notes for more on her):
Margaret Sanger – was most noted for her advocacy of – birth control
       *****Remember she took on Anthony Comstock & Comstock Laws to give out birth control info
Working women in 1920s:
Job opportunities for women in 1920s – tended to cluster in a few low-paying fields
       (Ex. Typists, secretaries, teachers, etc… - middle class, working class women – lower classes still in factories, etc…)
Freud, sex, & America in the 1920s:
To justify their new sexual frankness (boldness), many Americans pointed to – theories of Sigmund Freud
        - It’s all about sexual repression, the Ego, Superego, & Id, plus anal retentiveness vs. oral fixation
Music – Jazz – 1920s – Harlem:
Jazz music was developed by – African-Americans (THANK GOD!)
Marcus Garvey (Jamaican born “Mon”) – founded the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)
        – is best known for promoting resettlement of African-Americans in Africa (“Back to Africa”
        movement), cultivating feelings of self-confidence & self-reliance among Af-Am’s (instilled pride in
        African heritage), being sent to prison for fraud, promoting black-owned business (Ex. Black Star line
        shipping co. – like White Star line)
        Who championed the idea of the “Talented Tenth” and edited The Crisis for the NAACP? Du Bois
        [*He influenced the future development of the Nation of Islam (Black Muslims in America)]
Prominent African-American cultural figures of the 1920s:
        Joseph “King” Oliver, “Jelly Roll” Morton, Langston Hughes, WC Handy, (Zora Neale Hurston,
        James Weldon Johnson, A. Philip Randolph – Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters union (mostly
        Af-Am’s & some whites), Claude McKay, Bessie Smith, Countee Cullen, Paul Robeson,
        “Duke” Ellington, Cab Calloway, Louis Armstrong, Josephine Baker, the Cotton Club, etc…
        - none of these are in our book, but they are in the prep textbook)
1920’s literature:
Literary figures:
       Ernest Hemingway – The Sun Also Rises (also - A Farewell to Arms)
       F. Scott Fitzgerald – The Great Gatsby
       Sinclair Lewis – Main Street (also – Babbitt)
       William Faulkner – The Sound of Fury
Buy stocks on “margin” (credit):
Buying stock “on margin” meant – purchasing it w/a small down-payment (no regulation of stock market)
        *****Up to 90% margin – great if you always profit, but what if you don’t and your margin is called?
My son is cute:
l nhyj jyhjhyuhjyuhjjjjjjj – by Joshua Wesley Parker (age 2)
(This is Wesley’s (my almost two-year old son) contribution to your study guide – you will be tested on the
exact sequence, which you must know perfectly for an “A” on the exam – not even – just ignore it)
1920’s intolerance:
Post-war anxiety & intolerance of USA in 1920s was manifested in – the Sacco & Vanzetti case, the Scopes
        trial, the resurgence of the KKK (1915 Birth of a Nation movie by D. W. Griffith), Immigration Act of
        1924, deportation of radicals to Russia (Red Scare/Palmer Raids/”Soviet Ark”)
                  I had a great class on the 1920s taught by Prof. Jill Watts at CSUSM that had a paper
                 deciding whether the USA of the 1920s became more tolerant or less tolerant – it was one of
                 3 papers total for your grade – no tests – just 3 very important papers
Time-saving devices in 1920s:
{*Time-saving devices for consumers & electric appliances were typical products for purchase on credit}
***** I always say the 1920s are very similar to the time we live in today in many ways.
1920s Notes:
Racism – Jim Crow 1919 - 25 race riots Ex. Chicago, East St. Louis, etc…
1921 Tulsa, OK (race riot)
1922 Rosewood, Florida 9race riot)
others in Houston, Atlanta, Wilmington, NC, etc….
NAACP – Charles Hamilton Houston – lawyer
pp.728-730 Red Scare
p.730 KKK – America’s cowardly apostles
p.730 Sacco & Vanzetti
pp.730-731 Immigration Quotas
pp.732, 733, & 736 Prohibition
pp.734-735 Polish-Americans
pp.736-737 Gangsters
pp.737-738 Education in 1920s & Scopes “Monkey” Trial
pp.738-739 Consumerism & Advertising       Sports
{Ex. Babe Ruth was asked about making more money than the president in one year. He replied, “I had a better year than he did.”}
pp.739-742 Ford, cars, etc… {competition like GM, Chevrolet, Buick, etc…}
*1920’s jazz age slang
pp.742-743 Airplanes (airlines – new word) (Barnstormers, Air Mail, Charles Lindbergh)
pp.743-744 Radio
pp.744-745 Hollywood (silent replaced by “talkies” – lots of stars w/foreign accents lost jobs)
Movie stars – Al Jolson, Valentino, Clara Bow, Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin, Harold Lloyd, Laurel & Hardy, etc…
pp.745-748 “sex-o’clock in America,” Margret Sanger, women, jazz, flappers, rakes, vamps, Garvey, Alice Paul
(Lucy Burns), [Carrie Chapman Catt], God, fundamentalism vs. accomodationists/modernists, “chummy place”
pp.749-751 HL Mencken – quote on Puritanism p.749 – Read it!, Fitzgerald, Drieser, Hemingway – “shotgun’ –
does this need to be in the book?, Anderson, Lewis, Faulkner, Pound, Eliot, Frost, Cummings, O’Neill
(Af-Am’s - McKay, Hughes, Hurston, Armstrong, Blake), Frank Lloyd Wright – architect
“Harlem Renaissance” – “New Negro”
pp.751-752 Wall Street – speculation – margin – inflated values – [no regulation]


Ch 33 The Politics of Boom and Bust, 1920-1932 (Ch 33 is Ch 32 in the 13th edition)
“A return to normalcy”:
Warren G. Harding’s weakness as President included - mediocre mind (that is harsh), inability to detect moral
       weakness in his associates p.753 *Washington could not tell a lie (BS – he lied often actually,
       particularly about the state of his forces) while Harding couldn’t tell a liar (which may have been true),
       unwillingness to hurt people’s feelings by saying no (except he cheated on his wife, had a child w/his
       mistress, and it was speculated by some that his wife poisoned him for it), & administrative weakness
       (but he had a good cabinet really), What about lack of political experience (for the career Ohio politician)?
       *”Normalcy” as in his famous line to return the country to “normalcy” uses a word that does not exist
       *Ohio Gang – his cronies – many were corrupt like Albert Fall (his Sec of the Interior – national forests
               & parks fall under jurisdiction – Teapot Dome scandal for USN naval reserves in CA & WY)
       *He took reporters to speakeasies to discuss politics during the early years of prohibition
Harding’s cabinet:
       Charles Evans Hughes – naval arms limitations (probably avoided an Anglo-American naval confrontation in Atlantic)
       Andrew Mellon – taxes & tariffs
       Herbert Hoover – foreign trade & trade associations
       Albert Fall – naval oil reserves (Teapot Dome scandal)
       Harry Daugherty – justice & law enforcement
Teapot Dome & other scandals:
Teapot Dome scandal involved the corrupt mishandling of naval oil reserves
       (Albert Fall Sec of Interior got USN to sign over oil reserves to Dept of Interior, then he sold them to
       2 oil corp’s & made $ - then he got busted!)
Major political scandal of Harding’s administration resulted in the conviction & imprisonment of his
        - secretary of the interior (Albert Fall)
Albert Fall (Sec of Interior) proved to be incompetent & corrupt – Teapot Dome scandal
After initial shock of the scandals during Harding’s administration, many Americans reacted by – excusing
        some wrong-doers on the grounds that “they had gotten away with it.” (Upset at prosecutors instead)
Business & Republican presidents in the 1920s – Laissez-Faire:
Republican economic policies under Harding – hoped (and did) encourage that gov’t actively assist business
        along the path of profits (to make $$$$$$$$)
Every president was Republican in 1920s, and they all enacted laissez-faire except for high protective tariffs
        and tax breaks for the rich
Progressive reforms take a hit during the 1920s from the Supreme Court:
During 1920s, the Supreme Court – often ruled against progressive legislation (passed earlier)
Organized labor struggles:
Organized labor – was (were) adversely affected by demobilization (from the war) policies adopted by the
       Federal Gov’t at end of WWI
Supreme Court rules on women in the workplace:
Supreme Court cases of Muller (special protections for women in the workplace in Muller v. Oregon 1908
       pp.670-671) and Adkins (Adkins v. Children’s Hospital 1923 reversed Muller v. Oregon p.755) centered
       on – question of whether women merited special legal & social treatment
       (1908 said yes, but 1923 said no)
Lasting gains of WWI:
Non-business group that realized most significant, lasting gains from WWI was – veterans (of armed forces)
Harding’s foreign policy:
One exception to Pres Harding’s policy of isolationism (toward European affairs) involved the Middle East
        (Southwest Asia to be less Eurocentric), where the USA sought to – secure oil-drilling concessions for
        US companies (*Oil is key after & b/c of WWI)
Harding was willing to seize the initiative on issue of international disarmament b/c
        – businesspeople were not willing to help pay for a larger US Navy
Outlaw war – really?:
1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact – outlawed war as solution to international rivalry
         Unless of course it is a “defensive” war – then it’s OK
        “Men of conscious always ply their wars to be defensive.” I wish I could remember who said this, but
                 it’s true - I think I read it in Zinn or Loewen? If you find it, please let me know - Thanks
        *Other treaties & arms reductions/limitations Ex. 5:5:3 ratio for capital ships for USA, GB, & Japan
                 but Japan could fortify Pacific islands, while USA & GB were not supposed to – future problem?
High protective tariffs to help big business:
In 1920s, Fordney-McCumber Tariff raised tariff rates, and the Hawley-Smoot Tariff raised tariff rates, so that
        by 1930, the tariff rates had been substantially raised from the opening of the decade (of the 1920s).
        *High tariffs again – helped USA for a while, upset world especially former Allies making it hard for
                 those countries to repay war debts – all of this contributed to the Depression
Consequences of US policy of raising tariffs sky-high in the 1920s – European nations raised their own tariffs
        (in retaliation), post-war chaos in Europe was prolonged (see war debts above), economic distress
        deepened internationally, US foreign trade declined (*Europe couldn’t repay war debt this way
        ultimately), What about the US economy slipping into a recession in the 1920s? Not!
“Silent Cal” was “weaned on a pickle”:
Calvin Coolidge
        – “Silent Cal” – a woman at a social event sat next to him once and said she would bet him that she
                 could get him to say more than two words during the evening. He replied, “You lose.”
        - It was said that he looked like he was “weaned on a pickle” (weaning is when an infant stops nursing)
        - He never missed a photo opportunity to dress up like a cowboy or an Indian – ridiculous
        - He was honest, frugal (look it up), shy, & cautious
       -    His father was a Justice of the Peace who swore him into office by candle light at their home on the
            family Bible upon Harding’s death
        - Gov of Massachusetts – broke Boston Police Strike of 1919 – used National Guard – this is how he
            got the VP for Harding – He said of the striking police (who really deserved better condition, which
            they later won by the way), “There is no right to strike against the public safety by anyone,
            anywhere, anytime.”
During Coolidge’s presidency, gov’t policy was set largely by interests & values of – the business community
        Republican economic policy of 1920s – Laissez-Faire (hands-off, unregulated economy for max profits)
                Ex. Political cartoon of him playing music for the flapper (big business)
“Depressed” farmers & the help they don’t really get:
One of the major problems facing farmers in 1920s was – overproduction (debt for machinery, etc. to overproduce)
In mid-1920s, Pres Coolidge twice refused to sign legislation proposing to – subsidize farm prices
        (He said, “Farmers have always been poor. I don’t really see what we can do about that.”)
                {By the way, Coolidge was a farmer before he was a politician}
Two attempts to help farmers & labor:
The intended beneficiaries of the McNary-Haugen Bill were farmers; the intended beneficiaries of the
        Norris-LaGuardia Act were labor unions.
                McNary-Haugen Bill – Gov’t to buy surplus crops to stabilize prices (1924-1928) p.761
                Norris-LaGuardia Act 1932 – Anti-Injunction Act – no “yellow-dog” antiunion contracts &
                                               no injunctions to restrain peaceful labor strikes, etc… p.772
Prohibition “splits”:
“Splits” that did not affect the Democratic Party – “wets” vs. “drys,” immigrants vs. old stock Americans,
        fundamentalists vs. modernists, N liberals vs. S conservatives, What about urbanites vs. suburbanites?
Senator “Bob” LaFollette:
Wisconsin Sen Robert “Battling Bob” La Follette’s Progressive Party advocated
        – gov’t ownership of RRs, relief for farmers (he was from WS), opposition to anti-labor injunctions,
                & opposition to monopolies
        What about increased power of the Supreme Court?
        No – b/c they felt the Sup Crt circumvented Congressional authority w/legal interpretations & judicial
                review in favor of business – which was true according to Zinn & other historians
Progressive Party of 1920s:
Progressive Party did not do well in 1924 election b/c
        – too many people shared in prosperity to care about reform
            (Zinn would say just enough people were prosperous enough – barely – to not seek reform)
Shame on the Democrats:
In 1924, Democratic Party convention failed by a single vote to adopt a resolution condemning – the KKK
US interventions in Latin America during 1920s:
In early 1920s, one glaring exception to America’s general indifference to outside world was its
        – armed interventions in the Caribbean & Central America (Ex. Haiti & Nicaragua)
            (Even China w/ “Gun Boat Diplomacy”)
            (Ex. Movie w/Steve McQueen set in 1926 made in 1962 called The Sand Pebbles)
“They hired the money didn’t they?”:
America’s European allies argued that they should not have to repay loans to the USA made to them during
        WWI b/c – they had paid a much heavier price in lives lost, so it was only fair that the USA write off
        their debts (only Finland repaid their debts – what they still owed as of 1976 was exempted the US) p.764
        {Plus USA made $$$$ off of the war big time – Ex. Farmers, munitions makers, etc….}
        (Coolidge said, “They hired the money didn’t they?”)
As a result of America’s insistence that its allies’ war debts be paid in full, - the French & the British demanded
        enormous reparations payments from Germany (which led to the outrageous hyper-inflation in post-war
        Germany - Ex. One mark was equal to 25 cents – In Berlin, it cost one mark for a loaf of bread in 1918;
        by 1922 a loaf cost 160 marks, by 1923, a loaf cost 200 billion marks – paper money was worthless)
America’s major foreign policy problem in 1920s was addressed by Dawes Plan, which
       – provided a solution to the tangle of war debt & war-reparations payments
*USA loaned $ to Germany to be repaid w/$ from allies paid by Germany to stimulate the world economy
Why not elect Al Smith in 1928?:
Most colorful presidential candidate of 1920s was – Alfred E. Smith (“wet” Catholic from NYC’s Lower East Side)

Political liabilities for Alfred E. Smith in 1928 election – Catholic, “wet” – repeal prohibition, big city
        background (NYC’s Lower East Side), radio speaking skill – NYC accent not good on national radio
        *Example of radio & movie stars & even politicians needing to loose their hard accents & homogenize it
Why elect Herbert Hoover in 1928?:
One of Herbert Hoover’s chief strengths as a presidential candidate was his – talent for administration
        *not a give & take type, no experience really as a politician, not charming to the masses,
                 not thick-skinned like most politicians, he was affectionately known as “the chief” to his people
When elected to presidency in 1928, Hoover – combined small-town values (Iowa, Quaker) w/wide experience
        (abroad and) in modern corporate America (an orphan “rags to riches” story like a Horatio Alger novel)
Some help for farmers:
Federal Farm Board, created by Agricultural Marketing Act (June 1929 – before October Crash), lent $ to
        farmers primarily to help them to – organize producers’ cooperatives (to produce & to buy surplus to store)
The evil Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930 makes the world-wide Depression much worse!:
As result of Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930 – World wide Depression deepened
        p.767 * bill altered to contain 1000 amendments – raised tariff to almost 60% from 38.5% - already high
        (Other countries responded by raising high tariffs against US goods in reprisal)
The Depression Sucks!:
In USA, Depression caused – a decade long decline in birth rate
        *people blamed themselves – not the system, decrease in foreign investments, caused by
                                                over-everything – production, speculation, credit consumerism
Hoover’s ideas & actions about how to solve the Depression:
Pres Hoover believed Depression could be ended by
        – directly assisting banks & businesses, keep faith in efficiency of the industrial system, encourage
             continuing to rely on American tradition of rugged individualism, lending federal $ to feed farm
             livestock (*but no welfare by fed gov’t – a hand out – “the dole” – made people lose respect for
             themselves he thought – he relied on volunteerism in charity/relief for the poor & unemployed & for
             businesses to not cut wages, reduce production, or lay off workers – it didn’t really work –
             volunteerism had worked for him when he raised relief for the Belgians in WWI to feed them, so he
             thought it could work – by keeping people employed w/out wage cuts would keep people
             consuming, which would help the economy – the Depression was really too big a problem for
             anyone to fix – it took WWII to really fix it, although the New Deal helped)
****Gov’t welfare to businesses & banks apparently was OK & did not make the corporations feel any less
        about themselves for living “on the dole” receiving gov’t assistance or “hand outs” if you prefer
                 *So people receive direct assistance, no way; but businesses, sure!
Pres Hoover’s approach to the Great Depression was to provide aid to business & local gov’ts was the
        - the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
        - RFC used “trickle down” idea – welfare/gov’t assistance to big business & banks & gov’ts – then it
             “trickles down’ to people – but this approach was not sufficient enough – yet FDR will have his own
             version of the RFC in the New Deal – one of many “alphabet agencies” like the TVA, AAA, NRA,
             CCC, FDIC, WPA, PWA, HOLC, FWP, etc…
The Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) was established to
                                                – make loans to businesses, banks, state & local governments
Pres Hoover supported following anti-depression measures – (like Prozac & Alcohol ) – including
        federal gov’t loans to banks, corporations, & local and/or state gov’ts & federal public works projects
        (which FDR has in his New Deal – Hoover actually did quite a bit – he tried as best he thought he
        should – FDR used a lot of Hoover’s ideas which were in his New Deal) Ex’s. Boulder Dam – now
        Hoover Dam – but he was hated so much it was Boulder Dam for years – Lake Meade right – on
       Colorado River near Laughlin, NV – dams built by FDR’s New Deal created Lake Powell – which some
       people like, others did/do not thinking it’s a terrible environmental tragedy


Hoover’s big mistake regarding the Bonus Army:
The Bonus Expeditionary Force (The Bonus Army) marched on Washington DC (peacefully) in 1932 to
        demand – immediate, full payment of their bonus payment, which was promised to WWI vets
        (not due until 1945) (they wanted now - immediately – 1932 – when it could help, while they needed it)
        *Shameful event as Hoover ordered Gen MacArthur (w/aid Eisenhower & officers including Patton) to
        clear them out of abandoned gov’t buildings & MacArthur exceeded his orders when he pushed on the
        Anacostia Flats where they were in a “Hooverville” (shanty town) & attacked it w/tear gases, cavalry,
        tanks, & bayonets – some deaths & many injuries – hurt Hoover – one man sent him a letter saying
        “Vote for FDR and make it unanimous.” – FDR heard of the incident and said, “This elects me.” – our
        book has little sympathy for the marchers (unemployed vets suffering from the Depression) when it
        refers to them as a health hazard on p.774 Later when FDR faced a similar smaller version of a
        Bonus Army when he was president, he met them, gave them food & shelter and played the masterful
        politician, so they liked him, unlike Hoover, the great scapegoat of the Depression
Pres Hoover’s public image was severely damaged by his – handling of the dispersal of the Bonus Army (see above)
Japan invades Manchuria in 1931, and the League of Nations does nothing:
In response to League of Nations investigation into Japan’s invasion of Manchuria in 1931
        – Japan left the League, and the League couldn’t do “Jack” about it!
        (*The League did hardly anything when Italy rolled into Ethiopia in 1935 – sanctions
                                – but not the key one on oil that would have halted the invasion & conquest)
                *Japan closed the “Open Door” in the parts of China it controlled, which the USA & western
                                                                             European nations did not like at all
US hypocrisy regarding “acquired” territories:
1932 Stimson doctrine – declared US would not recognize any territorial acquisition achieved by force of arms
       (Except – the American colonies, the Mexican Cession, Texas, Hawaii, pretty much most of the British Empire, etc…)
US Commerce Department & “planned obsolescence”:
In 1920s, the US Commerce Department under Herbert Hoover encouraged creation of trade associations to
        – promote standardization of products
        – (1920’s concept w/ us today called “planned obsolescence” – relatively cheap consumer goods will
            break & or be replaced w/better model to keep you consuming!) & to help business combat labor
            unions (w/ the alternative trade associations)
Washington (Naval) Conference:
At 1921-1922 Washington Conference, major signatories agreed to
        – limit size of naval fleets & preserve the status quo in the Pacific (in terms of military power in order
            to avoid war) (Ex. 5:5:3 ratio for USA, GB, & Japan – but Japan could fortify its Pacific islands
            while the USA & GB were not supposed to – we paid for this in WWII)
        [*USA vs. Japan in Pacific began very quickly as Japan wanted to be supreme imperialist power in Asia
        & Pacific – not USA & Western powers – forced open to modernization in 1853 by Com. Perry’s fleet,
        Japan was so industrialized it beat Russia in 1905 & kicked butt in Pacific in beginning of WWII – all in
        less than 100 years development – quite the astounding feat)]
Officials of scandals during Harding’s administration:
The high gov’t officials involved in scandals during the Harding administration included
        – Charles Forbes – Veterans Bureau scandal, Albert Fall – Teapot Dome scandal, &
            Harry Daugherty – Attorney General – sold pardons & liquor permits (during prohibition) p.759
Causes of the Great Depression:
Causes of Great Depression included – agricultural overproduction & debt, unequal distribution of wealth,
        overextension of credit, anemic foreign trade, & economic troubles in Europe
         OVERPRODUCTION
                 CONSUMPTION ON CREDIT/INSTALLMENT/MARGIN
                        OVERSPECULATION (based on lies/misrepresentations of stock values)
General notes:
Harding – speakeasies - reporters
pp.753-754 Harding inept, scanty of mental furnishings, chubby-faced Hoover, harsh?
pp.754-755 Harding & Republicans help big business Ex. w/courts
                                                     Ex. 4 out of 9 Sup Crt justices appointed by Harding
pp.755-756 RRs, shipping, 1919 strike, Veterans win Bonus (for 1945)
pp.756-758 Treaty of Versailles, League of Nations w/out USA, Oil in Middle East, Disarmament (5:5:3)
                                      – (Avoid potential Anglo-American Naval War of late 1920s or 1930s)
p.758 Tariff hike – hurt Europe – can’t repay loans easily
pp.758-759 Harding’s administration’s scandals
pp.759-760 Coolidge (Police strike of 1919 – “Weaned on a Pickle”)
               [“I choose not to run again in 1928.” – Did he really mean it – didn’t matter – Rep’s had Hoover]
pp.760-761 Farmers – Coolidge says always been poor
pp.761-762 1924 election
pp.762-763 US Foreign Policy – Latin America – war debts unpaid by Europeans
pp.763-764 Debts – pay back – Dawes Plan for Germany & allies to repay reparations & debts
pp.764-766 Hoover wins in 1928 – chubby faced again – what’s up w/disrespecting him for no apparent reason?
pp.766-767 Hoover tries to help farmers
pp.766-767 Hawley-Smoot Tariff @ 60% - helped lead to Depression
pp.767-769 Crash & Effects
pp.769-770 Causes of Depression & effects of “Hoovervilles”          [“Hoover blankets” “Hoover flags” “Hoover Hotels”]
pp.770-772 Hoover helps from top down
p.772 Hoover’s public works & RFC [“prime the pump”]
       1932 Norris-LaGuardia Anti-Injunction Act
p.773 Hoover & Political Cartoons (What would Davidson & Lytle say?)
p.774 Bonus Army – no sympathy – a health menace?
pp.774-775 Japan – Manchuria 1931 – League’s actions/inactions – Japan quits – could stop them? Maybe?
pp.775-776 Economic imperialism – dying in Latin America – now – the “Good Neighbor Policy”
       Ex. US out of Haiti & Nicaragua (for now)



Ch 34 The Great Depression and the New Deal, 1933-1939 (Ch 34 is Ch 33 in the 13th edition)
FDR – “The lion and the fox”:
Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s (FDR’s) affliction w/infantile paralysis (polio) contributed the most to his
       development of compassion & strength of will {* story of dragging himself across floor}
Before he was elected Pres in 1932, FDR had already – served as Gov of NY, run for VP (w/Alfred Smith in
       1928?), & been Assistant Sec of Navy (just like his 5th cousin TR)
FDR’s qualities as a leader included – decisiveness, great orator/speaker, optimistic, inclined to action based on
       intuition, willingness to experiment {charming, charismatic & a true politician}
               Ex. Of political cartoon with a sick Uncle Sam visited by Dr. Roosevelt holding his doctor’s bag
               labeled “New Deal Remedies” accompanied by his nurse, Congress, (making a house call as
               doctors did back then) with several medicines on the table next to the patient labeled with the
               various “alphabet agencies” – PWA, WPA, AAA, CCC, FERA, NRA, TVA, FHA, HOLC,
               FDIC, NLRB, etc…. The caption reads, “Of course we may have to change remedies if we don’t
               get results.” [p.506 in The Americans]
*** FDR married 5th cousin, Eleanor Roosevelt Roosevelt – born NY Knickerbocker – rich – like TR
       Infantile paralysis (polio) in 1921 – Mistress – Warm Springs, GA – Eleanor’s political savvy & his best
       political ally – Her column “My Day” & Activism – “The conscience of the New Deal” – DAR/Lincoln
       Memorial/Marian Anderson – Bessie Truman’s following Eleanor
FDR’s greatest strength:
Most vigorous “champion of the dispossessed” – that is, the poor & minorities – in FDR’s administration was
       – Eleanor Roosevelt (5th cousin to FDR, niece of TR)


1932 election:
Democratic platform of which FDR campaigned for presidency in 1932 called for – a balanced budget
In 1932, FDR campaigned on the promise that as president he would attack the Great Depression by
       – experimenting w/bold new programs for economic & social reform
One striking new feature of 1932 presidential election results was that
       – (many) Af-Am’s shifted from Republican allegiance & became vital element in the Democratic Party
FDR’s First Hundred Days:
Phrase “Hundred Days” (1st New Deal – mostly relief & recovery) refers to
       – the first (~3) months of FDR’s (1st) presidency
                3 waves of legislation (1st, 2nd, & 3rd New Deals – 1st New Deal began in March 1933)
*FDR’s Fireside Chats – 1st was to explain “Bank Holiday” – closed banks to reopen w/gov’t support to keep
       from failing & get people to put their money back in banks to get economy going again
While FDR assumed presidency in early (March) 1933, Herbert Hoover tried to get the president-elect to
       commit to – an anti-inflationary policy that would have made much of the New Deal impossible
When FDR assumed the presidency in early (March) 1933, - he received unprecedented congressional support
       (Which is why he got so many New Deal laws passed)
The New Deal:
The Works Progress Administration (WPA) was a major relief program of the New Deal; the Public Works
       Administration was a long-range recovery program; & the Social Security Act was a major reform.
       * The 3 R’s: Relief, Recovery, & Reform – the goals of the New Deal – see charts on p.781 & p.784
       WPA (1935) – Quickly provide jobs to as many people as possible – from construction to symphony
       PWA (1933) – Create jobs on gov’t projects increasing workers’ buying power & stimulate the economy
               Ex. Grand Coulee Dam on Columbia River in Washington state near Oregon border (p.788)
       Social Security Act (1935) – Provided pension for retired workers & their spouses & aided people w/disabilities
Glass-Steagall Act – created Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) to insure individual bank deposits
       Ex. In 1933 insured individual deposits up to $5,000 today I think it’s up to $200,000 individually
       * Fireside Chats – 1st was about the “Bank Holiday” to reopen stable banks & convince people to
                                                      deposit their $ in bank again – popular & it worked
Most immediate emergency facing FDR when he became president in March 1933 was
       – the collapse of international trade
       – Was none of the following: the chaotic banking situation w/”runs” & closures, the national debt, the
           farm crisis, or demagogic dissenters like Huey Long, Francis Townsend, or Father Coughlin
FDR’s initial “managed currency” policy aimed to – stimulate inflation (p.783)
       Why? To relieve debtors’ burdens & stimulate new production – gold buying at high/inflated prices
       above the market; therefore, the dollar value of gold increased too which increased the amount of dollars
       in circulation, but no more domestic use of gold as currency - *1932 Lindbergh kidnapping connection
       to Gold Certificate dollars – USA on limited gold standard for international trade
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was probably most popular New Deal program;
       the National Recovery Act (NRA) was one of the most complex;
       & the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was the most radical.
President FDR’s chief “administrator of relief” was – Harry Hopkins (head of the WPA)
*** CCC - ~3million youth employed – 18-25 years-old – work on conservation projects – got part of pay
       – rest sent home to families – very popular New Deal program (pp.783-785)
*** Harry Hopkins – NY social worker in charge of Federal Emergency Relief Act/Administration (FERA)
       - $3 billion to states for the “dole” (direct relief) or preferably wages on work projects
       - “We will spend and spend, tax and tax, and elect and elect.” (p.785)
*** WPA p.786 - $11 million on public buildings, bridges, hard surfaced roads
               WPA – stands for “We Provide Alms” – alms is charity
                        Some jobs were weird – Ex. Control crickets in WY & a monkey pen in OK City, OK



*** WPA p.787 – over 8 years – 9 million people had jobs – not handouts/”dole”
       – Ex. Federal Writers’ Project (FWP), part of WPA – paid John Steinbeck to count dogs in his county
       (while he wrote novels and such, like The Grapes of Wrath)
       – [also – slave narratives – see Davidson & Lytle Ch 8 “View from the Bottom Rail”]
National Recovery Act (Administration) – formally guaranteed labor’s right to organize (unions) & bargain
       collectively as part of the NLRB/Wagner Act, outlawed “yellow dog” contracts forbidding workers to
       form unions, was declared unconstitutional in Schechter “sick chicken” case (see earlier in notes),
       provided for maximum hours & minimum wages (through “fair practice” voluntary codes) – popular
       early on, but later died b/c of self-sacrifice of labor, management, & public, plus “chiselers” who
       cheated the system – “We Do Our Part” signs w/ the Blue Eagle representing the NRA p.787
       NRA – “Nuts Run America” & “National Run Around” to those opposed
       [Wagner Act not always enforced as it should have been! Again, selective enforcement of laws!]
*** National Recovery Act/Administration (NRA) – “Blue Eagle” – immediate relief & long-range recovery
       & reform to assist industry, labor, & unemployment – “fair competition” codes for Hours & wages
       – unions – no “yellow dog” contracts (anti-union) – no child labor under 16, or 18 if work was
       dangerous – required self-denial of both labor and business/management – voluntarily – many
       unscrupulous businesses pretended to follow NRA guidelines/codes – but then violated the codes
       (“chiselers”) – shot down by Supreme Court in 1935 in Schecter brothers “sick chicken” case involving
       their fowl business in Brooklyn, NY – Congress could only control interstate commerce – not local
       business – like Schechter case, which was only a local business (p.787)
*** FDR didn’t like the “horse and buggy” interpretation of Constitution of Supreme Court in Schechter case
       – but the same legislation did launch the PWA (p.788)
New Dealers & Federal agencies/programs:
       Robert Wagner (NY Senator) – National Labor Relations Board
       Harry Hopkins – Works Progress Administration
       Robert Ickes – Public Works Administration
       Frances Perkins – Department of Labor (Sec of Labor – first female presidential cabinet member)
The National Recovery Act/Administration (NRA) failed largely b/c
       – it required too much self-sacrifice on the part of industry, labor, & the public
First Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) raised money that it paid for farmers not to grow crops by
       – taxing processors of farm products (who passed on to consumers)
The AAA proposed to solve the “farm problem” by – reducing agricultural production [Ex. No surpluses of crops or livestock]
Federal Securities Act & the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) aimed to – provide full disclosure of
       information (regarding stocks) & prevent “insider trading” & other fraudulent practices
       *FSA – 1933, SEC – 1934
Do the SEC, TVA, George W. Norris, Muscle Shoals, & hydroelectric power all relate to each other?
Federally owned (& operated) the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was seen as a particular threat to
       – private electrical utility companies
Most controversial aspect of the TVA was its efforts in – electrical power (generation)
       [TVA did provide flood control & jobs in the region]
New Dealers argued their multi-front war on the Depression primarily sought to – provide relief
       *As an answer to critics of New Deal
Strongest criticisms leveled against the TVA were that it – represented the 1st stage of “creeping socialism”
Social Security Act of 1935 provided – unemployment insurance (when fired), old-age pensions, economic
       provisions for blind & disabled, support for blind & physically handicapped, What about health care
       for the poor? (Had to work to be eligible)
Labor’s New Deal:
The Wagner Act of 1935 proved to be a trailblazing (define this term?) law that
       – gave labor the right to collectively bargain (for better conditions, pay, hours, etc…)
                [When Sup Crt axed NRA in 1935, Congress passed National Labor Relations Act in 1935
                – created NLRB, which became known as the Wagner Act – allowed for self-organization of
                        labor (unions) & right to collective bargaining pp.795-796]
                        {*****Often this law was not enforced as it should have been*****}
The National Labor Relations Act (1935) proved most beneficial to – unskilled workers (CIO created) p.796
The primary interest of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (formerly the Committee before split
       w/AF of L – American Federation of Labor) [Led by president of the United Mine Workers union,
       John L. Lewis] was – the organization of all workers within the industry {Ex. Coal Miners}
       CIO – used “sit down” strikes Ex. GM plant at Flint, MI in 1936 & Republic Steel in Chicago, IL
       on Memorial Day of 1937 – “The Memorial Day Massacre”
*** A. Philip Randolph – Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters union p.835 – but that’s 1941, not 1920s
       & 1930s – movie 10,000 Black Men Named George – good film for a film review for extra credit
FDR appoints two women – “firsts” in US history:
*** Mary McLeod Bethune – daughter of ex-slaves, founded a black college in Florida, highest ranking
       Af-Am in FDR’s administration – her post was in the National Youth Administration (NYA) in the
       Office of Minority Affairs – “Black Cabinet” (“Black Brain Trust” – like the [white] “Brain Trust”)
       [An Af-Am & a woman – progressive for the time] (p.786)
*** Francis Perkins – 1st female cabinet member for any US president – Sec of Labor
                –criticized for her gender often – saying was “FDR kept her in labor for many years.” (p.787)
Move inauguration day from March to January:
Both ratified in 1930s, the 20th Amendment shortened time b/t presidential election & inauguration
       (Move from March up to January); the 21st Amendment ended (repealed) prohibition (18th Amendment).
       (19th Amendment – Women’s suffrage)
FDR’s critics:
New Deal critics causes and/or slogans:
       Father Charles Coughlin (Catholic Priest on Radio, ant-Semitic) – “social justice” – anti-FDR eventually
       Huey Long – “Every man a king” (“None wears a crown”) – “Share Our Wealth” $5,000 annual income,
                                                                              car, house, college money, etc…
       Francis Townsend – old-age pensions - $200 per month, but must spend it all – couldn’t do financially
       Herbert Hoover – a “holy crusade for liberty” – rhetoric of antisocialism for New Deal 1936 election (p.797)
The “Kingfish”:
Senator Huey Long (“Kingfish”) of Louisiana gained national popularity by – promising to give every family
       $5,000 [annual income] pp.785-786 {Davidson & Lytle “Huey Generis”} “Share Our Wealth” program
The Works Progress Administration (WPA) aimed to – provide loans & jobs for college students, quiet the
       groundswell of protest produced by Huey Long & Dr. Francis Townsend, provide employment on useful
        projects, & produce works of art
       What about providing handouts to the unemployed? (Not an aim of the WPA)
Female social scientists:
Prominent female social scientists of 1930s like Ruth Benedict & Margaret Mead brought widespread
       contributions to the field of – anthropology ***** This is not in 12th edition
How bad was the Depression?:
*Road kill for food – migrants eating road kill – humor – “a chicken in every pot”
       – Hoover said something like that before 1929 crash of wealth in America & US had eliminated poverty
The Dust Bowl:
All contributed to Dust Bowl of 1930s – dry-farming techniques, drought, cultivation of marginal farmlands on
       the Great Plains, soil erosion (few trees on plains) *dusty, dry soil – right where jet stream &
       Tornado Alley are in central plains of USA,
       What about farmers’ failures to use steam tractors & other modern equipment? (pp.789-790)
Farmers in the Dust Bowl:
In 1935, FDR set up the Resettlement Administration to
       – help farmers who were Dust Bowl victims move to better land (not very effective)
Migrants from the Dust Bowl:
Most Dust Bowl migrants headed to – (the promised land of ) California
       (“Okies & Arkies” – CHP at borders – signs stating no work & no relief
       – replace minorities working in ag. labor – see Davidson & Lytle Ch 12 “Dust Bowl Odyssey”)
*** John Steinbeck’s 1939 novel The Grapes of Wrath
               – Joad family, book vs. movie (1940), Shirley Temple story in mtg w/Mayer of MGM studios
Most “Okies” in CA escaped deprivation & uncertainty of seasonal farm labor when
       – they found jobs in defense industries during WWII
The Indian New Deal:
The Indian Reorganization Act (Indian New Deal) of 1934 attempted to
       – reverse forced assimilation of Native American Indians (due to Dawes Act of 1887) into
       White society (Indian schools, become farmers, allotment, etc…) by establishing tribal self-government
       – (*met w/mixed emotions)
1936 election:
1936 election most notable for – its reflection of a bitter class struggle b/t rich & poor
        Franklin “Deficit” Roosevelt vs. KS Gov Alfred (Alf) M. Landon (a moderate Republican)
        “Forgotten Man” & labor & many blacks & new immigrants vs. greedy economic interests
           - “No one shoots Santa Claus” – Al Smith (referring to FDR)
FDR’s reelection in 1936 (2nd term of 4) was ensured by his strong support from
       – blacks (switch from Rep’s to Dem’s despite lack of FDR’s support for a federal anti-lynching law
           – badly needed b/c of lynchings & impossibility of getting states to prosecute for lynching blacks,
               so need federal law), labor unions (Wagner Act helped), & Catholics
FDR tries to “pack” the Supreme Court:
FDR’s “court-packing” scheme in 1937 reflected his desire to make the Supreme Court
       – more sympathetic to his New Deal programs
       He wanted to add 6 more justices to the court to beat the 9 already there – not popular w/American
       public in general – FDR claimed older members were “backed up” & this would help, but it was an
       obvious way to circumvent the court’s authority of judicial review – and people could see that
       – hurt him in terms of his political clout
After FDR’s Failed attempt to “pack” the Sup Crt, - the (scared) Sup Crt began to support New Deal programs
       Ex. Justice Owen J. Roberts switched from conservative to liberal – “a switch in time saves nine” (justices)
       - Age led to the retirement anyway after FDR’s failure & he appointed 9 justices – more than anyone other than G Washington
Supreme Court & Congress after the “court packing” attempt:
During FDR’s 2nd term (1936/1937-1940/1941)
       – the Supreme Court became more liberal while Congress grew more conservative
FDR extremely weak on civil rights:
***** FDR wouldn’t support anti-lynching bills b/c he did not want southern members of Congress to block his
       New Deal programs, which he feared they would do if he publicly supported and pushed for
       anti-lynching legislation – have to wait for Truman who was willing to do this and desegregate the
       armed forces after WWII.
Keynesian economic philosophy & the national debt/deficit – “prime the pump” & other economists’ ideas:
As a result of 1937 “Roosevelt recession,” – FDR adopted Keynesian economics (planned deficit spending)
       - recession was caused by FDR’s policies
       - Ex. Soc Sec taxes on payrolls – so deficit spend & “prime the pump” to stimulate the economy
During 1930s – (FDR’s bureaucracy grew huge) – the national debt doubled
       (Keynesian deficit spending – spend your way out of the Depression – “prime the pump”)
       * FDR – moderate really, not liberal or socialistic – can be argued he saved capitalism from the
              capitalists w/ a touch of socialism – really progressive populism (brewing before the Depression)
              {Think what Zinn would say about this – Zinn Ch 15 “Self-help in Hard Times”}
Many economists believe the New Deal could have cured the ills of the Depression by – greater deficit spending
How was the New Deal doing by 1938?:
By 1938, New Deal – had lost its momentum (took WWII to end Depression)
Republicans do well in the 1938 mid-term elections:
*** Republicans do well in 1938 mid-term elections, and in later elections win control in Congress


Did the New Deal work?:
*Can be argued – FDR’s New Deal was – too liberal (socialism), too moderate (saved capitalism),
              or was too conservative (preserved status quo w/limited changes – Zinn)
 FDR’s New Deal was most notable for
       – providing moderate social reform w/out radical revolution or reactionary fascism
 FDR’s New Deal programs – did not end the Depression (WWII did!)
How should business have viewed FDR?:
*** Business should have supported FDR as the protector of status quo & privilege really – saving capitalism


General notes:
pp.777-778 FDR bio & Eleanor
p.779 1932 candidates
pp.779-800 Hoover loses
pp.780-782 FDR 3 R’s – Relief, Recovery, & Reform
pp.782-783 FDR’s “Hundred Days” [1st New Deal]
pp.783-785 Create Jobs
pp.785-787 Demagogues
pp.787-788 Industry & Labor
pp.788-789 Farmers paid not to farm!
pp.789-790 Dust Bowl & Migrants (Remember Davidson & Lytle Ch 12 “Dust Bowl Odyssey”)
pp.790-791 Battling Bankers & Big Business
pp.791 & p.794 TVA
pp.792-793 Dust Bowl Migrants
pp.794-795 Housing & Social Security
pp.795-797 New Deal for Unskilled Labor
pp.797-798 1936 Election
pp.798-799 Court Packing 1937
pp.799-800 Liberal Sup Crt post 1937 “court packing” attempt
pp.800-802 Twilight of New Deal
pp.802-803 New Deal or Raw Deal?
pp.803-804 FDR’s Balance Sheet
p.805 How Radical Was the New Deal?
       Radical, Moderate, Conservative – Critics on all sides
For thought:
pp.785-786 Pied Pipers & Crackbrained proposals
p.794 Slums disappeared – ceased growing b/c of USHA – really?

From The Americans: (another textbook)
p.482 Gordon Parks
p.484 Uneven distribution of wealth
p.488 Bank & Business failures
pp.490-491 Hoovervilles, Bread/Soup Lines
       *****Depression for minorities – already in a depression – then when whites affected – Depression
                                                                         – obviously worse for minorities
p.494 Psychological impact – people blamed Hoover & more importantly, themselves, not the system primarily
p.495 Dead road kill – “got my chicken in every pot” – Okies on way to CA
       Hoover Blamed
p.508 National Recovery Act created NRA
pp.509-510 Townsend, Coughlin, Long
(*Will Rogers – humorist)

p.511 Dorothea Lange (“Migrant Mother #6” from Davidson & Lytle Ch 12 “Dust Bowl Odyssey”)
       & other photographers
p.515 New Deal Programs Chart
p.516 Public Utilities Holding Co. Act of 1935 & Rural Electrification Act (LBJ – Texas)
***** Pedro J. Gonzalez – radio libre – voz libre – free voice – struggle for Mexican-American rights in
              East Los Angeles – deportations – sometimes of citizens born in USA - contributions
pp.518-519 Bethune, Hastie, Anderson (Af-Am’s)
p.521 Sen Robert Wagner from NY
***** Union membership increases in 1930s after decline in 1920s
pp.523-528 Popular Culture
       movies – escapism – musicals – westerns – comedy – drama – mystery – gangsters
       Gable, Cooper, Stewart, Grant, Mae West, Hepburn, Marx, Disney, Cagney, Robinson, Chaplin
       Radio, Art, Literature
       1938 Orson Wells in NJ reading War of the Worlds as newscast
       Grant Wood’s American Gothic painting
       Af-Am Richard Wright’s Black Boy
       John Dos Pasos
       Steinbeck
       others

[*FDR’s relationship w/press regarding his disability]

          Anti-lynching laws vs. support of southern congressmen for New Deal
          Scottsboro, Alabama – details
          “Seabiscuit” - Horse Racing

A Tragedy of Justice in Alabama:
The Scottsboro Boys – 1931 – Alabama black youths wrongly convicted of gang raping two white women who
      lied to avoid being put in jail for vagrancy for “riding the rails” as hobos riding through Scottsboro on a
      train with both blacks & whites riding illegally & stopping to see if they could find work {many towns,
      cities, counties during the 1930s passed laws against “vagrancy” to keep migrants out of their towns –
      many often threw them in jail and/or on work details such as the infamous chain gangs} – some of the
      boys were too young for sex even – evidence was weak – Jewish lawyers from NYC offended people of
      Alabama, so defense was hindered – boys convicted separately & repeatedly despite obvious injustice
      based on lies from the two women, one of whom recanted but was painted as a Communist which hurt
      the defense, the other lying until her dying day – Example of trumpeted up evidence: the two women
      had been found to have immobile semen in their vaginas just hours after allegedly being gang raped by
      several boys, which means that the semen found would have still been mobile – the boys went to prison
      for years before they were released & waited until the 1970s for a pardon, by then only a few were alive
      – in prison, a couple of the boys actually became criminals & one actually was killed in prison – the trial
      judge who replaced the completely racist judge in the first trials was a typical white southern racist in
      many ways (not all white southerners are racists – I should know as I was raised by two) – but instead of
      sacrificing the boys, he believed in justice & found in a later trial of one of the accused that their due
      process was violated & the evidence insufficient for conviction, which brought w/it the wrath of the
      community against him for siding w/blacks instead of the forces that sought to put the boys in prison –
       he was never reelected to a judgeship again & his career was effectively over – but he did the right thing
       when he did not have to which is both brave and super cool!




Ch 35 Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War, 1933-1941 (Ch 35 is Ch 34 in the 13th edition)
FDR does not want to help the world, only the USA, during the Depression:
FDR undermined the London Economic Conference b/c – any agreement to stabilize national currencies might
       hurt the USA’s recovery from Depression
       (He intended to create inflation – good for USA, not good for World)
As a result of FDR’s withdrawal from London Economic Conference
       – the trend toward extreme nationalism was made stronger
FDR/USA formally recognizes the USSR:
One internationalist action by FDR in his first term was – formal recognition of Soviet Union/USSR (1933)
FDR’s recognition of Soviet Union/USSR was undertaken partly – in hopes of developing a diplomatic
       counter-weight to rising power of Japan & Germany (& stimulate trade w/USSR too) p.808
Philippine independence:
In promising to grant the Philippines independence, the USA was motivated by
       – the realization that the islands were an economic liability
            Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934 – independence in 12 yrs in 1946 (7-4-1946)
                 Japan sees the USA as weak in the Pacific already, now even weaker
FDR wanted to be a “good neighbor”:
FDR embarked on a “Good Neighbor Policy” (after Wilson’s “Bad Neighbor Policy” in Latin Am) in part b/c
       – he was eager to enlist Latin American allies to defend the W Hemisphere against (Axis) dictators
As part of the “Good Neighbor Policy” toward Latin America, FDR developed more generous policies of
       – removing Am/US controls on Haiti, Cuba (Platt Amendment), Panama, (Nicaragua too)
Counter to high protective tariffs:
1934 Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act – increased USA’s foreign trade p.809
       * reversed traditional high protective tariff (cartoon p.809) – US led free trade initiatives for post WWII
        Free trade always benefits one country more than another – creates dependency
       (Prof. A. Arevalos – CSUSM – Latin American Revolutions & Caribbean Independence)
FDR’s foreign-trade policy – lowered tariffs to increase international trade (see above)
Axis aggression:
Throughout most of the 1930s, the Am people responded to aggressive actions of Germany, Italy, & Japan
        (Axis) by – retreating further into isolationism (from European affairs – although the “Good Neighbor
        Policy” was changing our Latin American relations to a degree) * No military build up until 1940
        w/ draft & build up of navy, etc…
         No military aid Ex. Economic aid to China – really military w/another label & Finland vs. Russia,
            Finland used German weapons did well first time, not second vs. Red Army
         * No oil embargo on Japan for China (1931 & 1937) until 1940 – None by League of Nations over
            Italy in Ethiopia – no oil embargo – others that did not stop invasion – Haile Selassie, “It is us today.
            It will be you tomorrow.”
         Appeasement & Isolationism
Fascist aggression in the 1930s included Mussolini’s invasion of Ethiopia (1935 – 1896 failed invasion),
        Hitler’s invasion of Czechoslovakia (March 1939), & Franco’s overthrown of the republican
        government of Spain. (Spanish Civil War 1936-1939
         Franco – helped by Italy & Germany vs. Rep Gov’t of Spain w/ help of USSR b/c of leftist leanings
                o US helped w/volunteers b/c Neutrality Acts kept USA from helping otherwise
                         Ex. Abraham Lincoln Brigade – Hemingway’s “For Whom the Bell Tolls”
                                 Picasso’s Guernica – 1937 bombed killing ~1200 civilians – German air force
How did the USA feel about another European war?:
By mid-1930s, there was strong nationwide agitation for constitutional amendment to
      – forbid a declaration of war by Congress unless first approved by a popular referendum (vote by the people)



Neutrality Acts:
Passage of the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, & 1937 by the USA resulted in – the abandonment of traditional
                        policy of freedom of the seas (zones declared by pres that US merchants cannot sail in), a
                        decline in the US Navy & other armed forces (big fleets make wars), making no
                        distinction b/t aggressors & victims, & spuring aggressors along the path of conquest
                        (appeasement & isolationism), What about balancing the scales b/t dictators & US allies
                        by trading w/neither pp.810-811
The Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, & 1937 stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence
        of a foreign war, - Americans would be prohibited from sailing on ships of warring nations
                (Thus, no freedom of the seas)
         USA could not sell arms or loan money to either side (to avoid trap like WWI) p.811
US neutrality during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) allowed
        – Spain to become a fascist dictatorship under Francisco Franco (ruled in to the 1970s)
            {Spain stayed neutral in WWII – a wise move by Franco who had been helped by Mussolini &
            Hitler, similar thing happened w/Juan Peron, and his famous wife, Eva/Evita Peron
        – “Don’t Cry for Me Argentina” {Bad Madonna} down in Argentina – he too ruled in to the 1970s)
Arms sales chronology:
From 1925 to 1940, the transition of US policy on arms sales to warring (belligerent) nations followed this
        sequence: - embargo  cash and carry  lend-lease
FDR’s “Quarantine” speech:
FDR’s sensational “Quarantine Speech” in 1937 resulted in – a wave of protest by isolationists
        (b/c he suggested “quarantining” the aggressors w/embargos presumably, but then what?
        – quarantine is to isolate like in the case of disease to keep it from spreading into an epidemic)
Hitler gets mad in 1936 when his Aryans do not win every event:
*1936 Olympics in Munich, Germany – superior master race of Aryans beaten by Jesse Owens! Hitler mad!
Munich & appeasement:
In September 1938 in Munich, Germany,
        - Britain & France consented to Germany taking the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia (Appeasement)
In 1938, the British & French bought peace w/Hitler at the Munich Conference by effectively handing over the
        nation of – Czechoslovakia (Hitler promised he only wanted the Sudetenland; he lied)
Results of appeasing Hitler:
Shortly after Adolf Hitler signed a non-aggression pact w/Soviet Union, - Germany invaded (Western) Poland
        (on Sept, 1st, 1939) & started WWII (in Europe b/c Britain & France declared war on Germany – Asia
        was at war in 1931 Manchuria, China & China again in 1937) [*Non-aggression pact was also an
        agreement w/USSR to split Poland b/t Germany & Russia – Nov, 1939 – Russia invaded Poland from
        the East – Allies did not declare war on Stalin’s Russia over Poland)
        * Heroic fight of the Poles against the German blitzkrieg
First casualty of 1939 Hitler-Stalin non-aggression treaty was – Poland (They split it!)
***** Blitzkrieg – Poland, Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, France, Balkans, USSR
* Blitzkrieg = Lightning War – tactics – effective – innovative – new use of air power w/armor & infantry
A country not conquered by Hitler’s Germany b/t Sept 1939 & June 1940 – Finland
        USSR attacked twice – repelled first time, not second – defeated by Red Army as “buffer zone”
                Finland helped by Germans & USA
European Jewish refugees:
Probably the greatest obstacle to USA’s acceptance of more Jewish refugees from Europe was
       –   a failure of moral indignation & belief that the Holocaust was actually happening
                Textbook failed to mention anti-Semitism in USA
                          Holocaust – The Untold Story – lack of US press coverage – even Jewish editor of NY Times
                                  Nazi perspective on immigration – other countries don’t want them either
                                      o Ex. St. Louis ship of Jewish refugees



Factors contributing to weakness & lateness of USA’a efforts to aid Europe’s threatened Jews:
       - internal tensions b/t German-Jewish & Eastern European Jews in USA, restrictive Immigration Act
                of 1924, fear of flood of Jewish refugees would increase unemployment during Depression, &
                Anti-Semitism in USA
                What about the belief that most Jews would be better off migrating to Israel?
US military (& other Allies too) refused to bomb Nazi gas chambers (Ex. Treblinka, Sobibor, Bergen-Belsen,
       Chelmo, etc…) such as Auschwitz & Dachau b/c of belief that
                – bombing would divert needed war/military resources
                        [*plus retaliation to Jews, but they were already being slaughtered]
During the 1930s, the USA admitted about 150,000 Jewish refugees from Nazism.
       [* They went elsewhere – often later rounded up by the invading Nazis]
Peace-time draft/conscription:
Congress’s first response to unexpected fall of France in 1940 was to – pass a conscription (draft) law
       - a peace-time draft – like Europe, not USA
French stupidity:
*** French stupidity – sorry if you’re French, not really 
       Maginot Line – “sitzkrieg” - phony war – then blitzkrieg through Belgium & Luxembourg – like WWI
       Dunkirk – mistake by Hitler, not his last either
       This time, Paris falls – Hitler creates Vichy French puppet fascist gov’t in south and rules w/military
       occupation in rest of France – creates fortress Europe – the Atlantic Wall – into N Africa & Itlay – then
       wait for Dieppe, then the big one – Normandy – D-Day June 6th, 1944 – breakout & push into Germany
       interrupted by Operation Market Garden, the Hurtgen Forrest, Battle of the Bulge, crossing the Rhine, &
       of course the Brutal Russian advance in the East – Leningrad, Stalingrad, Fall of Berlin – blood bath – 8
       of 10 Germans killed in WWII killed by Russians, but they lost many more in process – Pacific is a
       whole other story!
US neutrality & opinions:
USA’s neutrality effectively ended when – France fell to Germany
       - b/c led to Destroyer deal in 1940 – followed 1939 cash & carry – led to next phase – lend-lease late 1940
       * Garden hose example to fight fire for neighbor’s house
       * “send guns, not sons”
In 1940, in exchange for US destroyers, British gave USA – 8 valuable naval bases in W Hemisphere for 99 yrs
By 1940, US public opinion had come to favor – providing Britain w/ “all aid short of war” (“guns not sons”)
                Let British fight USA’s fight
                       * Battle of Britain – summer 1940 – Operation Sea Lion – RAF vs. Luftwaffe
                              Blitz, air war, V-1/2, RADAR, Enigma code machine, Spitfires & Hurricanes
1940 election:
Surprise Republican presidential nominee in 1940 was – Wendell Willkie (FDR’s friend) (converted Democrat)
       p.819 “You have been a Democrat all your life. I don’t mind the church converting a whore, but I don’t
              like her to lead the choir her first night.” 
In 1940, Republican presidential candidate Wendell Willkie avoided deepening sharp divisions among the
       American people when he – avoided attacking FDR for his increasingly interventionist policies
FDR was motivated to run for a third term in 1940 mainly by his
       – belief that the USA needed his experienced leadership during international crisis
       (Really? – think Myth America video series – reluctant statesman – “Don’t change horses in the middle of a river”)
               So what motivated him for a fourth term, even in failing health, the same thing? Power perhaps?
In 1940 pres election campaign, both Dem FDR & Rep candidate, Wendell Willkie, agreed that
       – the USA should supply military aid to Britain & the Allies {against the evil Axis or “Axis of evil”
       in modern political propaganda speak for “SATAN!”} & the USA should strengthen its defenses




Lend-Lease & Cash and Carry:
1940-1941 Lend-Lease program was – a focus of intense debate b/t internationalists & isolationists, a direct to
        Axis dictators, the point when all pretense of American neutrality was abandoned (Ex. Destroyer escorts
        to Iceland), the catalyst (define) that caused US factories to prepare for all out war production (“arsenal
        of democracy”) (define arsenal)
Operation Barbarossa:
When Germany invaded Soviet Union/USSR on June 22nd, 1941 (Operation Barbarossa), the USA
        – made lend-lease available to Soviet Union/USSR/Stalin
        * Battle of Britain failed, put on hold effectively for Hitler to break non-aggression pact to invade USSR
         We began helping “Uncle Joe” Stalin as our propaganda used to refer to him
                o Joey on Friends w/stage name Joe Stalin 
         Einsatzgruppen – killing squads of SS soldiers (4 groups) who shot approximately 800,000 people
         Good job Stalin w/purges that killed capable Soviet officers that hurt USSR when Germany invaded
         Hitler knew history – Napoleon & Hitler vs. Winter & Russians – Mistakes of both men = loss
The Atlantic Charter:
The Atlantic Charter, developed by USA & Britain, was also endorsed by – the Soviet Union
         To get FDR’s help, both Churchill and Stalin had to agree to FDR’s desires regarding the charter
                o – much of which was essentially ignored and/or selective applied by the Allies
[p.823 FDR forced Churchill on colonial issues b/c Britain needed USA (Churchill was elated when Pearl
Harbor was attacked b/c it meant full entry into the war by USA) – Atlantic Charter, Aug 1941 Newfoundland
coast with navies – opposed imperialistic annexations, supported self-determination for nations, regain
democracies in Europe, free elections, & United Nations (UN) – similar to 14 Points – but USA not neutral in
the Atlantic Charter really if you think about it – Poland, “iron curtain,” French Indochina/Ho Chi Minh,
Palestine, India, etc…]
Among the principles of the Atlantic Charter signed by FDR & British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
        (he was half-American) were – national self-determination of peoples, disarmament, collective security,
        creation of new international org (UN)
        [*story of Churchill & FDR, the UN, & a bath tub – sounds like a joke you tell in a bar or something]
        ***** Remember Churchill had to sign b/c he needed the USA’s help big time to save his country!
US Navy at war before we declared war:
After the USS Greer was fired upon, the USS Kearny crippled, and the USS Rueben James sunk,
        - Congress allowed arming US merchant vessels (merchant marine – shipping) p.824
            p.824 US Destroyers see combat
            USS Greer Sept 1941 fought w/U-Boat
            Oct 1941 USS Kearny hit in battle w/U-Boat it followed, lost 11 KIA
            Late Oct, 1941 USS Rueben James sunk by U-Boat near Iceland, lost 100+ KIA
        p.812 Dec 1937 Chinese waters USS Panay hit by Japanese planes, 2 KIA 30 WIA
               - Tokyo paid up quickly & apologized but vented on US civilians in China w/slappings & strippings
Did the USA force Japan into war?:
Japan believed that it was forced into war w/USA b/c FDR insisted that Japan – withdraw from China
       * USA knew they would not – then USA cut off scrap metal, steel, oil, aviation fuel w/embargo
Japanese attack Pearl Harbor in 1941 came as surprise b/c – FDR (& others) suspected, if attacked, it would be
       in Malaysia or the Philippines (Attacks occurred there too very quickly)
[* Details of Pearl Harbor – limited & quick – if time?]
On eve of Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor, a large majority of Americans – still wanted to stay out of the war
        Almost unanimous war vote on 12/8/1941 – still first woman in Congress, Representative Jeanette
                Rankin of Montana, still voted “No” to war as she did in WWI later on 12-11-1941 when
                Germany & Italy declared war on the USA, the vote was unanimous for war – apparently b/c
                they declared war on USA first
A chronology of events:
Chronological order – Munich Conference (1938), Hitler-Stalin non-aggression pact (Aug 1939),
       German invasion of Poland (Sept 1st, 1939) * Then USSR invaded Poland in Nov of 1939 from East
Chronological order – Fall of France (1940), Hitler invades USSR (6-22-1941), Atlantic Charter/Conference
       (Aug 1941), * Then Pearl Harbor on “…Dec 7th, 1941, a date that will live in infamy...”
(* Sol Cerveza commercial: “Convince your neighbors you’re French. Be very rude to them, and if any world
                                                                      wars break out, surrender immediately.” )
Things FDR did to combat the Depression:
As part of his plan to concentrate on alleviating the Depression at home, FDR’s administration
       – extended formal diplomatic recognition to Soviet Union/USSR (1933), abandoned the interventionist
                policies toward Latin America (“Good Neighbor”), & promised independence to Philippines
                        (Tydings-McDuffie 12 yrs later independence 7/4/1946)
General notes:
pp.806-807 London Conference
pp.807-808 Philippines & USSR
p.808 “Good Neighbor Policy”
pp.808-809 Reciprocal Trade Agreements
pp.809-810 Isolationism & Axis Aggression
pp.810-811 Neutrality Act
pp.811-812 Spanish Civil War 1936-1939
pp.8112-813 Appeasement
pp.813 & 816 Hitler’s Belligerency & US Neutrality
pp.814-815 Refugees from the Holocaust – Famous Example - Einstein
pp.816-817 Fall of Francpp.817-818 Destroyer Deal/Help England
pp.819-820 1940 Election
pp.820-822 Operation Barbarossa – Invasion of Soviet Union – Hitler attacks USSR
       spawns Atlantic Charter – why Stalin signs – he too needs FDR’s/USA’s help desperately
       * “Give ‘em Hell” Harry S. Truman (& others) feel that we should let the Germans & Soviets kill each other
pp.822-824 US Destroyer vs. German U-Boats
p.824 Pearl Harbor
p.825 USA goes to war 12-8-1941 & 12-11-1941 w/ Italy & Germany after they declare war on us first
p.826 Chronology
p.811 munitions caused WWI – book says is illogical – but they did profit & $ was lent to Allies
       Argues USA could have stopped WWII w/early influence against “satanic forces”
p.813 Hitler like a drunken reveler – wanted louder music & stronger wine
       Appeasement – like giving a finger to a cannibal to save an arm  You’ve gotta be kidding
pp.814-815 Refugees of Holocaust – failed to cover US anti-Semitism as a factor for keeping Jewish refugees
       out of USA – like other countries that limited Jewish immigration too b/c of anti-Semitism
p.821 Most Am’s willing to risk war w/lend-leae – How does Bailey reach this conclusion? What evidence?
       (What would Zinn say?)
p.824 (Jeanette Rankin first woman in Congress from MT) 1 vote against war w/Japan on 12-8-1941
       12-11-1941 Germany & Italy declare war on USA b/c of Axis alliance with Japan
                - now unanimous vote in both houses of Congress – Rankin too apparently
p.825 Pearl Harbor – not really a sneak attack – explain (like me, the Japanese dude typed slowly)
       Plus we knew lots and lots but did not act accordingly in reality - explain
* Hitler – “big lie’ – Mein Kampf – WWI – Versailles – Nazis – “subhumans” – lebensraum – “High” Hitler
From The Americans:
p.544 Nazis, Fascists, Japan, Stalinist Russia – Totalitarianism – fascism – socialism/communism
        Mussolini, Hitler, Stalin, Japan under Tojo & Militarist w/Hirohito
                Treaty of Versailles, nationalism, militarism, imperial expansion
                        Germany’s Armament, Rhineland, Austria, Sudetenland, all of Czechoslovakia, France,
                        Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg, Balkans, USSR, but not Britain
        Indoctrination (Ex Hitler Youth), censorship, one party, secret police (Ex’s Gestapo & NKVD)
Use pp.554-558 Ch 16 sec 3 to lecture Holocaust
U-Boats/Wolfpacks, Philippines, Guam, Wake, Hong Kong, Singapore, SE Asia, Dutch East Indies for OIL

Ch 36 America in World War II, 1941-1945 (Ch 36 is Ch 35 in the 13th edition)
Europe first:
Fundamental strategic decision of WWII made by FDR & British (Churchill) at the very beginning was
       – to concentrate on war in Europe first & hold Pacific war against Japan as a delaying and holding
               action (until Germany was defeated, then full weight of force vs. Japan)
Mobilization for war:
Once at war, USA’s first great challenge was to – retool its industry for all out (total) war (production)
        *Mobilization on Homefront for war abroad
A “rosy” interpretation of US race relations:
Overall most ethnic groups in the USA during WWII – were further assimilated into American society
The Issei and the Nisei are mistreated:
Japanese-Americans were placed in concentration camps during WWII
        – as a result of anti-Japanese prejudice & fear (especially on W coast)
                * FDR’s Executive Order #9066 – Issei & Nisei – camps Ex. Manzanar in CA
                         – loss of $ & property – 100th Battalion – “Purple Heart” Battalion – 442nd Regimental
                         Combat Team – fought in Italy, France, Germany – Most decorated combat unit in US
                         history for proportion of length of service – “Buddha Heads” – Most Japanese-Americans
                         served as soldiers in Europe while interpreters and such went to the Pacific
                         – obvious racism/discrimination
Minority group most adversely affected by Washington DC’s wartime policies was – Japanese-Americans
        * Internment – costs – effects – camps – prejudice – military service – Nisei born in USA, so citizens
How did America feel about the war?:
The general attitude toward WWII was – less idealistic & ideological & more practical than the outlook in WWI
        (This is according to the textbook – What would Zinn say in Ch 16?)
Japanese immigrants:
In the period of 1885 to 1924, the Japanese immigrants who came to the USA were
        – a select group (representing Japan abroad, so Japan cared who was sent) who was/were better prepared
                         & educated than most European immigrants (so they were middle class & usually had $)
        Ex. Japan felt represented – wanted to avoid Chinese bachelors of 19th century – so “picture brides”
Did Americans know why we entered WWII beyond the attack in Hawaii?:
When the USA entered WWII in December (7th attack at Pearl, war declared on 8th), 1941,
        - a majority of Americans had no clear idea of what the war was about
       -   * WWI had campaigned (but many people didn’t know in WWI either – Ex. Sergeant York & Gallipoli)
Need for rubber:
During WWII, the US gov’t commissioned the production of synthetic rubber in order to offset the loss of
       access to prewar supplies in E. Asia (ex. French Indochina/Vietnam, Cambodia, & Loas)
Government control during the war:
Wartime agencies & functions:
       War Production Board – assign priorities w/respect to use of raw materials & transportation facilities
       Office of Price Administration – controlled inflation by rationing essential goods
       War Labor Board – imposed ceilings (maximums) on wage increases
       Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) – saw to it that no hiring discrimination practices were
                                            used against Af-Am’s seeking employment in war industries
African-Americans face discrimination in industry:
* A Philip Randolph – 1941 threatened to march on Wash DC to demand equality in hiring – FDR feared march
       so made a deal to announce Executive Order #8802 for Af-Am’s fair employment in wartime industries
       * Randoplh was leader of Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters union (mostly Af-Am’s but some whites too – began in 1920s)




Which is least related to the other three?
       A Philip Randolph (Bro of Sleep Car Porters - threat to march on Wash DC in 1941 – led to Executive
       Order #8802 – in 1963, helped organize march to Wash DC for MLK jr’s “I Have a Dream” speech. Fair
       Employment Practices Commission (FEPC – to protect Af-Am’s to be hired and treated fairly in war
       industries), racial discrimination in wartime industry (still even w/FEPC there was discrimination – but
       better than w/out it), proposed “Negro March on Washington,” What about the Smith-Connally (Anti-
       Strike) Act (1943)? On pp.834-836
Miners strike during the war – why?:
While most US workers were strongly committed to the war effort, wartime production was disrupted by strikes
       led by the – United Mine Workers (Why? Exploitation w/unequal distribution of wartime profits.)
       * Coal mining is almost as risky as war – in fact they die more than any other industrial workers, both
               back then and today – only crab fishing is truly more hazardous by proportion
                                                                      – although they are much safer today
Labor unions during the war:
During WWII – labor unions substantially increased their membership
        There were some strikes – Ex. United Mine Workers – unfair distribution of wartime profits
Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act – June 1943 – federal gov’t could seize industries if strikes occurred
       Ex. Coal mines and RRs briefly] p.832
Middle class white women work during the war:
Employment of more than 6 million women in America (~3 million had never worked for wages before)
       industry during WWII led to – the establishment of day-care centers by gov’t (*”Rosie” vs. “Wendy”)
       [Usually single women or w/husband in the war were the ones working in defense plants/war industries]
       * Not equal pay for equal work in almost all cases – although some women earned as good or better
                      money if they were outstanding – some were indeed Ex. P.833 – WOW poster
                      * My recruiting posters & WWII aircraft pictures
       * Not greater % of women working in USA than in Europe – Ex. Britain & USSR – in war industries
       * Increase in employment in war industries for Af-Am’s (both men & women)
       * Not a strong desire for most women to work for wages (especially in defense industries, etc…)
Main reason majority of women workers left labor force at end of WWII was – family obligation
Women in the service:
       *** p.833 – WAACs, WAVES, SPARS, (WASPs)
Mexican labor during the war:
* Bracero Program – p.833 Mexicans work in agriculture & some industries (later deported in the offensive
       “Operation Wetback”) [Ironic after 1930’s treatment in CA for example – Okies for Mexicans, etc…
The “Great Migration” (Phase II):
* Migrations from South as Af-Am’s leave while to the South came war industries and military bases
       - Why? Cheap wages & very few unions
Migration Map on p.834
* Cotton production in South – hurt Af-Am laborers, tenant, and sharecropping farmers
                      (whites too who did this – many) w/ introduction of mechanization – so migration p.836
Northward migration of Af-Am’s accelerated after WWII b/c
       – mechanical cotton pickers (machines) were in use p.836
By the end of WWII, the heart of USA’s Af-Am communities had shifted to – northern cities pp.834-835
       * p.836 “The speed and scale of these changes jolted the migrants and sometimes the communities that
                                                                                              received them.”
* Racism, de facto segregation vs. de jure (Jim Crow) segregation [Migartion Map on p.834]
What does “GI” mean?:
       * “GI” – “Government Issue”
Don’t forget the contributions of the US Coast Guard and Merchant Marine:
* USCG & Merchant Marine
Native Americans at war:
* Native Americans - ~25,000 serve – Ex. Comanche in Europe & Navajo in Pacific – “code talkers” p.836
During WWII, American Indians
       – moved off of reservations in large numbers (~25,000 served in military) p.836
Race riots during the war:
*** LA, CA summer 1943 – “Zoot Suit Riots” – Pachucos vs. Servicemen – violence – retaliation – gangs –
       blame – reactions – tensions – “Victory Suits” – race riots p.836-837
** Race riot in Detroit, MI in 1943 – fatalities pp.836-837
What did America’s blacks fight for?:
Af-Am’s did all of following during WWII: rally behind slogan of “Double V” (victory over Axis & racism at
       home), move north & west in large migrations (seeking work – often in war industries) (move to cities
       – “urban” begins to mean “black”) (ghettos created – not like Jewish ghettos in Poland, etc…)
       (de facto vs. de jure/Jim Crow segregation & discrimination – Ex. Race riots in Detroit in 1943 – later
       race riots in north in 1960s too), form a militant organization called the Congress of Racial Equality
       (CORE – 1942 & increase in NAACP membership), serve (in US military) in (US) Army Air Corps
       (Tuskegee Airmen – 332nd/99th w/impeccable record – no bombers lost on their escorts – Benjamin O.
       Davis sr. & Benjamin O. Davis jr. – West Point grads – endured silent treatment from whites – Davis sr.
       is first Af-Am general in US history – Davis jr. was in command of 99th squadron – see picture on .835),
       What about fighting in integrated combat units? Not until Korea (w/exception of a few experiments)
Government intervention – when did it escalate?:
Big gov’t intervention received its greatest boost from – WWII (not the New Deal)
Economy during the war:
During WWII, most Am’s economically experienced – prosperity & a doubling of personal income
                       p.837 National Gross National Product (all goods and services produced in USA) in 1940
                       was $100 billion – GNP grew to $200 billion in 1945 – corporate profits rose from ~$6
                       billion in 1940 to ~$12 billion by 1944 – Henry Stimson (Sec of War) “if you are going
                       to try to go to war in a capitalist country, you have to let business make money out of the
                       process, or business won’t work.” p.837 - * disposable income after war-time taxes more
                       than doubled (but there was inflation too) - * post-war consumerism w/surplus income to
                       purchase in post-war US economy – Ex increase 33% in post war prices b/c of high
                       wages & consumer demand
Science at war:
* Office of Scientific Research and Development p.837 – developed weapons, including Atomic (nuclear)
                       bombs - *** “warfare-welfare state” b/t 1941-1945 - * rationing – total war effort – bond
                       drives – kids had Al drives for example, etc… - Ex of poster: “When you ride ALONE,
                       you ride with Hitler!” – Black Market -
National debt as result of war:
Chart for Rise in National Debt – rise b/c of WWII and after war it spiked higher than during war - p.837
On p.838 Cost of war in $ was for USA $330 billion – 10 times more than WWI – more $ than all federal
       spending since 1776 – income tax – 4 times as many people than before war – some people taxed as
       high as 90% of income – taxes provided for 2/5ths of war cost – rest is borrowed from US public –
        Liberty Loans – Bond Drives - others loaned $ too like individuals who were rich tycoons & moguls
        and/or through corporations & banks – 1941 National Debt was $49 billion – grew to $259 billion in
        1945 – war cost ~$10 million per hour at peak of war – plus blood, sweat, & tears – tremendous loss of
        life – Ex. USSR lost more than any other country
National debt increased most during – World War II (and post-WWII to present) p.838
How did the US pay for the war?:
Most $ raised to finance WWII came through – borrowing (individuals, corporations – bonds for middle class
        & working class people) (*Liberty/Victory Loans – bond sales – hugely promoted) p.838
Details of the war:
First naval battle in history in which all of the fighting was done by (aircraft) carrier-based aircraft was the
        Battle of – the Coral Sea (May 1942 near NE Australia – Tie to stop Japanese threat/invasion of the
        “Land Down Under” – USA lost one carrier – USS Lexington – USS Yorktown carrier badly damaged
        but back in action at Midway where she was finally sunk by a Japanese submarine after extensive
        damage from aircraft that left her a burning wreck)
        [* Midway – 2nd such battle b/t carrier fleets so far apart they never see each other – June 3rd-6th, 1942
                – the turning point of the Pacific war p.839]
The tide of Japanese conquest in the Pacific was turned following the Battle of – Midway (June 3rd-6th, 1942)
        * Details – our 3 carriers to their 4 – we sank all four and lost only one – planes – luck – plans – codes –
        drama – Spruance, Nimitz, etc… - plus Aleutian Islands (of Alaska) attacked just before Midway was
        diversion, which was fairly effective – cold, brutal fighting over frozen, barren islands, but were US
        territory like Hawaii pp.839-841
Japanese made a crucial mistake in 1942 in their attempt to control much of the Pacific when they – over -
        extended themselves instead of digging in & consolidating their gains p.839 – Japanese victories in
        Pacific up through first 6 months extended down to Dutch East Indies (for oil), Southeast Asia (for
        rubber), including Burma and Thailand into parts of China, the Philippines, the Marianas such as Guam,
        the Gilbets, the Marshalls, the Solomons, the Aleutians, Korea and Manchuria, Okinawa, Iwo Jima,
        etc…- They held it for about 6 months after Pearl Harbor before Allied advances began.
In waging war against Japan, the USA relied mainly on a strategy of – (leapfrogging and) island-hopping across
        the South (and Central) Pacific while by-passing Japanese strongholds (whenever possible – but not
        always – Ex. Philippines & Pelelieu & Aleutians)
        [MacArthur/US Army & Halsey in South – USMC & Nimitz/Spruance in Central Pacific]
        * All strategies considered & implemented in some fashion – heavy bombing from Chinese air bases,
        invading SE Asia & Burma, fortifying China transporting supplies from India over “the Hump” of the
        Himalayas, & turning Japanese flanks in New Guinea (MacArthur) & Alaska (Aleutians)
        * All were done – but priority was put on USN, US Army, USMC, USAAC (USAF), & USCG in two
        prong drive across south & central Pacific with Adm. Nimitz calling the shots
Conquest of Guam (Marianas – Tinian & Saipan too) in 1944 was especially critical, b/c from there
        (the Marianas) the USA could conduct round-trip bombing raids (B-29s) on Japanese home islands
               – But a nasty volcanic sulfur-smelling small island with large 500 foot hill on its southwestern corner on it called
               Iwo Jima was in the way – could notify Japan that bombers were coming – plus many damaged bombers needed the
               vital air strip on the island for emergency landings – so in Feb of 1945, USMC began its biggest, most-distinguished
               battle lasting 36 days in Hell before the island was completely secure – giving us two flag raisings on Mt. Suribachi
               – the 2nd becoming perhaps the most famous photograph in the entire world – “Semper Fi, Do or Die, Gung Ho!”
Allies won Battle of Atlantic by
        – escorting convoys of merchants’ (and military) vessels (not using convoy system initially)
        [Ex. Carrier & other Task Forces], dropping depth charges from destroyers, bombing submarine
        (U-boat) bases (Ex. – located in France), deploying new technology of RADAR
        At war’s end, U-boat crews are in a very deadly branch of voluntarily service & still got volunteers up
        until the end – 4 out of 5 U-boaters die by late 1944 – Adm Downitz asked for more before war – didn’t
        get them, used convoy system w/ destroyer escorts – depth charges – RADAR (B-24s & B-25s, other
        planes as sub hunters) – SONAR – Enigma code machine & codes (read Japanese codes in Pacific too) –
        US subs sink lots of ships (especially in Pacific), But what about organizing “wolf packs” (which are
        German U-boats) to chase down German U-boats (submarines)?
        *** Battle of the Atlantic - Most important battle in Western Europe!
Until Spring 1943, perhaps Hitler’s greatest opportunities of defeating Britain & winning the war was
        – the German U-boat would destroy Allied shipping (which it was faster than ships could be built early in war)
Hitler’s advance in the European theater of war crested in late 1942 at the Battle of Stalingrad, after which, his
        fortunes gradually declined {* Leningrad, Kursk, Red Army, Counter-Offensives}
        pp.841-842 Monte Cassino in Italy
Allies postponed opening a second front in Europe until 1944 b/c – of British reluctance (b/c of the majority of
        troops would be supplied by them that early in the war) & lack of adequate resources {* We’d have
        gotten our butts handed to us by the Germans – as indeed we did really until 1943 – we needed to learn
        how to fight – Stalin was angry we left his country to suffer while we lagged in opening a second front
        in France to relieve the USSR – cannot blame him entirely
FDR’s promise to the Soviets to open a second front in Western Europe by end of 1942
                        – was utterly impossible to keep (just not ready for the undertaking really)

* So USSR got pounded through most of 1942 before it went on the offensive in 1943 and until the end of the
        war really – meanwhile, the Allies invaded North Africa, then Sicily, then up the boot of Italy
                – before two major invasions of France in June & Aug of 1944
Allied demand for unconditional surrender was criticized mainly by opponents who believed that such a
        surrender would – encourage the enemy to resist as long as possible (but USA also did this to show a
        commitment to USSR as an Ally against Germany to avoid a separate peace as in WWI)
FDR’s & Churchill’s insistence on the absolute and “unconditional surrender” of Germany
        – eventually complicated the problems of postwar reconstruction
Chronology: Casablanca, Morocco – Jan 1943 FDR & Churchill meet – Pacific strategy, Sicily, Italy,
        unconditional surrender p.842, (Cairo, Egypt before Teheran – w/FDR & Churchill discuss Chiang &
        Mao vs. Japanese in China), then Teheran, Iran (Persia at the time) – Nov 28th – Dec 1st, 1943 – plans
        for W & E attacks on Germany p.844 – FDR, Churchill, Stalin, Potsdam, Germany – July 1945 –
        Truman, Churchill, Stalin – Potsdam Declaration & how to end war & post-war plans p.851
Chronology: Invasion of (Sicily and) Italy (1943), D-Day/Normandy invasion (June 6th, 1944), VE Day 5/8/45
        – [my mother turned 6 years old (my father turned 6 years old 10 days later) – she had two brothers in
        this war (others in Korea & Vietnam) – one would come home from Europe w/2 Purple Hearts – served
        under Patton in N Africa & was at the Bulge – his eye was hanging out of his head attached by the optic
        nerve – they saved his eye – but the war messed the young man up for the rest of his life mentally
        carrying the burdens of death – her other brother was in Pacific – he would not come home until Japan
        was beaten] – VJ Day 8/15/45 – Japan’s surrender was 8/14/45 – official surrender on deck of battleship
        USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay was 9/2/45 – WWII was finally over after many deaths – military &
        civilian (WWII began in 1931-37 in Asia, Sept 1939 in Europe, Dec 1941 for USA in Pacific)
Major consequence of Allied conquest of Sicily in Aug 1943 was
                         – overthrow of Mussolini (first of two times) and (eventually) Italy’s surrender
                                o Italians surrender quicker than the French – At least they claim to be “lovers
                                    not fighters” – but the Romans seriously put a foot in and/or up one’s booty in
                                    battle as a vicious warrior empire known for organization in fighting
After Italian surrender in Aug 1943, - Germans poured into Italy and stalled the Allied advance
        (really until the end of the war in Northern Italy – also harsh to Italians for switching sides)
Real impact of the Italian front on WWII may have been that it - delayed the D-Day invasion & allowed the
Soviet Union to advance further into E Europe (“iron curtain”)
        Brutal fighting in Italy Ex pp.841-842 Monte Cassino in Italy
        Audie Murphy was in Italy, France, & Germany
        442nd Nisei were in Italy, France, & Germany
        US First Army – The Big Red One
        Tuskegee airmen (99th squadron of 332nd fighter group)
        Italians switched sides – Germans reinforced – bloody battles b/c of terrain – Ex. Anzio
        * I disagree w/this – Italy was a vital & valuable front – perhaps managed poorly, but necessary
Cross Channel (English Channel) invasion of Normandy (in NW France) to open a 2nd front in Europe was
        commanded by Gen Dwight David Eisenhower (future president) [Ike] {West Point, Aide of MacArthur,
        Bonus Army, North Africa, Great political general – needed for this command to deal w/ the prima-
        donnas US Gen Patton and British Gen Montgomery (Monty) plus other issues – he was the right man
        for the job – although many disagreed about that at the time}
***** Normandy/D-Day June 6th, 1944 (operation Overlord) & Breakout 5 beaches Monty, Bradley, Patton
        diversion pointed at Calais, French Underground, Airborne/Gliders/Paratroopers, Rangers, Amphibious,
        Air Superiority, Mulberry Harbors, Strategy, Hedgerows, Engineers, Etc…
        (Saving Private Ryan, The Longest Day)
Hitler’s last ditch attempt to achieve victory against the USA & British (plus other Allies) came in
        – Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945)
         My uncle FL was there – got that nasty eye wound
         Hurtgen Forrest (When Trumpets Fade) before Bulge near Achaen in W Germany almost on Belgian
            border – brutal mine fields – slaughter – overshadowed by Bulge so largely forgotten
         Bulge – why it’s called the Battle of the Bulge – weather – secrecy – push through weak Ardennes –
            Malmady – Mr. High – casualties 76,000 US – worst battle in US history (Okinawa close,
            Gettysburg too) – Germans lost 140,000+ - cold – no air cover for weeks – Bastogne – 101st
            Airborne (Band of Brothers) – 101st at Normandy, Market Garden, Bastogne, Hitler’s Eagle’s Nest –
            Patton & 3rd Army – costly choice to push bulge back rather than pinch it (liposuction) – air cover
            returns – push to the Rhine – USSR pushing from the East – USSR in Berlin - brutal
As result of Battle of Leyte Gulf – Japan was finished a s a naval power
        (Philippines 1944 – largest naval battle ever – Halsey – Taffy 3 – Kamikazes – Yamato)
[Philippines fell – 500 POWs rescued at Cabanatuan (The Great Raid) – hold outs in to 1970s]
{Iwo Jima and Okinawa and Japanese home islands left to take to end Pacific war}
***** War of attrition in Pacific – to the death – rarely took prisoners on both sides unless want information
Conferences:
At the wartime conference in Teheran, Iran (Persia) (11-28 thru 12-1-43) (FDR, Churchill, Stalin) – plans were
        made for opening a 2nd front in Europe p.844 – was Sicily & Italy before France – Stalin still not happy
Potsdam Conference – issued an ultimatum to Japan to surrender of “face a rain of ruin from the air”
         It’s already facing a “rain of ruin from the air’ as did German cities!
p.851 Potsdam Conference
        – (Truman told Stalin of massive weapon to use on Japan – Stalin not surprised (b/c he knew from spies
        already) – told Truman to use it & promised to enter war in Pacific as he had agreed to earlier – entered
        war 8/8/45, day before 2nd A-bomb on Nagasaki that time, Hiroshima the first on 8/6/45)
        Total unconditional surrender or be destroyed – threat of more bombing – not specific as to use of an
        atomic bomb – more bombing – so what – already taking that!
1944 election:
In a sense, FDR was the “forgotten man” at the Democratic Convention of 1944 b/c
        – so much attention was focused on who would be VP
        (Truman – Sen from MO political machine – failed in business – US Army artillery Major in WWI )
        (VP & former Sec of Ag Henry Wallace pushed out) (FDR in poor health)
        ** FDR complained of a headache and then shortly thereafter died from cerebral hemorrhage sitting for
        a portrait in Warm Springs, GA (where his health spa for his rehab for polio was) on April 12th, 1945 –
        funeral train – some people had really only known FDR as president, now Truman was the great
        unknown trying to replace FDR – Eleanor said to Harry, “The president is dead.” Truman replied, “Is
        there anything I can do for you.” Mrs Roosevelt responded, “Oh no, is there anything that we can do for
        you, you’re the one who is in trouble now.”
FDR won 1944 election primarily b/c
        – war was going well by Nov 1944 (many thought it was all but officially won and over) [just like Lincoln in 1864]
What did the USA do about the Holocaust once the country was fighting in the war?:
Action by USA against Adolf Hitler’s campaign of genocide against the Jews
      – was reprehensively slow in coming – Did not admit large numbers of refugees to USA, nor bomb RR
      lines at death camps – USA did know – Gov’t knew for sure since 1942 when “final solution” was
      implemented – US gov’t knew before if they chose to believe it (plus Mein Kampf, Hitler’s book), not
      major reason at all really that USA fought WWII – like Civil War sort of in that abolition of slavery was
      a by-product that many Federal/Union soldiers did not realize they were fighting for at the beginning of
      the war, nor would many of them fought for that ideal anyway–my opinion–so you know it’s correct! 
“Fat Man and Little Boy”:
Spending of enormous sums of money on the original (to be used against Germany) atomic (nuclear) bomb
                      project (Manhattan Project) was spurred by the belief that – the American public would
                      not tolerate the (massive) casualties that would result from a land invasion of Japan
                      (***** Much More Complex Than That!) ***** Letter “c” in the answer choices – The
                      Japanese were (still) at work (and more successful than Germans – who tried heavy water
                      in Norway but suffered to sabotage attacks – one at the plant, the other sinking a ferry
                      w/the heavy water on board – still at bottom of the lake in Norway) on an atomic bomb of
                      their own (claim to have detonated one in Manchuria)

***** Japanese had lots of weapons ready for the Final Battle or invasion of Japan, which was planned & ready
       to go – they also had chemical weapons from Shiro Ishi’s Unit 731 in Manchuria – chemical &
       biological weapons – delivery systems – Ex. High altitude balloons, flea bombs, etc…- USA made
       post-war deal w/ the Devil! No war crimes trials for vivisections, experiments, infection of disease,
       anthrax, plague, etc…
Did the Japanese have an unconditional surrender just like the Germans?:
The “unconditional surrender” policy toward Japan was finally modified by
       – agreeing to let Japan’s Emperor Hirohito stay on the throne (w/Democratic gov’t)
       * No war crimes trials for emperor – Tojo took the fall for emperor – no Shiro Ishi or members of
               Unit 731 unlike Nazis – let Japan have terms that Germany did not get – then USA – built up
               former enemies (W Germany & Japan) into allies while former allies (USSR< etc…) became
               enemies – COLD WAR!
       [Did an unconditional surrender prolong the war, and if so, how?]
What did the USA bring to the war?:
The following were qualities of US participation in WWII:
         A group of highly effective military & political leaders, an enormously effective effort in producing
         weapons & supplies (usually more, & later, better equipment than enemies – out produced the Axis), the
         preservation of the American homeland against invasion or destruction from air (small submarine
         skirmishes & some off-shore shelling, & some balloons w/explosives in 48 continental USA), the
         maintenance & re-affirmation of strength of democracy, What about a higher % of military casualties
         than any other Allied nation
         (USA had least casualties of big ones – USSR suffered more casualties than any country on either side)

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

General notes:
p.827 FDR as “all wise” for Germany first strategy over those who disagree – Pacific war always get ripped off
p.828 Allies Trade Space for Time * German (& Japanese) scientists – weapons – A-Bombs
pp.829-832 The Shock of War
pp.830-831 Japanese-Am Internment (Farewell to Manzanar) Issei, Nisei, Exec Order #9066 (100th/442nd)
pp.832-833 Building the War Machine * strikes Ex Coal Miners – exploited, underpaid – share profits
Kaiser shipbuilding
pp.833-834 Man power & Woman power – Braceros (later deportations in “Operation Wetback”) – Rosie
(Wendy) – day-cares
p.834 War migration map
pp.835-837 wartime migrations
p.835 Tuskegee Airmen photo
p.835 A Philip Randolph (Exec Order #8802)
***** (Charles Drew – Af-Am did first successful blood transfusion – put in charge of Allied blood banks – he
was forced to segregate blood too – his death outside a hospital after an accident – died waiting for a blood
tranfusion b/c white hospital would not admit him)
p.835 Double V, CORE – 1942, NAACP membership increases
p.836 Comanche (Europe) & Navajo (Pacific) “code talkers”
pp.836-837 Zoot Suit Riots in LA, CA 1943 & Detroit, MI 1943
        “Sudden rubbing against one another of unfamiliar peoples produced some distressingly violent action.”
pp.837-838 Holding the Homefront
p.837 National Debt Chart
pp.838-839 The Rising Sun in the Pacific
p.838 Map of Luzon, Bataan, & Corrigador (Philippines)
p.838 (Mao and ) Chiang Kai-shek resist Japanese w/Allied help
p.838 Flying “the Hump” in Himalayas (b/c of Burma Road – Merril’s Mauraders & Gen Stillwell)
p.838 “ill-trained” Filipinos, MacArthur holds fast – delays Japanese – Bataan Death March (POW rescue)
p.839 Japan’s High Tide at Midway (plus Aleutians)
pp.839-841 American Leapfrogging Toward Tokyo (island-hopping & leapfrogging like blitzkrieg Pacific style)
        * Book does opposite of Europe First strategy of Allies
         Guam (Saipan – suicides), Marianas “Turkey Shoot’ F6F Hellcat kill ratio
         6-20-44 Battle of Philippine Sea – massive Japanese losses
p.840 Map of Pacific War
p.841 Churchill – “The Hun is always either at you throat or at your feet.”
pp.841-842 The Allied Halting of Hitler
p.841 Battle of the Atlantic – U-boats, destroyers, RADAR, SONAR, Enigma, New U-boats (not enough early
in war – Downitz) – no sub can stay under indefinitely b/c food is limitation (U-571)
pp.842-843 A Second Front from North Africa to Rome
p.842 USSR lost ~20 million
pp.842-843 “unconditional surrender” debate & results
pp.843-846 D-Day: June 6th, 194p.845 Examining the Evidence – Teheran 1943 – Overlord Discussion
(* Dieppe in France)
p.844 Ike chosen to command D-Day invasion – (feignt w/Patton at Calais – codes, underground, paratroopers,
Rangers, 5 beaches, air power, Mulberry harbors, etc…)
p.846 D-Day (Agincourt 1415 – officer recited Shakespeare) in picture caption
p.846 Aug 1944 invasion of S France (A Murphy)
pp.846-847 FDR: Four Termite of 1944
p.847 Focus on VP – Truman – on Sen Committee for Wasteful Spending – told to stop investigating
Manhattan Project – he later learns it was Atomic Bombs
p.848 FDR defeats Dewey – FDR had Rep owned newspapers against him again
p.848 Quote from Congresswoman Clare Booth Luce – “He lied us into war because he did not have the
political courage to lead us into it.”
pp.848-849 The Last Days of Hitler
p.849 Map of Battle of the Bulge
        * 76,000 casualties – worst US battle ever – so far * Okinawa & Gettysburg were both very bad too
        Bulge mistakes
p.848 bombings
pp.848-849 (Remagen) Rhine River crossing into Germany
p.849 Holocaust – camps liberated – horrors known now for all (unit 731 in Manchuria)
p.849 FDR’s death VE Day 5-8-45
pp.849-851 Japan Dies Hard – US subs sinking Japanese ships – cutting off Japan’s vital lifeline
        sank 1.042 ships ~50% of Japan’s merchant fleet
p.850 Bombings in Japan Ex. Tokyo 3/9-10/1945 ~83,000 KIA
p.850 Leyte Gulf, Iwo Jima, & Pkinawa – short-changed as usual by textbooks that suck!
         Iwo Jima 6,000 KIA not 4,000
         Okinawa 50,000 US casualties (KIA, WIA, MIA, POW)
                 @ Okinawa, Japanese had ~200,000 military & civilian casualties
p.851 2nd Flag Raising (Flags of Our Fathers, Letters from Iwo Jima, The Sands of Iwo Jima)
p.851 Kamikazes (Saipan & Leyte, then Iwo & Okinawa – worst of all – no Final Battle – would’ve been worst)
          They had lots stored up for the Final Battle
pp.851-853 Atomic Bombs
p.852 Hiroshima picture – post-bomb on 8-6-45 180,000 KIA, WIA, MIA 70,000 KIA instantly 60,000 died
later from radiation, etc…
p.852 USSR enters war in Pacific on 8-8-45 day before Nagasaki 8-9-45 KIA of 40,000 instantly, more later
USSR invaded Manchuria & North Korea (not a country split N & S until 1950)
8-14-45 Japan surrendered 8-15-45 VJ Day official surrender on deck of battleship USS Missouri (Big Mo) on
9/2/45 w/MacArthur , etc…
pp.853-854 The Allies Triumphant
p.853 US casualties ~ 1 million ~1/3rd KIA
          plasma, penicillin, (quanine for malaria), etc…. (medics, corpsman, doctors, nurses)
USSR lost ~20 million plus more casualties 13.6 million military killed plus 7.72 million civilians killed plus up
to 30 million more wounded and refugees
p.853 US attacked on W coast Ex balloons w/bombs, etc.. & submarines on both coasts
p.853 “In the end, the US showed itself to be resourceful, tough, and adaptable to accommodate itself to the
tactics of an enemy who was relentless and ruthless.”
         Kind of funny given US history – don’t you think?
p.854 VJ Day 8-15-45 image
p.854 production marvels – won war through production – more of everything – then eventually better & more!
Churchill – “Nothing succeeds like excess.”
Herman Goering (Head of German air force/Luftwaffe – “Americans can’t build planes – only electric ice boxes
and razor blades.”
         Goering also said that the P-51 Mustang (US fighter plane) won the war for the Allies
p.854 “But the American people preserved their precious liberties without serious impairment.”
What would Zinn say? Is this a reference to loss of liberties during WWI – Espionage and Sedition Acts?
What would “enemy aliens” and citizens interned during the war say? Ex. Italian & German internment
Japanese-American internment
p.854 Chronology
p.855 World War II: Triumph or Tragedy?
Post-war scholarship was to avoid isolationist appeasement in Cold War
Another paralleled 1930’s revisionist of post-WWI said US should have stayed out – made it worse
Another thought FDR was naïve isolationist
Others thought FDR was a calculating interventionist
Another focused on Atomic Bombs controversy – racism issue or timing b/c Germans were beaten already
         Gar Alperovitz said bomb was used to scare USSR & hurry surrender
         Martin J. Sherwin said we dropped A-bombs when ready to end was ASAP w/bonus of scaring USSR
***** Textbook ignores Rises to Power of Totalitarian leaders like Stalin (communist), Mussolini (fascist),
Hitler (fascist), & Japan’s militarist gov’t w/emporer Hirohito led by Tojo early in war – he took the fall
It does not explain the role of the emperor in Japan’s gov’t
Battle of Berlin – brutal pay-back – refugees – rapes – POWs – Hitler’s death




Ch 37 The Cold War Begins, 1945-1952 (Ch 37 is Ch 36 in the 13th edition)
Post-war anxiety:
Americans feared that the end of WWII would bring – a return of the Great Depression
Labor struggles:
Taft-Hartley Act delivered a major blow to labor by – outlawing “closed” (all-union) shops
       * Congress passed this with an override of Truman’s veto (p.859)
Taft- Hartley Act of 1947 (p.859) was passed to check the growing power of – labor unions
On home front in 1946, post war USA was characterized by – an epidemic of labor strikes
       (Zinn Ch 16 shows how many strikes b/t 1941-45 & discusses why)
Growth of organized labor in post-WWII era was slowed by (p.859) the Taft-Hartley Act, rapidly growing number
        of service-sector workers, failure of “Operation Dixie” (to unionize the South by the CIO), growing number of
        part-time workers (Ex. Women w/families), What about the reduced number of women in the work force? No,
        b/c the # of women in work force increased!
The GI Bill:
Passage of the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (GI Bill of Rights) was partly motivated by
        – fear that the labor markets could not absorb millions of discharged vets
                  SPHS’ Administration does not allow military recruiters to discuss GI Bill unless asked?
Truman’s post-war domestic policy:
In an effort to forestall economic downturn, the Truman administration (pp.859-860) {All of the except type question!}
        –   created the President’s Council of Economic Advisors (3 advisors), sold war factories & other gov’t
            installations to private businesses at very low prices, passed the Employment Act, which made it gov’t policy
            to promote maximum employment, production, & purchasing power, passes the Servicemen’s Readjustment
            Act (GI Bill of Rights) [which allowed for veterans to get $ for college & low interest home
            loans/mortgages], What about continuing wartime wages & price controls?
Post-war economic boom & its impact on women:
Post WWII prosperity in USA was most beneficial to – women
       (Ex. More in work force, more jobs open than before, but still very narrow field for women)
Feminist revolt (I wonder why the book chose the word revolt?) of the 1960s was sparked by
       – clash b/t demands of traditional role of women as wives & mothers & the realities of employment
One striking consequence of the postwar economic boom was
       – a vast expansion of the home-owning middle class [from 40% to 60%] (p.860)
The long economic boom from WWII to 1970s was fueled primarily by
       – low energy costs (b/c USA controlled Arab oil & got it cheap)
Much of the prosperity of the 1950s & 1960s vested on the underpinnings of – colossal (huge) military budgets
Demographic changes, migration, & real estate:
Post WWII American workers made spectacular gains in productivity owing to – their rising education levels
       (I wonder what Zinn would say?) {Productivity is how much is produced per hour – a rate of efficiency}
Since 1945, population of USA has grown most rapidly in the – Sunbelt
       (CA, NV, AZ, NM, TX, GA, AK, AL, FL, VA – the smiley part of the face of the 48 continental USA)
Much of the Sunbelt’s new prosperity was based on its
       – tremendous influx of $$$ from Fed Gov’t (pp.862-862) {Defense/War industries & military bases – aviation}
               [huge military contracts and/or installations]
Americans were encouraged to move to suburbs b/c
       - home-loan guarantees from Federal Housing Authority (FHA) and the Veterans’ Administration (VA),
               gov’t built highways (to move missiles & troops in case of war), tax reductions for interest
               payments on home mortgages, “white flight” from racial change (in cities moving to suburbs),
               What about the development of fuel efficient automobiles in the late 1940s and through the
               1950s, 1960s, 1970s, ???? That’s funny! 
The rapid rise of suburbia was due to –
       - the baby boom (Such “booms” always precede and follow wars – I wonder why? ), gov’t mortgage
           guarantees, new highways, “white flight,” What about an environmental crisis?
By 1960, proportion of Americans who lived in areas classified as metropolitan (city) suburbs was
       approximately – one out of four or 25% (p.864)
The growth of suburbs led to – an increase in urban poverty (* tax-base leaves the city – hurt – plus ghettos & crime)
Population distribution after WWII followed a pattern of
       – an urban-suburban segregation of blacks and whites in major metropolitan (city) areas
Refusal of FHA to grant home-loans to blacks contributed to – driving many blacks into public housing
The huge post-war “baby boom” reached its peak in – the late 1950s (1957) pp.864 & 866
“Baby Boomers” will create major problem in future – placing enormous strain on the Social Security System
Children in post-war USA:
One sign of stress that the widespread post WWII geographic mobility placed on American families was the
       popularity of advice books on child rearing (Dr. Spock) [lack of inter-generational contact to lean from successive
       generations b/c families moved apart from each other – now isolated)
Farmers in post-war America:
The dramatically reduced # of Am farms and farmers in the postwar era was accompanied by
       - spectacular gains in Am agricultural productivity & food growing [Agribusiness] (13th edition)




“Give ‘em Hell” Harry S. Truman:
Before he was elected VP of the USA in 1944, Harry S. Truman had served as (p.866)
        – a haberdashery storeowner (men’s clothing store), WWI artillery officer (Major despite lack of college
                ed.), a Missouri judge, & US Senator form MO (USS Missouri was chosen for surrender of
                Japan b/c of his daughter christening the ship and it being his home state),
                What about Secretary of the Navy/SecNav?
                        {*Pendergast political machine} [“Give ‘em Hell Harry.”] (“The buck stops here.”)
Characteristics of President Truman
        – few pretensions, willingness to accept responsibility (Ex. “The buck stops here.”),
            honesty (for a politician?), courage (My grandfather thought very highly of him – he took his family
            to FL in part to see Truman.) (What would Zinn say about him/what did he say in Ch 16?)
Why would the Soviets want to invade Japan?:
In early 1945, the USA was eager to have the USSR participate in the projected invasion of Japan b/c
        - Soviet help could reduce the # of American casualties (then came Manhattan! – no need for Soviets?)
***** Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) – The Soviet Union – Commies – Reds – Sickle & Hammer
The origins of the Cold War:
Origins of the Cold War lay in the fundamental disagreement b/t USA & USSR over postwar arrangements in
        – Eastern Europe (“Iron Curtain”)
Stalin’s postwar security concerns focused primarily on
        – Eastern Europe (satellites – “friendly nations” – buffer against Germans, whoever?)
Two superpowers:
USA & USSR resembled each other in that they both – had largely been isolated from world affairs & practiced
        an ideological “missionary” foreign policy (born in their respective revolutions the need to proselytize
        their respective economic and political ideologies – even more during the Cold War) {Isolation of
        course is relative to European affairs as both nations expanded ruthlessly through their interiors
        subjugating people and claiming territories through war and conquest}
Who caused the Cold War?:
Responsibility for starting the Cold War rests with – the USA & USSR (pp.870-871)
        (p.886 Who Was Responsible for the Cold War? This is worth reading!)
The United Nations – success or failure?:
Unlike the failed League of Nations, the new United Nations (UN)
        – was established in a spirit of cooperation before the WWII ended
        – (Would Zinn Ch 16 agree? What type of cooperation, for what purpose? Totally benevolent?)
The earliest & most serious failure of the UN involved its inability to
        – control atomic energy, especially the manufacture of weapons (p.871)
                (Ex. USA wanted to maintain a military advantage & technological edge – p.872)
Nuremberg and other war crimes trials:
Victorious WWII Allies quickly agreed that – Nazism should be destroyed in Germany & high-ranking
       (& later lesser ranking) Nazis should be tried & punished for war crimes (p.872)
       From The Americans p.593
                - Crimes against peace – planning and waging an aggressive war
                - War crimes – acts against the customs of warfare, such as killing hostages & POWs, plundering
                               private property, & destruction of towns & cities
                - Crimes against humanity – murder, extermination, deportation, enslavement of civilians
                        (p.878) Japanese War Crimes Trials – Sort of Worse & Sort of Better
Berlin Airlift:
When USSR denied USA, GB, France access to Berlin in 1948, Truman responded by
       – organizing a gigantic airlift of supplies to Berlin (The Berlin Airlift)
                * From The Americans p.611 327 days, 277,000 (round-the-clock) flights, 2.3 million tons
Containment (of communism):
Soviet specialist George Kennan framed a coherent (who says?) approach for the USA in the Cold War by
       advising a policy of – containment (p.874)
USA’s postwar containment policy was based on the assumption that the USSR was fundamentally
       – expansionist but cautious
Truman Doctrine:
Immediate crisis that prompted announcement of Truman Doctrine was related to threat of Communists taking
       over in – Greece & Turkey
Under the Truman Doctrine, USA pledged to – support those who were resisting subjugation by communists
       p. 874 March 12, 1947 – Truman asked Congress to support Greece & Turkey w/ $400 million in
                                       economic ( & military) aid to stop commies (What does Zinn Ch 16 say?)
       p. 874 “it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting subjugation
                  by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” (USSR could say the same thing really)
       p.886 &/or pp.874-875 – sweeping & open-ended statement – Truman’s overreaction?
                                       Polarized world into “US & Them” - pro-US-capitalists-democracies
                                       (or dictatorships if still capitalist, not commie pinkos) vs. pro-Soviet-
                                       communist/socialist –totalitarian regimes) – NATO vs. Warsaw Pact
Postwar US programs & primary purposes: (pp.874-883)
       Point Four – aid underdeveloped nations of Latin America, Asia, & Africa (avoid communist aid)
                        Benefit “Third World” nations (Here’s some serious Eurocentrism) (Zinn Ch 16?)
                                       First World – USA & Allies, industrialized, developed nations
                                       Second World – USSR & Commie, Pinko Allies, also developed 
                                       Third World – Developing nations, not aligned with USA or USSR
                                               Today – “Third World” means under- developed, poor nation
       North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (US first peace-time alliance) – to resist Soviet threat
                [GB, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, W. Germany, Netherlands, USA, etc…]
                        {Warsaw Pact – USSR alliance to counter western threat}
                               EAST vs. WEST                     (What would Zinn say?)
       Truman Doctrine – assist communist threatened Greece & Turkey (What does Zinn say?)
       Marshall Plan – promote economic recovery of Europe (& Japan, etc…)
                p.875 $12.5 billion over 4 years in 16 countries goes w/$2 billion US dollars to UNRRA
                               & $ to IMF & Reconstruction bank too
       What does Zinn Ch 16 say? Ex. What was the purpose of the Marshall Plan?
Why would Truman exaggerate the Soviet threat?:
Truman’s defenders argue that he exaggerated the Soviet threat b/c he – feared a revival of isolationism
       (* Lie to America b/c they don’t know what’s good for them idea?) (Zinn Ch 16?)
US foreign policy:
A leading American theologian who argued for a vigorous American foreign policy and a return to Christian
       foundations was – Norman Vincent Peale
The Marshall Plan:
Pres Truman’s Marshall Plan called for – substantial financial assistance to rebuild western Europe
       p.875 (* Avoid communism in W Europe & stimulate our economy by rebuilding theirs)
The Marshall Plan succeeded in reviving Europe’s economy and thwarting the large internal Communist parties
       threatening to take over – Italy & France
Creation of Israel:
Truman had the support of the USSR in his support for the establishment of the state of Israel [created through
       the UN on May 14th, 1948] – but he did not have the support of his own US State Department, US
       Defense Department, the western Allies (Ex. Britain), and of course the Arab states who promptly tried
       to wipe out the Jewish people in Palestine
       – Why not have support for creation of Israel?
       – B/c the Arabs would be and were urinated to say the least, and they had oil we needed!
Pres Truman risked American access to Middle Eastern oil supplies when he
       – recognized the new Jewish state of Israel (So would the Arabs really not sell oil to their #1 consumer?)


North Atlantic Treaty Organization:
US membership in NATO – strengthened “containment” of Soviet communism, helped reintegrate (West)
        Germany into the European family, reassure Europeans that the US would not abandon them, strike a
        major blow to American isolationists, {Intimidate the USSR?}, What about reduce our defense
        expenditures, since we would get the help of other nations if attacked? 
        { became the order of the Cold War – military-industrial complex – weapons manufacturing}
USA’s participation in NATO – marked a dramatic departure from traditional American isolationism (p.877)
        (Isolation in European affairs)
        {* Don’t worry, now that the Cold War gives us lots of reasons, we invade, meddle overtly and covertly,
                and intimidate, and back lots of good guys and lots of scumbags too. Look out Latin America,
                        Asia, and Africa, the Cold War is about to be fought on your soil with your people!}
                        USA controlled/controls lots of places!
The USA, under the NATO, assumed a moral commitment to aid any signatory (those who signed/member) -
        assaulted by the Soviet Union (alliance) {and/or presumably other aggressors?}
US build up two former enemies and prepares for war with a former ally:
Postwar Japan – had its military leaders tried for war crimes, as had occurred in Germany (p.878)
        Tojo took the fall for Hirohito – not like Germany
        Shiro Ishi of Unit 731 & scientists got off w/out people knowing what they did – USA wanted data on
                                                their experiments – sickening – but Cold War – justifiable?
        Does not seem the same as had occurred in Germany to me though
Build up West Germany too – along with Japan – became economic powerhouses
The new Japanese government created in 1946 by Gen MacArthur’s staff
        – pledged itself to providing for the equality of women, it introduced a Western-style democratic
            constitution, it paved the way for spectacular economic recovery, it renounced militarism (*Japan
            does not teach about its aggression in WWII only its victimization), What about Japan joining a
            military alliance to prevent the spread of communism in East Asia (as the West Germans joined
            NATO in Europe)?
How did the Democrats “lose” China?:
Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) and the Nationalist (Chinese) gov’t lost the Chinese Civil War (b/t Mao’s
        communists & Chiang’s Nationalists) to the communists & Mao Zedong mainly b/c – Jiang lost the
        confidence & the support of his people (b/c he was corrupt, cruel, oppressive, & elitist) (p.879)
Communist witch hunts (another Red Scare):
In an effort to detect communists w/in the fed gov’t, Pres Truman established the
        – Loyalty Review Board (p.879) (Worse than McCarthy according to Zinn Ch 16)
                House Committee on Un-American Activities (Nixon, Reagan?) pp.879-880
                Office of Strategic Services (OSS during WWII) becomes Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
                Smith Act p.879 (Zinn Ch 16) 18 communists prosecuted for sedition or free speech?
                McCarran Internal Security Act – vetoed by Truman – passed w/override p.880
                       Pres can arrest or detain suspicious people during an “internal security emergency”
                               Vague & ambiguous
                       From The Americans p.621 Truman – “In a free country, we punish men for the crimes
                       they commit, but never for the opinions they hold.”
                       p.623 political cartoon – HUAC in car driving on sidewalk running people over clearly
                       out of control – caption reads “It’s OKAY – We’re hunting communists.”
p.880 Rosenbergs – details {The Americans pp.621-622}
Not in text (Ch 37) – Hollywood Ten & blacklisting, etc… (McCarthyism)




Truman and civil rights:
In 1948, many southern Democrats split from party to support J. Strom Thurmond b/c
       – Truman took a strong stand in favor of civil rights pp.881-883
[Ex. See p.894 in Ch 38 - Executive Order #9981 Desegregating military in 1948 & pushing for a federal
       anti-lynching law b/c it made him sick to think of it, especially veterans returning from the war (not too
       bad for the “average man’s average man” from the “show me state” – MO) – {remember, Missouri was
       a slave state, so he went against his own as did LBJ when he pushed for civil rights.} Korea was the
       first war the USA fought with integrated units, not just black troops w/white officers – Now there were
       black officers and enlisted men mixed in with whites of various ranks – although there still were
       segregated units such as the US Army’s 24th Infantry]
1948 election:
1948 Election: New York Governor (and former prosecutor) Thomas Dewey (loose the moustache – no
       candidates ever have had them since Dewey by the way) – Republican, Truman – Democrat – upset
       winner even though he was the incumbent, J. Strom Thurmond – Dixiecrat (State’s Rights Party) {Racist
       who stayed in the Senate until his recent death practically at ~5000 years old?}, Henry Wallace (FDR’s
       VP who got dumped for Truman in 1944 election) – Progressive party
Truman won – Chicago Daily News ran headline that read “Dewey Defeats Truman” – famous photo of
       Truman holding it over his head smiling – 303 electoral to Dewey’s 189 & Thurmond’s 39, Who knows
       about Wallace? Who cares, in America he lost, so he’s a loser and we can forget him! 
1948 Presidential Candidates & Political Parties: J. Strom Thurmond – States’ Rights, Henry
       Wallace – Progressive, Harry S. Truman – Democratic (WINNER!), & Thomas E. Dewey - Republican
Truman’s second term:
Pres Truman’s domestic legislative plan was dubbed the – Fair Deal (p.883)
       Called for improved housing, full employment, higher minimum wage, better farm support prices, new
       TVAs, extended Social Security – Republicans & Southern Democrats over-rode most of it – He called
       them the “Do-Nothing Congress” but they actually did a lot; any way, Truman managed to get higher
       minimum wage, improved housing, & extension of Social Security in 1950
During Truman’s presidency, Congress overrode his veto of the
       – Taft-Hartley Act & the MCCarran Internal Security Act
“The Forgotten War”:
Pres Truman’s action upon hearing of the invasion of South Korea illustrated his commitment to a foreign
       policy of – containment (actually worked in Korea, but failed in Vietnam, or did it?)
Pres Truman relieved Gen Douglas MacArthur of command of the UN (mostly USA but surprisingly consisted
       of several NATO nations) troops in Korea when
       – MacArthur began to take issue publicly with presidential policies (concerning fighting a limited war in Korea)
       {MacArthur was guilty of insubordination and being a West Point man and commandant, he knew he was insubordinate too}
 Explain “The Forgotten War” - Korea (1950-1953) – see maps in class & on p.884 & 883-885
       [***** Hot zones & active fighting in the DMZ since war – Ex. During Vietnam War]
The imperious & insubordinate commander in Korea who was fired by Truman was – Gen Douglas MacArthur
Military-industrial complex & US foreign policy:
NSC-68 (National Security Council Document #68) called for
       – a massive increase in military spending
       (& build up as part of the “containment,” of communism where it already was without letting it spread, policy)
The NSC-68 document reflected the US gov’t’s belief – in limitless capabilities of US economy & society
         (“a permanent wartime economy”p.861 & Zinn Ch 16 discusses this too)
{Ike warned of a military-industrial complex as he left office that would run the gov’t – a little like a fireman
         who is in fact an arsonist who conspires with other pyromaniacs to start fires light a blaze in a building.
         Then that arsonist/fireman comes running out of the burning building saying to a new firman on the
         scene, “Watch out; there’s a really bad fire in there, and it’s very dangerous. If I were you, I would not
         go in there. Oh well, I’m out of here. I’m retiring. Good luck with that.”}
Chronology:
         Berlin Airlift (1948 pp.873-874),
         Fall (“Loss”) of China (1949 pp.878-879),
         Korean War (June 25th, 1950 – 1953 pp.883-885 & pp.888-890 in Ch 38)
Chronology:
         Truman Doctrine (March 1947), Marshall Plan (July 1947), NATO (1949)
WWII Yalta Conference:
At the wartime Yalta Conference (on the Black Sea w/ FDR, Stalin, & Churchill), the Big Three Allies
         (USA, USSR, GB) agreed – to establish a postwar international peacekeeping organization & that the
         Soviets would enter the Pacific war against Japan within 3 months of the surrender of Germany (5-8-45)
         {USSR invaded Manchuria on 8-8-45, after 8/6 & before 8/9}
Cold War tensions:
By 1945, the Soviet Union had reason to be suspicious of the USA b/c – British & Americans had delayed in
         opening a second front in Europe during WWII & the British & Americans had not informed the Soviets
         of an atomic bomb project until it was completed (D&L Ch13-worried about USSR spies, not really
         Axis so much) {Did not matter as Soviets had spies anyway}
The United Nations (again):
In its early years, the United Nations (UN) was successful in
         – preserving peace in several “hot spots” like Iran, guiding several former colonies to independent
                 nationhood (not Vietnam, French Indochina – consider USA’s interests in giving French
                 Indochina back to France & letting them fight communists there from 1945 until 1954), helping
                 create a new Jewish state of Israel in Palestine – (That has gone very smoothly I might add )
                 {USA pushed & aided, then Arabs tried to destroy – led to bitter, nasty fighting on and off
                 w/Arab states from then until today}, establishing international health, science, & food agencies
The National Security Act of 1947:
The National Security Act of 1947 created the
         – Joint Chiefs of Staff (heads of all the branches of the military US Army, USAF, USN, USMC,
                 USCG), the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) {to spy on other nations – not US citizens, that’s
                 the FBI’s job! – See they know I just wrote that with the Patriot Act now in play, so if I’m not in
                 school, you’ll know why.}, Department of Defense (w/new Secretary of Defense replacing the
                 Secretary of War, but the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Air Force, the Secretary of
                 the Navy (& USMC) all report to the Sec of Defense)
* Nat’l Sec Act also created the National Security Agenciy & the USAF – “Off we go into the wild blue yonder!”
USAF born in 1947 – no longer part of the US Army Air Corps
USAF Strategic Air Command (SAC) – then flying round the clock with atomic bombs plus ICBMs!!!!!
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

General notes:
pp.858-860 Postwar Economic Anxieties GI Billp.859, Taft-Hartley p.859, CIO p.859
pp.860-861 The Long Economic Boom, 1950-1970
       Chart p.861 Coca-cola around world (Ex Max Schmelling – Joe Louis)
pp.861-862 The Roots of Postwar Prosperity
pp.862-864 The Smiling Sunbelt
       p.862 Agribusiness p.863 Map of Population Increase by state relative to Nat’l avg of 85%
p.864 The Rush to the Suburbs
p.865 Examining the Evidence – Advertising 1956 – Buy 2 Fords, especially if one is a turquoise convertible 1956 T-Bird
pp.864 & 866 The Postwar Baby Boom
       p.866 Some descriptios of Truman are BS! P.866 What Next? Political cartoon of Truman
p.866-867 Truman: The “Gutty” Man from Missouri
pp.867 & 870 Yalta: Bargain or Betrayal?           P.867 picture of Big Three @ Yalta in Feb 1945
pp.868-869 The Suburbanites “Levittowns” “tract” homes – assembly line production – fast, cheap, efficient
               (“crabgrass frontier”) (“The Fragmented Metropolis” – LA, CA)

pp.870-871 The United States & the Soviet Union
        p.870 USSR asked for $6 billion loan in 1945, USA rejected, then gave British $3.25 billion in 1946
pp.871-872 Shaping the Postwar World
        p.871 FDR’s dream of “open world” decolonized, demilitarized, & democratized
                        -“despotic” Russia, but no “elitist” or “domineering” USA
        IMF & IB of R – US control w/$ & to make $ (Zinn Ch 16)
pp.872-874 The Problem of Germany p.872 picture at Nuremberg p.873 Churchill “iron curtain” speech
p.873 Map of divided Germany w/occupation zones (& Berlin sort of)
        pp.873-874 Berlin Airlift p.874 picture of Berlin Airlift
pp.874-876 Crystallizing the Cold War         p.874 Kennan & containment pp.874-875 Truman Doctrine
        p.875 Marshall Plan, IMF, UNRRA, World Bank Plus – Middle Eastern Oil!!!!!
        p.875 Political cartoon of USA giving aid to Greece & Turkey – a satirical view of course
        p.876 picture for Marshall Plan       * Most $ went to developed nations
From The Americans p.610 Marshall Plan Chart * Most $ went to developed nations
        (there’s one in the World Cultures book too Modern World History)
        p.876 Map of US foreign aid 1945-1954
        p.877 Soviet cartoon of US w/carrot in front of Europe – Marshall Plan
pp.877-878 America Begins to Rearm            p.877 NSA/NSC NATO CIA
pp.878-879 Reconstruction & Revolution in Asia
        p.878 Japanese War Crimes Trials p.878 China’s Civil War
        pp.878-879 “loss” of China p.879 H-Bomb (fission to get fusion H2 & He) p.880 picture of H-Bomb
pp.879-880 Ferreting Out Alleged Communists
        p.879 HUAC Loyalty Review Board (1940-peacetime) Smith Act (Zinn Ch 16)
        p.880 Alger Hiss Joseph McCarthy Richard Nixon (soon to be Ike’s VP) (picture on p.881)
Not in text in Ch 37 any way – Hollywood Ten & blacklisting
        p.880 Rosenbergs – details From The Americans pp.621-622 Hiss & Rosenbergs (Hiss was guilty)
                                                      p.620 Paul Robeson Af-Am Rutgers Football Acting Star
                                                      p.620 McCarthy spider cartoon “I can’t do this to me!”
                                                      p.624 McCarthy dies of alcoholism
                                                               Am Pag too p.891 In Ch 38 death of alcoholism
p.881 Scientists commenting on how other countries will acquire the bomb leading to hysteria and accusation
pp.881-883 Democratic Divisions in 1948 p.882 pol cartoon Truman p.882 “Dewey Defeats Truman”
pp.883-884 The Korean Volcano Erupts (1950) p.883 US forces in Korea 6-25-50?
       Korea Maps p.884
[*USSR is not in UN over China vs. Taiwan recognition, therefore, no veto to stop Korean war by UN Security Council]
        p.885 cartoon – p.885 MacArthur (wants nukes to hit China & USSR) – he was a “legend”
p.886 Who Was to Blame for the Cold War?
        Soviets, USA, Truman’s overreaction & escalation, US capitalism, overreaction on both sides,
        USSR more at fault? Either way, they ended it? Or did Ronny “the main man” Reagan do it?
                 Soviets took all machinery & scientists from Eastern Europe
                 * USA took all the good scientists from Western Europe & put them to work like Werner von
                   Braun – space program/NASA – we did the same thing with Nazi spies, etc…
Fact: many Germans surrendering in WWII offered to help fight the Russians realizing they were the future
        enemies of Western democracies.
Scramble for German technology after WWII
        – USSR copied captured B-29s for delivery of their future atomic bombs (1949)
Nazis escaping to South America through the Odessa network – Mengele, Eichman, etc…
        Adolf Eichman – SS officer in charge of implementing the “final solution” was caught & tried
The Israeli Mossad (Israeli intelligence) looked for and found many of them! Don’t mess with Israel or the
Mossad (Israeli intelligence & spy agency) will make you seriously regret it – ask the Munich (1972 Olympics)
assassins for example, oh that’s right you can’t, they’re dead! They said “Never Again!” after the Holocaust!
They meant it too! In general, don’t mess with Israel b/c they will mess up anyone who threatens them!

   AP US History Review 2009 Session #5 Eisenhower-Present
          Includes the following chapters from The American Pageant (12th edition):
                                                                    Ch 38-42

Ch 38 The Eisenhower Era, 1952-1960 (Ch 38 is Ch 37 in the 13th edition)
1952 election:
Prospects for a Democratic victory in the 1952 Presidential election were poor because – military deadlock in
       Korea, inflation, White House scandal, Republicans nominated Eisenhower (Ike – who was extremely
       popular), Truman did not make the Democrats look good by 1952, and he refused to seek another term
       anyway; plus, he fired MacArthur (even though the Am public eventually appreciated that decision)
Richard Nixon was selected as Dwight David Eisenhower’s VP running mate in 1952 as a concession to
       – hard-line anti-communists
       (b/c of HUAC, blacklisting, the Alger Hiss case, etc… This is why he can visit China & the USSR in 1972, b/c of strong anti-communist credentials)
During 1952 presidential campaign, Republican candidate Eisenhower declared he would
         personally go to Korea to help end the {“police action”} war
Politics and the Television:
In terms of politics, TV (did not enable political parties to con’t their role of educating & mobilizing the
         electorate) – threatened traditional role of political parties, applied standards of show business &
         commercialism to political messages, allowed lone-wolf politicians to address voters directly,
         encouraged reliance on short slogans & sound bites {even more than the short slogans used in the past
         for elections – at least back then they listened to rhetoric from politicians, but things may not really be
         all that different other than the medium used for politicking, which is in many ways vile, crude,
         deceptive, and malicious}
Work force changes in the 1950s:
Changing nature of the work force in 1950s – More jobs in military-related aerospace industry,
         science & technology drove economic growth, white-collar (service-sector & office work-not manual
         labor) workers surpassed blue-collar (manual labor) workers in numbers, labor unions reached a peak
         & then began to decline, & job opportunities were opening for women in white-collar workforce
“I like Ike. You like Ike. Everybody likes Ike.”:
Eisenhower’s greatest asset was his – enjoyment of the affection & respect of the American people
The record would seem to indicate that Pres Eisenhower’s strongest commitment during his presidency was to
       – social harmony (not social justice or racial desegregation – until challenged by AR in 1957)
On subject of racial prejudice, Pres Eisenhower – had advised against integrating armed forces
       [* Ike was weak on civil rights, except Little Rock, etc…, he did not push for civil rights or help as Truman had before him
                        – only rose to challenge presented by Gov Faubus in Little Rock in 1957 really – sent 101st Airborne]
{* Little Rock, Arkansas – Central High School – Little Rock 9 – Elizabeth Eckford, others, several days –
national Guard, 101st Airborne – reactions – How Arkansas (& other states & communities in South & mid-
West) avoided desegregation}
Eisenhower’s attitude toward racial justice can best be described as – not inclined toward promoting integration
In response to Sen Joseph McCarthy’s anti-communist attacks, Eisenhower
        – allowed him to control the personnel policy at the State Dept
Red Scare – Communist witch hunting in the 1950s – “It’s OK. We’re hunting communists.”:
Among anti-communists, Sen. Joseph McCarthy (WS) was the
        – one who most damaged free speech & fair play (highest profile for sure)
        (Zinn Ch 16 shows statistically Truman’s Loyalty Review Board ruined more lives & careers, etc…)
Sen Joseph McCarthy first rose to national prominence by
        – charging that dozens of known communists were working w/in State Dept
            {no solid evidence – made things up often – turns out he was not entirely wrong – but he was a
            scumbag who was only trying to further his career at the expense of others out of selfishness, spite,
            and/or complete lack of concern for the consequences for the individuals who he targeted – funny
            how textbook points out his alcohol related death on p.891 – every textbook does this for him – a
            villain – texts don’t point out that say G. Washington had syphilis, but they will for Al Capone –
            ”historical selection” is nice isn’t it?}
As result of Sen McCarthy’s crusade against communist subversion in the USA,
        - the State Dept lost many Asian specialists who might have counseled a wiser course in Vietnam
                {Maybe? Justification or absolution or excuse or “passing the buck?” – blame somebody else?}
Sen McCarthy’s anti-communist crusade ended when he – alleged that there were communists in the US Army
        {TV coverage of Senate hearings exposed his malicious nature & lack of evidence
        – Army lawyers hammered him & everyone could see that on TV – he never recovered}
African-Americans & Civil Rights in the 1950s:
New militancy & restlessness among many members of the Af-Am community after 1945 was especially
        generated by – the gap b/t American ideals & racial prejudices/practices revealed during WWII
        {& before & after unfortunately}
        [ lynchings, Jim Crow, de facto segregation, etc…] [New org since 1942 – CORE]
       [Many returning Af-Am soldiers were not going to put up w/that second-class status – unfortunately
       some were lynched for it, even wearing their uniforms – one thing in particular that disgusted &
       motivated Truman to desegregate the military & civil serve – something Ike advised against & thought
       was a mistake – hence his record – while Truman desegregated in 1948, an election year, & was from MO]
       (“All men are created equal, except Negroes.” – Lincoln in context of hypocrisy of USA’s ideals and realities)
In an effort to overthrow Jim Crow laws & the segregated system they had created, Af-Am’s used methods
        – such as economic boycotts {India vs. British}, legal attacks on the underpinnings of segregation in
                courts [Charles Houston & Thurgood Marshall – lawyers winning cases to establish precedent],
                mobilization of black churches on behalf of black rights {powerful segregated institutions that
                helped movement generate intense following & organization}, use of non-violent tactics of
                Mohandas Gandhi, the Mahatma {another tactic learned from India} [although not all tactics
                were non-violent before, or at that time, or in the future – after all – Af-Am’s lives were often
                threatened literally, so they sometimes had no choice but to defend themselves using violence at
                various times since Reconstruction through the Civil Rights Movement], What about appeals to
                foreign governments to pressure the USA to establish racial justice?
                {Does not our pledge state, “…with liberty and justice for all.”?}
Know how these are related: Non-violent direct action {civil disobedience – Thoreau, Gandhi, MLK jr., etc…},
        Martin Luther King jr., Rosa Parks, Montgomery Bus Boycott {* 1955 – over a year- issues – Parks}
How did the Supreme Court respond to civil rights in the 1950s?:
Supreme Court began to advance the cause of civil rights in 1950s b/c – Congress & presidency had largely
        abdicated (given up) their responsibilities by keeping their hands off the issue
        {Zinn disagrees in other readings you may read later this year}
        [* Chief Justice Earl Warren, Af-Am lawyers – Charles Houston & Thurgood Marshall]
In the epochal 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, the Supreme Court
        – declared that the concept of “separate but equal” facilities for whites & blacks was unconstitutional
         [* Dixicrats responded w/ “Declaration of Constitutional Principles” – a southern manifesto vowing to fight segregation]
         [* Background info – precedents, several cases – Brown first on list – Brown’s daughter – cases from
         KS, SC, VA, & Delaware – Marshall had won 29 or 32 cases argued in front of Sup Crt – later became
         first Af-Am Sup Crt Justice – he won case to desegregate by demonstrating the feelings of inferiority of
         Af-Am children b/c of segregation showing that schools were unequal along w/ obvious factors such as
         $$$ spent & the actual facilities in comparison – but schools did not integrate
         “…with all deliberate speed…” as a later ruling had forced – today schools are more segregated than
         1954 but based on socio-economic factors rather than race – still same result in many ways
         – “Lemon Grove Incident” about Mex-Am’s & Mex migrants winning 1930s case to desegregate
         Lemon Grove schools years before Brown v. Board of Ed. proving segregation was here in CA too
         – as Zinn would say – there are victories along the way!]




        READ: From The Americans text on p.698:
               “To separate [African-American children] from others of similar age and qualifications solely
               because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that
               may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone…We conclude that in the
               field of public education, the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place. Separate educational
               facilities are inherently unequal.” - Chief Justice Earl Warren
The 1954 Sup Crt case that ruled racially segregated school systems “inherently unequal” was
        – Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
        {* Sweatt v. Painter was in 1950 – must admit blacks to state law schools even in black schools exist}
{* Little Rock, Arkansas – Central High School – Little Rock 9 – Elizabeth Eckford, others, several days –
national Guard, 101st Airborne – reactions – How Arkansas (& other states & communities in South & mid-
West) avoided desegregation}
Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee:
Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee [SNCC] was an outgrowth of the
        – “sit-in” movement launched by young Southern blacks (& whites) [CORE]
           {later not so inclined to “non-violence” – Stokely Carmichael}
           {* Woolworth’s “sit-in” in Greensboro, NC in 1960 – led to other “sit-ins,” etc…}
Ike and defense spending:
As president, Eisenhower supported – putting the breaks on military spending
[built up USAF, not US Army & USN – which led USN to develop nuclear subs as a missile platform to rival USAF bombers - Adm. Rickover]
Ike’s domestic policies:
Pres Eisenhower defined the domestic philosophy of his administration as – “dynamic conservatism”
        “liberal in all things human” (except civil rights) & “conservative” in all things political & economic
During his presidency, Eisenhower accepted the principle & extended benefits of the – Social Security System
        [* One of the few New Deal & Fair Deal programs he did not try to undo while in office]
Largest public works project during Eisenhower’s presidency was – construction of interstate highway system
        [* It was much larger & more expensive than any New Deal program
                – but for missiles & troops to move in war more than for the people really]
Ike’s foreign policy:
As a part of his “New Look” foreign policy, Eisenhower – called for “open skies” over both the USA & USSR
         [fly-overs to inspect each other – Khrushchev rejected – then May, 1960, the U-2 incident – it’s explained later in notes]
Eisenhower’s “New Look” foreign policy of the 1950s planned for – a greater reliance on (US) air power & the
        deterrent power of nuclear weapons rather than on the (conventional – non-nuclear) forces of the
        US Army & US Navy – {Led services to compete for $$$ with ability to deliver nuclear capabilities
                  – Ex. USN’s nuclear powered submarines capable of launching nuclear missiles}
Ike’s policies for Native American Indians:
Eisenhower’s policies toward Native American Indians included – a return to the assimilation goals of the
        Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 (p.898)
        [termination of Indian status & allotment of lands to individual
                                    – no more tribal status – assimilate Indians, this time w/out Indian schools]
Braceros:
The bracero program b/t USA & Mexico involved – legally importing Mexican farm workers to USA (pp.897-898)
        – [then later to deport them, “Operation Wetback” was initiated – Am Pag blamed Mexico really – not so much USA] (p.897)
America gives the French back their Indochinese empire leading to a US sponsored war in Vietnam:
As the French fortress at Dienbienphu was about to fall to Ho Chi Minh’s (Viet Minh) communist forces in
        1954, Eisenhower – refused to permit military involvement (p.900)
        {* Truman & Ike funded the French war against the communists in then French Indochina - $2.6 billion The Americans p.725}
Leader of the nationalist (communist) movement in Vietnam (French Indochina) since WWI
       (until he died in 1969) was – Ho Chi Minh (renamed Saigon after him – Ho Chi Minh City)
The 1955 Geneva Convention – called for 2 Vietnams (divided at the 17th parallel) to hold national elections
       (to unify the country under one political regime) within two years
        {* USA’s guy, Diem, did not hold elections b/c he knew he’d lose, as did we, so Vietnam remained split N (communist) & S (capitalist)}
Hungary, 1956:
In 1956, the Hungarians revolted against Soviet domination, and the USA & Eisenhower
        – did nothing to help defeat the commies!
            {What could they have done w/out starting war I always wonder about this one?}
Cold War thaw:
Cold War seemed to thaw a little when, in 1955, USSR agreed to – end its military occupation of Austria
The CIA risks “blowback” due to some nasty covert operations:
In response to a supposed Soviet threat to Middle Eastern oil, the United States’ Central Intelligence Agency
        (CIA) in 1953 – staged a coup (take over) to overthrow the Iranian government & install
                                                                      Shah Mohammed Reza Palavi as dictator
        {* Shah had a brutal secret police – totalitarian – we liked him & cheap oil}
                {Ex of questionable people USA back during Cold War (& other times too) b/c they were
                              not communists, even though we knew they were brutal totalitarian dictators}
During the 1950s, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) engineered pro-American political coups (take overs)
        in both – Iran & Guatemala {* I told you the USA would be back to controlling affairs.}
Trouble in Egypt in 1956:
In 1956, the USA condemned Britain & France (& Israel) as the aggressors in the Suez (Canal) Crisis.
        [* Nassar nationalized canal & got invaded by the 3 nations listed above – USA & USSR protested
                through UN - USA & USSR forced Suez over to Egypt – British, French, Israelis not happy]
The Suez (Canal) Crisis marked the last time in history that the USA could – use its “oil weapon”
        [threatening to stop selling oil to countries as a form of diplomacy such as was the case w/Japan in WWII]
         {* USA used to have large reserves – apparently, it still does today as well}
The Eisenhower Doctrine:
The 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine empowered the president to extend economic & military aid to nations of
         the Middle East that wanted help in resisting communist aggression
         [Eventually alliances in regions such as MEATO & SEATO]
“I like Ike. You like Ike. Everybody likes Ike, again.”:
During his 2nd term, Eisenhower – took a more active personal role in governing
         {Less golf, fishing, hunting, etc… was the accusation} - [Myth America – Presidents documentary]
Sputnik scares the #!*$ out of America:
In response to launching of Sputnik by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1957,
         - fed gov’t began spending millions of $$$ to improve American science & language education
        {* The Right Stuff, October Sky, From the Earth to the Moon, Apollo 13}
        ** National Defense Education Act (NDEA) – encourage science & language ed in USA to “catch up” to USSR
        [*** Space Race!!! Huge part of the Cold War – happened b/c of Cold War]
        [* Ex. Similar to today – worried about falling behind China for instance – math & science pushed]
Related: Launching of Sputnik, National Defense Education Act, “rocket fever,” &
        National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA)
        {* Robert Goddard, American rocket scientist was inspiration & employment of
                                       Werner von Braun-former Germany scientist behind V-1/V-2 rockets}
        [***** If I only had the time for Mercury, Gemini, & Apollo!]
Accountability for corrupt Union leadership:
What about Landrum-Griffin Act?
                Think Jimmy Hoffa & Teamsters! Accountability for Corruption of Labor Leaders
Paris summit of 1960 & the U-2 incident:
Paris summit conference scheduled for 1960 collapsed b/c of the – U-2 incident (May 1960)
        {* U-2 planes, Ike, Khrushchev, “shot down” by jet wash really, did not eat cyanide, caught, admission}




US foreign policy in Latin America:
By the end of 1950s, Latin American anger toward USA had intensified b/c Washington (DC) [US gov’t] had
        – extended massive aid to Europe & little to Latin America, con’t to intervene in Latin American
            (and others’) affairs, supported bloody dictators who claimed to be fighting communism {around the
            globe as part of Cold War policy}, had the CIA direct a coup in Guatemala (plus previous dealings
            in Nicaragua, Haiti, Cuba, etc…),
            What about the USA regarding Castro’s communist gov’t in Cuba after his revolution for the
            people? Did the USA encourage Castro? {* Why/why not?}
            [* How did the USA feel about Fulgencio Bautista compared with Fidel Castro? *Havana in the
            1940s & 1950s was a US party town with corruption and vice, plus US investment and economic
            control of Cuba were factors too. Who did many Latin Americans resent more, the USA or Castro?
            *Castro is/was (he won’t die!) cruel manipulative self-serving dictator, more a “Fidelist” than a true
            communist, boasting a few successes in exporting communism & social medicine, despite intense
            US sanctions that really hurt Cubans much more than they hurt Castro, thus US policy does
            contribute to Cuban poverty; whereas Castro’s policies are the real economic poison that pollutes
            Cuba’s defunct and decrepit economy.]
1960 election (Ike out with a warning & JFK in with “Camelot”):
Factor that may well have tipped the electoral scales for JFK in 1960 was
        – the televised debates with Richard Nixon [first-ever presidential debates, and just happen to be on TV]
                {young versus old – although Nixon was only a few years older, but he was ill & compared to
                        JFK, he’s just plain unattractive in general – thus image was important – radio listeners
                                thought Nixon did very well – TV viewers felt Kennedy had won easily}
When Eisenhower left presidency in 1961, - he remained an extraordinarily popular figure
       {* from General, to Supreme Commander of Allies in Europe, to US Army Chief of Staff,
               to Supreme Commander of NATO, president of Colombia University, to President from 1952 to 1960 (1953-1961)}
       (* He warned of the military-industrial complex {industry, military, & Congress/gov’t} pp.907-908 Warning on p.908)
American life in the 1950s:
Affluent life-style developed in the USA during 1950s was stimulated mainly by
       – new technology of television (TV) {advertising}
Two postwar American fiction writers who explored the problems & anxieties of affluence were
       – John Updike (in The Century videos) & John Cheever
       * Joseph Heller Catch-22        * Kurt Vonnegut Slaughterhouse Five       * Norman Mailer The Naked and the Dead
Harbingers of emerging new life-style of leisure & affluence
        – do not include the maturity of radio, rather they do include – easy credit {like 1920s, post-WWI}, fast-
        food production (TV Dinners, McDonald’s, lots of frozen & convient foods for “on the go” life-styles of
        middle-class Americans in 1950s), new forms of recreation (bowling, golf, recreational sports, some
        youth sports, scouting, camping, motorcycle riding, skiing, water-skiing, etc…, & a franker (more
        honest & forth-right) treatment of sexuality (also like post-WWI, 1920s)
The title of Ralph Ellison’s novel Invisible Man refers to
        – an Af-Am whose supposed supporters are unable to see him as a real man
Compared with WWI, the literary outpouring from WWII can best be described as
        – less realistic (than the “Lost Generation” after WWI)
Many better known American poets in post-WWII era (plus Hemingway) – ended their lives through suicide
         [* Odd how the textbook seemed to focus on this – I guess a bit sad, a bit sick, & a bit humorous for a text!]
        p.914 “life of poet began in sadness and ended in madness”
In 1950s, the key to economic growth rested in – electronics {Ex. Transistors replacing vaccum tubes so much smaller & better}
        {* Old computers vs. today – began in WWII era, just before, but enhanced by WWII & Cold War}
In 1950s, workforce began to change when – white-collar workers out-numbered blue-collar workers
B/t 1950 & 1980, majority of newly created jobs in clerical & service fields were held by – women
Sports reflected the (demographic) population shift toward the West & South
        – when baseball’s Brooklyn Dodgers & New York’s Giants moved to (SF & LA) CA

Several critics of the new consumerism of the 1950s charged that the American people
        – had developed into a generation of conformists
                (Is that true today? Is it always true about most or all societies?)
Chronology of US foreign policy in the 1950s:
Chronology: Fall of Dienbienphu (1954), Suez Crisis (1956), USMC sent to Lebanon (1958)
Rapid upsurge in employment of women after 1945 can be attributed mainly to
        – expansion of the service-sector
Betty Friedan & her 1963 book:
In her book The Feminine Mystique (1963), Betty Freidan discusses
        – stifling boredom of suburban housewifery (p.910)
                o No choices – problem “with no name” – no careers, no use of ed., just homemakers & wives
                     – or guilt if career & not good enough wife - angst
                o Davidson & Lytle Ch 14 From Rosie to Lucy

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Ch 38 The Eisenhower Era, 1952-1960 pp.887-915
General Notes:
pp.887-888 The Advent of Eisenhower
       p.887 qualifications & background p.888 Ike & Nixon - Nixon’s “Checkers” speech – election results
       p.889 Map
pp.889-890 “Ike” takes Command
       p.889 Ike goes to Korea – Korean war details
pp.890-891 The Rise and fall of Joseph McCarthy
       p.890 details of McCarthy p.890 political cartoon – not as good as ones in The Americans
       p.891 Lawyer chastising McCarthy at Army-Senate Hearings p.891 alcoholic death {in every text!}
pp.891 & 894 Desegregating the South
       p.891 North worse than South in many ways                p.891 Jim Crow segregation (de facto – N, MW, W)
       lynchings     1955 14 year-old Emmett Till lynched, etc… {Needed to be stopped finally – not yet!}
pp.892-893 The Great African Migration
       Executive Order #8802 (Zinn says not really enforced in Ch 16 I think?) De facto segregation
       NAACP – Walter White – Af-Am’s must use own efforts to improve (after FDR did not much)
       Riots p.893
* p.891 – Swedish scholar Gunnar Myrdal exposed the contradiction b/t “all men are created equal”
                             & American reality in 1944 book An American Dilemma (Loewen Ch 5)
       p.894 Thurgood Marshall Rosa Parks Montgomery Gandhi
pp.894-895 Seeds of the Civil Rights Revolution
       p.894 Truman desegregated military & civil service
       p.895 Chief Justice Earl Warren (former CA Gove) – judicial activism – confront taboos (Ex. segregation)
               Brown v. Board of Ed. – issues & results - brief
pp.895-897 Crisis at Little Rock
       p.895 1957 Arkansas Faubus
       p.896 Little Rock 9 (pictures) (MLKjr. & wife arrested in Montgomery)
               1957 Civil Rights Act – mild bill according to Ike to appease southern Dixicrats
               MLKjr & SCLC in 1957
       p.897 Greensboro, NC 2/1/60 Woolworth’s lunch counter
               SNCC April 1960 formed
pp.897-899 Eisenhower Republicanism at Home
       p.897 domestic 7 foreign policies
       p.897 bracero program & Operation Wetback in 1954 – picture p.898


       p.898 Overturn 1934 Indian New Deal for return to Dawes Act of 1887
                      Ike overturning some New & Fair Deal legislation – but increasing Social Security
                      & Interstate Highway Act – led to explosion of expansion of suburbs & urban decay!
       p.899 1954 Democrats win Congress b/c of recessions in 1950s
              Ex. AFL & CIO merge in 1955
p.899         A New Look in Foreign Policy
       p.899 (“brinksmanship”) over containment – therefore – massive nuclear military retaliation!
              Built up Strategic Air Command (SAC) bombers – “massive retaliation” w/nukes
              – “open skies” rejected – 1956 Hungarian uprising – US did nothing to help (What could it do?)
pp.899-900 The Vietnam Nightmare
       p.899 Ho Chi Minh denied by Wilson (Truman too) – war w/French
       p.900 Viet Minh       Dienbienphu           Diem
p.900         A False Lull in Europe
       p.900 W. Germany joins NATO in 1955, USSR’s Austrian occupation ended in 1955,
              (De-Satlinization by Khrushchev), 1956 Hungary ends “Spirit of Geneva”
pp.900-902 Menaces in the Middle East
       p.901 CIA in Iran - Shah, Nasser – Egypt – Suez – 1956
       p.902 US pledge Eisenhower Doctrine to support Middle East (for oil) against commies
              OPEC formed in 1960 Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, Venezuela
pp.902-903 Round Two for Ike
       p.902 1956 election – beat Stevenson again – but Republicans lost Congress
              Map, 1959 Teamsters
       p.903 Jimmy Hoffa & labor corruption – Langrum-0Griffin Act
pp.903-904 The Race with the Soviets into Space
       p.903 Sputniks, ICBMs, “missile gap,” NASA
       p.904 Vanguard screw-ups on TV, NDEA for sci & lang ed b/c of Sputnik
pp.904-905 The Continuing Cold War
       p.904 Atomic testing, Lebanon, “Spirit of Geneva”
       p.905 U-2 Incident May 1960 (Khrushchev “shoe”)
p.905         Cuba’s Castroism Spells Communism
       p.905 US-Castro relations, 1954 CIA coup in Guatemala, Cuban revolution – then relations w/USA
pp.905-906 Kennedy Challenges Nixon for Presidency
       p.905 VP Nixon “kitchen debate” in Moscow w/Khrushchev
       p.906 JFK & Jackie picture, election JFK & LBJ vs. Nixon

pp.906-907 The Presidential issues of 1960
       p.906 Catholic JFK, JFK’s challenge w/Soviets, TV debates w/Nixon (radio vs. TV), Image
             (“Camelot”) (close race – questionable returns & mafia connections ties – Nixon did not pursue)
             Democrats won Presidency & Congress in 1960 – New frontier
                     ***** Race was very close – so JFK felt he lacked mandate
p.907        An Old General Fades Away
       p.907 Ike’s last years
             1959 Alaska & Hawaii, vetoes used, lack of helping civil rights
       p.908 Military-Industrial Complex warning
pp.908-910 Changing Economic Patterns
       p.908 suburbs – new homes of 1950s – science & technology – computers – IBM
             Aerospace – SAC – Boeing – B-52 – Air Force One
             White-collar replace blue-collar
       p.909 Charts
             Women’s gains – but “cult of domesticity” – “pink-collar ghetto”
             Ozzie and Harriet, Leave It to Beaver (Father Knows Best, I Love Lucy)
             Women working had dual role – worker & homemaker – (Has this really changed?)
       p.910 Betty Freidan The Feminine Mystique (1963)
pp.911-913 Consumer Culture in the Fifties                (“teenagers”)
             1955 McDonalds (1947 In-and-Out) 1955 Disneyland (later Knott’s)
             easy credit, “high volume fast-food,” TVs, movies decline, radio too, religion on TV, sports shift
             demographic to west & south, Elvis [Death on toilet in 1977], Rock-n-Roll (Black Influence) (Ed
             Sullivan show 1956), Marilyn Monroe (Mickey Mantle, Wllie Mays), Playboy, Slaon Wilson’s
             The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit (1955), John Kenneth Galbraith’s The Affluent Society (1958),
             Etc…
pp.913-915 The Life of the Mind in Postwar America
             Hemingway, Steinbeck, Mailer, Jones From Here to Eternity (1951), Heller, Updike, Cheever,
             Vidal, poets – life of sadness ending in madness, playwrights – Tennessee Williams A Streetcar
             Named Desire (1947) & Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1955), Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman
             (1949) & The Crucible (1953) – parable of McCarthism. Af-Am – Richard Wright’s Black Boy
             & Native Son, Warren’s All the King’s Men (1946), Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye (1951),
             Malamud’s The Natural (1952), EL Doctorow The Book of Daniel (1971) fiction about Julius &
             Ethel Rosenberg, Ragtime* (1975), & Billy Bathgate* (1989) {*cool movies too}
p.915        Chronology
__________________________________________________________________________________________

From The Americans textbook:
Not in text in Ch 37 any way – Hollywood Ten & blacklisting
        p.880 Rosenbergs – details From The Americans pp.621-622 Hiss & Rosenbergs (Hiss was guilty)
                                                    p.620 Paul Robeson Af-Am Rutgers Football Acting Star
                                                    p.620 McCarthy spider cartoon “I can’t do this to me!”
                                                    p.624 McCarthy dies of alcoholism
                                                           Am Pag too p.891 In Ch 38 death of alcoholism
pp.630-631 Sci-Fi of 1950s           Ex. Invasion of the Body Snatchers, The Martian Chronicles
p.643           conglomerates, franchises
p.646           bowling       3-D comics & movies, sports, recreation, Girls Scouts formed, Scouting was big!
p.647           Cars Drive-In food & movies         cool cars & cool stars
p.648           Consumerism          p.649 planned obsolescence, credit, advertising (like 1920s)
pp.650-651 Suburbia – malls, parks, sprawl
p.652         Mass Media & FCC
p.653         TV      Murrow, Lucy, Mickey Mouse, Howdy Doody, Davy Crockett, TV Dinners, Westerns,
              Steroetypes, TV Shows, TV Quiz Shows Ex. Twenty-One (movie Quiz Show), Jackie Gleason,
              The Hooneymooners
p.654         Radio & movies        James Dean
p.655         Alfred Hitchcock, Beatniks, Jack Kerouac On the Road
              Rock and Roll Little Richard, Chuck Berry, Elvis, Bill Haley & the Comets, Ed Sullivan,
              Dick Clark’s American Bandstand, The Drifters, The Coasters, BB King, etc…
              Teen movies – like Rebel without a Cause & The Blackboard Jungle
pp.660-663 section 4 of Ch 19 The Other America
              James Baldwin – blacks 2nd class citizenship – bracero – Operation Wetback – white flight –
              urban renewal – Mex-Am activism – Longoria incident of WWII hero could not be buried except
              w/Mexicans – so buried at Arlington – Native American & termination policy reversing 1934
              Indian New Deal for assimilation of Dawes Act of 1887 – led to poverty for many




Ch 39 The Stormy Sixties, 1960-1968 (Ch 39 is Ch 38 in the 13th edition)
RFK & the FBI:
When he became Attorney General, Robert Kennedy (RFK) wanted to focus attention of the FBI on
        – organized crime & civil rights (violations were virtually ignored) p.916
                 John Fitzgerald Kennedy (JFK) had connections w/mafia – certainly Joseph did – bootlegger
                 Not too big on protecting civil rights
                 Ex. RFK wiretapping MLK jr’s phone b/c of commie connections supposedly
                 J. Edgar Hoover would not admit existence of organized crime & bigot, yet thought
                    Japanese-American internment was a violation of civil rights (Don’t get me started on Hoover!)
President Kennedy’s attempt to stimulate a sluggish economy:
When he took office in 1961, JFK chose to try to stimulate the sluggish economy through – a tax cut
The 1962 Trade Expansion Act – reduced American tariffs (cuts of up to 50% - to help Euro trade)
The French & DeGaulle:
In the early 1960s, French President Charles DeGaulle – resisted US dominance in W Europe & NATO by
        developing an independent French nuclear force (“farce”)
The Berlin Wall is built in 1961:
[* Berlin Wall p.919 1961-1989 {11-9-1989} Details – tunnels, defections, risky, etc…]
How “flexible” was JFK in terms of foreign policy?:
JFK’s strategy of “flexible response”
        – called for a variety of military options that could be matched to the scope & importance of the crisis
        ***** Build up of conventional military forces (tanks, jets, etc…) & special forces (Ex. Green Berets)
While it seemed sane enough, JFK’s doctrine of flexible response contained hidden dangers b/c it
        – potentially lowered the level at which diplomacy would give way to shooting
                [Therefore, more chance of conventional fighting – Ex. 1960s & 1970s]
The quagmire of Vietnam & JFK’s hand in it:
US military forces entered Vietnam in order to
        – prevent Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime from falling to the communists
Related: Gulf of Tonkin (1964), (US air base attacked in 1965 at) Pleiku, Operation Rolling Thunder (1965),
        Tet (Offensive) (1968), What about the Bay of Pigs (1961 – Cuba)? Of course not!
JFK’s new military policy of “flexible response” called for a major build up of
        – conventional military forces (tanks, jets, regular bombs, personnel, etc…)
       & anti-guerrilla Special Forces units (counter-insurgency forces like the Green Berets in the US Army)
JFK’s foreign policy in Latin America:
Alliance for Progress was intended to improve economic growth & democratic reforms in – Latin America p.921
       (Like Marshall Plan for Latin America – but failed – little impact on reforming region {corruption})
The Cuban Missile Crisis:
When USSR attempted to install nuclear weapons in Cuba, JFK ordered – a naval quarantine of the island
       * Details – October 14th – 28th, 1962, U-2s spot missile components & missiles, RF-8 Crusaders, JFK,
       Khrushchev, Castro, range of missiles, Turkey, options, invasion, quarantine, etc…, alert,
       brinksmanship, “blinked”, promise not to invade, missiles out of Turkey (taking out anyway), hot line,
       test-ban treaty, Castro fronted & angry at both USA & USSR, Cuban refugees, CIA attempts to kill
       Castro, embargo against Cuban imports & exports to Cuba, JFK’s last act before embargo – secure some
       Cuban cigars, USSR military build up, rest of world not thrilled USA & USSR almost went to nuclear
       war, USSR had operational nukes to use if we hit Cuba – close to WWIII!!!!!
Cuban Missile Crisis resulted in – removal of Nikita Khrushchev as (Soviet Premier) power in USSR,
       US promise never to invade Cuba, an ambitious program of military expansion by USSR
       (USA eventually countered & surpassed – Reagan), withdrawal of US missiles in Turkey (US already
       going to remove them – did later so as to “save face”), etc… - see above,
       What about a US agreement to abandon its base at Guantanamo (Bay)?


Consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis included – a nuclear test-ban treaty b/t USA & USSR, installation of
         the Moscow-Washington (DC) “hot line” for crisis communication (literally a red telephone constantly
         connecting the Kremlin & White House, etc… - it was the 1960s – no cell phones – satellites were new
         & primitive by today’s standards – no internet – computers lacked today’s sophistication), & a massive
         military arms building program in the Soviet Union
You bet Kennedy was interested in “peaceful coexistence” after October of 1962:
In speech at American University in 1963, JFK recommended the adoption of a policy toward the USSR
         based on – peaceful coexistence
JFK & civil rights:
At first, JFK moved slowly in the area of racial justice b/c he
         – needed the support of southern legislators to pass his economic & social legislation
       (like FDR – excused for poor record on civil rights – not like “Give ‘em Hell” Harry S. Truman – Executive Order #9981
                        desegregating the military, civil rights message to Congress, & open support for federal anti-lynching law)
JFK began to join hands w/civil rights movement when he – sent federal marshals to protect the Freedom Riders
        Details – 1961 Interstate laws desegregating buses, integrated protestors, violence, bomb in Anniston
        * Not very protective ultimately – Ex. James Peck – SNCC risked lives – (Zinn Ch 17)
JFK ordered hundreds of federal marshals & thousands of federal troops to force the racial integration of
        – University of Mississippi (‘Ole Miss – where Peyton Manning’s father, Archie, played) p.924
                Air Force veteran James Meredith attempted to register in 1962 – cost $4 million to taxpayers
                & cost 2 lives – the book seems to almost blame him for it on p.924 (hard to tell), but whose
                fault would it have been, his or white supremacists?
By mid-1963, JFK’s position on civil rights can best be described as
        – committed to finding a solution to this moral issue
[p.924 1963 Birmingham –bombings – TV coverage – dogs, cattle prods, fire hoses – children targeted too
        – JFK’s “Freedom now” speech on TV to make it a “moral issue” – Aug 1963 – march to Wash DC
        – then Medgar Evers was murdered & 4 little Af-Am girls were killed in a church bombing]
{***** ODD: white violence sanctioned, justified, explained, ignored, and/or tolerated
                                – minority violence is usually presented as evil, bad, unjustifiable, etc…}
At the time of his death, JFK’s civil rights bill
        – seemed to be stalled in Congress (by those opposing JFK, a northerner from Harvard no less)
November 22nd, 1963:
[11-22-1963 Dallas, TX – JFK assassinated – Oswald, Ruby – Warren Commission – conclusions (later
         revisions) – conspiracy & magic bullet vs. lone gunman theories – Zapruder film, etc…
                 Similarities/Coincidences b/t Lincoln & Kennedy assassinations]
Official gov’t investigation of JFK’s assassination was led by
         – (Chief Justice of Supreme Court – Ex. Brown v. Board of Ed.) Earl Warren (Warren Commission)
JFK’s alleged assassin was – Lee Harvey Oswald (background) {killed by Jack Ruby} [mafia connections?]
         [Did mafia or military or just Oswald or Cuba or Soviets kill JFK?]
         {James Earl Ray convicted of killing MLKjr.}
         (Byron de La Beckworth killed Medgar Evers in 1963 but not convicted in MS until 1994
                 - Ghosts of Mississippi movie covers the murder and 1990’s trial – good film)
1963 March on Washington DC:
1963 march on Wash DC led by MLK jr. (org’d by A. Philip Randolph & other older civil rights leaders who
         are often forgotten and/or overlooked), provided critical support for – civil rights bill to end segregation
“It’s like Grandma’s Nightshirt, it covers everything.”:
With the passage of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
         – Congress handed LBJ a “blank check” to use force in Vietnam
                 “It’s like Grandma’s nightshirt; it covers everything.” – LBJ
                          (Incidents may never have occurred at all)



Lyndon Baines Johnson:
Before he became VP & then Pres of USA, Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ) had exercised great power as
       – Majority Leader of the US Senate
           (powerful position – so he knew how to work with as well as work over Congress)
               Details on LBJ – Texas politician in House then Senate then VP – a New Dealer – worked for
               FDR in Rural Electrification – political tactics known as “the Johnson treatment” – personality of
               insecurity & bullying tactics drove him – intelligent & effective politician in true sense of term
LBJ proved to be much more successful than JFK at – working w/Congress
       (b/c of LBJ’s ways of getting things done – sweet talk, yell at, intimidate, bully, or what ever it took!)
LBJ called his package of domestic reform proposals the – Great Society
                “That war killed the lady I love.” (Vietnam & the Great Society) – LBJ
                Like New Deal – War on Poverty
                The Americans p.687
                   1964 Tax Reduction Act, 1964 Economic Opportunity Act (Job Corps, VISTA, Head Start),
                   1965 Medical Care Act, 1965 Dept of Housing and Urban Development (HUD),
                   1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 1965 National Foundation on Arts &
                   Humanities, 1967 Corporation for Public Broadcasting, 1964 Civil Rights Act,
                   1965 Voting Rights Act, 1964 24th Amendment (abolish poll taxes), 1965 Immigration Act,
                   1965 Wilderness Preservation Act, 1965 Clean Air Act, 1965 Quality Water Act,
                   1967 Quality Air Act, 1966 Truth in Packaging Act, 1966 Highway Safety Act,
                   1966 Dept of Transportation (created), etc…
               - Ralph Nader (consumer advocate) wrote Unsafe at Any Speed
               - Warren Court – more liberal – Ex. Mapp v. Ohio (1961) – search & seizure, Gideon
                   Wainwright (1963) – lawyer provided, Miranda v. AZ (1966) – Miranda rights – “You have
                   the right to remain silent, etc…” – more liberal for defendants and convicts
1964 election:
Voters supported LBJ in the 1964 presidential election b/c
       – loyalty to the Kennedy legacy; faith in the Great Society promises; fear of the Republican nominee,
               Barry Goldwater (nukes in Vietnam TV add); trust in LBJ’s Vietnam policy
Barry Goldwater, the Republican party’s 1964 presidential candidate (from AZ), opposed
       – the TVA, Social Security, civil rights legislation (not civil rights themselves as he was not a bigot,
                                                      I believe), nuclear test-ban treaties, & federal income tax
        [* He was a real conservative – extreme limits on gov’t authority – no elastic interpretive position on the
                constitution – very narrow vision of what gov’t should & should not do – he is not one of today’s
                “conservatives” who in fact want gov’t to control women’s bodies & other legislations based on
                interpretations of morality such as abortion, euthanasia, gay marriage, etc…]
The Great Society:
LBJ channeled educational aid – to public & parochial (Catholic) schools {p.929}
                 1965 Elementary & Secondary Education Act (signed in schoolhouse for dramatic effect)
Programs created by LBJ’s administration
        – National Endowments for Arts & Humanities, Project Head Start, Medicare (for elderly)
                {& Medicaid for poor}, & Office of Economic Opportunity
                What about VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America – a domestic Peace Corps)? Yes
                What about the Peace Corps? No, that’s JFK
In the final analysis, LBJ’s Great Society programs – won some noteworthy battles in education & health care
LBJ’s legislative program after his 1964 election included
        – Medicare health insurance for the elderly (Medicaid for poor), massive federal aid for education
        (1965 Elementary & Secondary Act), a voting rights act to re-enfranchise black voters
        (Voting Rights Act of 1965) {Great Society legislation}


LBJ’s biggest civil rights achievements as part of his “Great Society” (A Civil Rights Victories):
Landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964 accomplished
        – creation of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, prohibiting discrimination based on
                gender, banning sexual as well as racial discrimination, banning racial discrimination in most
                private facilities open to the public
                What about requiring “affirmative action” against discrimination?
                 Came in an Executive Order in 1965 – ordered federal contractors to take “affirmative
                    action” against discrimination (p.928)
                 Title VII of 1964 Civil Rights Act – helps women more than Af-Am’s
Voting Rights Act of 1965 (see below):
The 24th Amendment:
Common use of poll taxes to inhibit black voters (& poor whites too) in South was outlawed by the
        – 24th Amendment (p.931)
Immigration:
As a result of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
        – sources of immigration shifted to Latin America & Asia
                 abolished “national origins” quotas since 1921 - * set limits on W. Hemisphere (1st time)
                 increased/doubled #’s that can come annually - * admission of close relatives – outside limits
                        - led to more coming (over 100,000 more per year)
Civil Rights Movement:
After the passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964, the chief goal of black civil rights movement in the South
        became to – secure the right to vote (suffrage) (p.931)
As a result of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, - white southerners began to court black votes (p.932)
[* Mississippi Burning (film – sort of true, but makes FBI look way better than it was regarding the incident) –
        1964 Freedom Summer – Murders of 3 boys/men – 2 white & Jewish from north & 1 Af-Am
                from north – FBI involvement – push from LBJ – no significant convictions – local sheriff’s
                deputy was guilty along w/others (p.931)]
[* march on Selma, Alabama – hit by police in Montgomery – death of white minister & shotgun killing of
        white woman by KKK – shocked nation – LBJ’s “We shall overcome…” speech – pressured Congress
        – got passage – Aug 6th, 1965 (100 years after Civil War ended in 1865)]
[* Voting Rights Act of 1965 – outlawed literacy tests & allowed for federal voter registration
        – marked the end of the non-violent struggle & beginning of “black power’ movement (pp.931-934)]
The Watts riots (in LA) in 1965 symbolized
        – a more militant & confrontational phase of the civil rights movement
Black leaders in the 1960s included Martin Luther King jr. (MLK jr.), an advocate of peaceful resistance;
        Malcolm X, who favored black separatism; and Stokely Carmichael, an advocate of “Black Power.”
Black Power:
{* Funny how “White Power” sounds very different – like you need to be wearing a white sheet over your head
        with only holes for your eyes when you say that!}
By the late 1960s, Black Power advocates in the North focused their attention primarily on – economic demands
        (Why? De facto not de jure segregation)
Some advocates of Black Power made the slogan the basis for – emphasizing Af-Am distinctiveness
        & separatism (& pride in heritage, culture, etc…, such as Afro hair styles) (p.933)
Integrated education post Brown v. Board of Education (1954):
By 1972, integrated classrooms were most common in the – South (p.934)
MLK Jr. & Malcolm Little, aka Malcom X:
[* Text is in love w/MLK jr as usual – p.932 – what about Malcolm Little (X),
        Black Panther Party for Self Defense, Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC),
        riots b/t 1964-1968 – worst year 1967? MLK’s assassination & positives from movement such as
        election of mayors in large cities, even in South pp.932-934]

American foreign policy in Latin America under LBJ:
The Latin American nation where LBJ sent 25,000 US troops to counteract alleged communist influence
        (in 1965) was – the Dominican Republic
Vietnam escalates:
Aerial bombardment in Vietnam – strengthened the communists’ will to resist (like British in Battle of Britain)
        [* tunnels The Americans p.731 & p.748 WWI, WWII, Korea dropped 2.6 million tons of bombs &
        Vietnam dropped 6.2 million tons – VC & NVA vs, ARVN & US forces – cause of war – hard to
        explain – containment]
“Operation Rolling Thunder” code name for – American bombing raids on N Vietnam (& some areas in S too)
        {* F-105 Thunderchief – “Thud” – fast but no good in dogfight w/MIG}
Most serious blow to Lyndon Johnson’s Vietnam policy – was the Tet Offensive of 1968
[* Tet – Asian New Year – VC attacks throughout S Vietnam – Saigon – US embassy, Hue, Khe Sanh, etc….
        – failed militarily – US morale improved b/c enemy actually fought & was defeated – political victory
        for VC – right when LBJ said we were winning & they were losing – increased “credibility gap”
        – LBJ won’t run in 1968]
1968 Tet Offensive resulted in – a tactical defeat for Viet Cong (VC) & a political defeat for the USA
        {b/c it was on TV for people see the Vietnamese, who were losing according to LBJ’s administration,
        mounted a serious offensive, at least until the US forces handily defeated the attacks with few casualties
        compared with those taken by the VC, who were no longer an effective fighting force as a result really
        until around 1972 or so, and never as strong as they were before the offensive in early January of 1968}
Protestors against the war in Vietnam & LBJ’s reaction:
During Vietnam War, LBJ ordered CIA, in clear violation of its charter (not to spy on Americans, only
        foreign gov’ts), to – spy on domestic anti-war protestors
Substantial opposition to America’s commitment to Vietnam b/t 1965 & 1968 came from
        – America’s European Allies {although British, Australian, Korean, and some other troops fought there
                in much smaller #’s than US troops}, Congress (Ex. Sen. Com. On Foreign Relations – led by
                Sen. William Fulbright of AR), the American public {which became more anti-war as the decade
                worn on}, many draft registrants {& ex-military who served in Vietnam},
                & Senators RFK & Eugene McCarthy
The Six-Day War:
The 1967 Six-Day War intensified the Arab-Israeli conflict bringing into constant, direct conflict
        – Israelis & Palestinians (& Arabs really – tried desperately to wipe out Israel since its creation in 1948)
           {Pre-emptive strike to wipe out enemy air forces before they were attacked on all sides – brilliant!}
                * Don’t mess with Israel unless you want to pay big time!
1968 Democratic Party Convention in Chicago:
1968 Democratic Party Convention (in Chicago) witnessed – a violent confrontation b/t police & anti-war
        demonstrators outside the convention hall {the trial of the “Chicago 8” to charge them with speech that
        incited a riot, which is not protected speech – Black Panther Bobby Seale was gagged & bound to
        silence him in the courtroom}
1968 election:
The “spoiler” third party candidate for president in 1968 was
        – George Wallace (former Governor of Alabama)
                (w/former US Army Air Corps/Air Force General Curtis LeMay as his potential VP)
[* Wallace – blocked entrance to University of Alabama from entrance for Af-Am student {p.939}
        – “Segregation now; segregation tomorrow; segregation forever!” – shot in 1972 presidential campaign
        paralyzing him – today he recants racism proving even the worst racists can eventually be converted]
Both major party presidential candidates in 1968 agreed that the USA should
        – con’t the (Vietnam) war in pursuit of an “honorable peace” (Nixon & Humphrey)
Historical American skepticism of government:
Skepticism about authority that emerged in USA during 1960s – had deep historical roots in American culture


The Three P’s of the 1960s:
The “Three P’s” that largely explain the cultural upheavals of 1960s are
        – population bulge, protest against Vietnam, & prosperity
Attacks on homosexuals & homosexuals’ reactions (another ugly prejudice in America):
Site of the first major militant protest on behalf of gay liberation in 1969 was – at the Stonewall Inn in NYC

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Ch 39 The Stormy Sixties, 1960-1968 pp.916-945 (Ch 39 is Ch 38 in the 13th edition)
General Notes:
pp.916-917 Kennedy’s “New Frontier” Spirit
pp.917-918 The New Frontier at Home [“Camelot”]
pp.918-919 Rumbling’s in Europe
pp.919-920 Foreign Flare-ups and “Flexible Response”
pp.920-921 Stepping into the Vietnam Quagmire (like quicksand or deep mud you get stuck in)
       p.920 Diem backed by USA – coup (assassination just before JFK’s in Nov 1963)
       p.921 Map of Vietnam
pp.921-923 Cuban Confrontations
       pp.921-922 Bay of Pigs
       pp.922-923 Cuban Missile Crisis
pp.923-926 The Struggle for Civil Rights
pp.923-924 Freedom Riders
       p.924 MLKjr. SNCC, James Meredith, & Birmingham
       pp.924-926 Birmingham          p.924 Picture of fire hose blasting teenager who wanted his civil rights
p.925 Examining the Evidence – 1963 March on Washington – Northern vs. Southern reporting in newspapers
       p.926 march on Wash DC in 1963, Medgar Evers, & 4 Little Girls
              (4 Little Girls - a Spike Lee Joint – documentary – very good & touching!)
pp.926-927 The Killing of Kennedy
pp.927-928 The LBJ Brand on the Presidency
       p.928 1964 Civil Rights Act, women, & Great Society
pp.928-929 Johnson Battles Goldwater in 1964
       p.929 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution & election of 1964
pp.929-930 The Great Society Congress
pp.931-932 Battling for Blacks
       p.931 1964 Civil Rights Act, 24th Amendment, 1964 Freedom Summer in MS, murders, MFDP, MLKjr
               & Selma, Voting Rights Act of 1965 – goes on to p.932
pp.932-934 Black Power
       MLKjr good, other civil rights leaders not as good, Watts, Malcolm X, BPP, SNCC, “Black Power’”
       Stokely Carmichael, African emphasis, 1967 riots – Ex. Detroit, etc…. (Most in any year in US history),
       Blacks in North, MLKjr assassination, gains for Af-Am’s
pp.934-935 Combating Communism in Two Hemispheres
               – Dominican Republic & Vietnam in 1965
pp.935-937 Vietnam Vexations
       p.935 “credibility gap” – Fulbright
       p.936 McNamara – LBJ – bombing – “Cointelpro”
pp.937-938 Vietnam Topples Johnson
       p.937 Tet, Eugene McCarthy, Hawks, Doves
pp.938-939 The Presidential Sweepstakes of 1968
       p.938 Chicago, Humphrey, McCarthy, RFK, Nixon, Wallace, RFK’s assassination
pp.939-940 Victory for Nixon
pp.940-941 The Obituary of Lyndon Johnson
pp.941-943 The Cultural Ypheaval of the 1960s
       p.941 Skepticism, Beats, Free-Speech Movement
       p.942 hippies, sexual revolution (“the pill”), Kinsey & sexual experiments & data gathering – p.943
       p.943 Students for Democratic Society (terrorist arm called The Weathermen), LSD & drugs,
               Three P’s – Pop, Protest, & Prosperity
p.944 Chronology
pp.944-945 The Sixties: Constructive or Destructive?
       4 issues of 1960s: Civil Rights, Great Society, Vietnam & Anti-war Movement, Counterculture
       Civil Rights – argue over use of violence vs. non-violence – Did it enhance MLKjr?
                                                             {MLKjr changing ideas before his death}
       War on Poverty – entitlements – effects – good vs. bad – Does it create a cycle of poverty?
       Anti-war movement – Did it really affect Vietnam policy?
       Counterculture – values worthy? vs. hedonism (seek pleasure), arrogance, & social polarization
                              Were politics truly personal – Could they be separated?
                                     Social & political radicalism – separate or not?
                              {Would the regular culture be considered arrogant too?}
       Either way – 1960s made impact!
__________________________________________________________________________________________

From The Americans textbook:

Ch 20 The New Frontier and the Great Society pp.668-693

- Section 1 Kennedy and the Cold War pp.670-676
p.670 JFK’s Inaugural Address 1/20/1961 & 1960 election
p.671 JFK background – TV debate w/Nixon – Kennedy & King
pp.671-672 Kennedy Takes Command – “soft” on communism – “flexible response” – Crisis Over Cuba
pp.672-673 Castro – Batista
p.673 Bay of Pigs
pp.673-675 Cuban Missile Crisis & The Continuing Cold War
pp.675-676 Berlin
p.676 Berlin Wall – “hot line” – Limited Test-ban Treaty
- Section 2 The New Frontier pp.677-682
The Camelot Years
p.677 Kennedy Mystique – Mercury & Alan Shepard
p.678 Best & Brightest – The Promise of Progress – New Frontier – mandate
p.679 Stimulating the Economy – Peace Corps – Alliance for Progress
p.680 Race to the Moon – The Other America (1962) about poverty in USA – “Freedom Now!” speech
        Tragedy in Dallas
pp.681-682 JFK’s assassination
p.681 Picture of JFKjr saluting
p.682 Warren Commission
- Section 3 The Great Society pp.683-691
LBJ’s Path to Power – LBJ’s Domestic Agenda – War on Poverty – p.685 – Election of 1964
Building the Great Society – p.687 Great Society Programs, 1964-1967 chart – Ralph Nader
Reforms of Warren Court – Reapportionment (gerrymandering) – Rights of the Accused
Impact of Great Society – Conservative “backlash” Ex. 1966 Reagan elected CA governor

Ch 21 Civil Rights pp.694-721

- Section 1 Taking on Segregation pp.696-703
p.696 Montgomery 1955 – Segregation System – Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) – Map p.697
p.697 Map of school segregation in 1952 – Apartheid – Jim Crow – Black Codes – de facto & de jure
p.698 Thurgood Marshall – NAACP – Brown v. Board of Ed.
p.699 Resistance to School Integration –
pp.699-700 Crisis at Little Rock
p.700 Rosa Parks
1957 Civil Rights Act – gave power to Attny Gen over school segregation & federal gov’t jurisdiction over
        violations of Af-Am’s voting rights – LBJ helped pass
pp.700-701 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott – Parks – MLKjr – boycott & car pooling – 381 days
pp.701-702 Dr. King & SCLC – SNCC
p.702 MLKjr background – pp.702-703
pp.702-703 Sit-ins – Greensboro, NC in 1960
- Section 2 The Triumphs of a Crusade pp.704-710
p.704 Freedom Rider James Peck (white) – CORE – James Farmer (Af-Am)
pp.704-705 Freedom Riders 1961 – SNCC – Bull Connor – Birmingham – Attny Gen RFK
p.705 Federal Marshalls to Jackson, MS – ‘Ole Miss – James Meredith
p.706 1963 Birmingham – arrest – READ A Personal Voice - MLKjr p.706 “Letters from a Birmingham Jail”
pp.706-707 Medgar Evers & JFK’s Freedom Now speech
p.707 March on Washington – “I Have a Dream” speech – A. Philip Randolph over-looked as usual
p.708 Civil Rights Acts of 1950s & 1960s chart – bombings of MLKjr’s home & church killing 4 little girls
        Civil Rights Act of 1964
pp.708-709 Freedom Summer – murders of Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, & James Chaney
p.709 MFDP & Fannie Lou Hamer – 24th Amendment (poll taxes)
pp.709-710 Selma, Alabama
p.710 Voting Rights Act of 1965
- Section 3 Challenges and Changes in the Movement pp.711-719
p.711 Alice Walker (The Color Purple) inspired by MLKjr – de facto & de jure
pp.711-712 White Flight & Urban Ghettos
p.712 Riots 1964-1968 100+ major US cities - * 1967 worst year
pp.713-714 Malcolm X – Nation of Islam – Pilgrimage – Bullets or Ballots? – assassination
p.714 Black Power & Stokely Carmichael – arrested 27 times – speech calling for Black Power
pp.714-715 Black Panther Party for Self-Defense – Oakland, CA – 1966 Huey Newton – Bobby Seale
       – 10 Point Program (Cointelpro – FBI – Elderidge Clever – Different factions of BPP – cops & “pigs” –
       Free Huey (Green Day Dookie album cover) – patrols – good vs. bad – FBI tactics – Fred Hampton
       murdered by FBI & Chicago police
p.715 MLK assassinated
p.716 Kerner Commission – for LBJ – concluded USA separate but unequal Americas
p.716 Civil Rights Act of 1968 – Pride – Black Studies – Political Office
       ***** Shirley Chisholm – 1st Af-Am woman in Congress (representing NYC)
p.717 Poverty – College Education – Affirmative Action – School Segregation Based on Socio-Economics


Ch 22 The Vietnam Years pp.722-757

- Section 1 Moving Toward Conflict pp.724-728
p.724 First US KIA – French in Vietnam
pp.724-725 Ho Chi Minh – Vietminh
p.725 US funds French war $2.6 billion – had helped Ho Chi Minh vs. Japanese – then became an evil commie
        Domino Theory – Dien Bien Phu – Gen Vo Nguyen Giap
p.726 Geneva Accords – Map of Ho Chi Minh Trail (not majority of supplies – most came by water)
        Kennedy sends “advisors” to Vietnam (Ex. Colin Powell)
p.727 Diem’s assassination 11-1-1963(then JFK’s) 11-22-1963
        LBJ expands conflict – not to lose war – Democrats not “soft’ on communism

p.728 Tonkin Gulf resolution & Operation Rolling Thunder – Americanize the war
        - Section 2 US Involvement and Escalation pp.729-734
p.729 Tim O’Brien’s Personal Voice – 1968 – strong support for containment
p.730 McNamara & Rusk – Westmoreland – ARVN (Army of the Republic of South Vietnam)
pp.730-731 VC – dangers – booby traps – guerrilla war
p.731 Map of Tunnels
p.732 Attrition (“body counts”) – McNamara realizes he was wrong
        “Hearts and Minds” – Agent Orange – napalm – “search-and-destroy”
        “We had to destroy the town to save it.”
pp.732-733 Morale low – drugs – (tour of duty ~ 1 year) – “fragging” – new S. Vietnamese gov’ts – POWs
pp.733-734 Great Society suffers – TV brings war home daily/free access of reporters – “credibility gap”
- Section 3 A Nation Divided pp.735-740
p.735 Stephan Gubar – Conscientious Objector status – 1-A-O status – became medic – dangerous & brave
        A working class war? Deferments, etc… “a manipulatable draft”
p.736 Af-Am’s & women – MLK spoke out against war - * READ p.736 - ironic
p.737 women at war – New Left – SDS – Free Speech Movement – ROTC
p.738 Protest Movement Grows – music (pro-war/anti-war)
pp.738-739 Increased resistance
pp.739-740 “I Want Out” Uncle Sam – Doves & Hawks – Polarization of USA – “Love it or leave it!”
        LBJ stays committed – nervous “nellies” – {anguish of death of troops, etc…}
- Section 4 1968: A Tumultuous Year (I was born!) pp.741-746
p.741 John Lewis reacts to RFK’s death
pp.741-742 Tet – map Jan 30th – Feb 24th, 1968 on p.742 – effects of Tet
p.743 1968 LBJ withdraws – 1968 riots over MLK’s assassination, then RFK assassinated – pp.743-744
        1968 peak year for US troops in Vietnam – p.744
pp.744-745 Chicago – Daley – Humphrey – Riot
pp.744-745 Nixon wins – close pop vote w/landslide electoral win
p.745 Wallace’s “white backlash”
- Section 5 The End of the War and Its Legacy pp.747-755
p.747 Alfred S. Bradford tells daughter why he fought – pullout begins
p.748 Vietnamization – Bombing chart – “Peace with Honor” – Nixon’s “madman theory” – silent majority –
My Lai Massacre
p.749 Cambodia 1970 – Kent State 1970 – Jackson State (MS) 1970 – Pentagon Papers 1971
pp.749-750 Kissinger – shuttle diplomacy – 1972 offensive – 1975 Saigon falls – evacuation of embassy –
POWs & MIAs (Korea & WWII vs. Vietnam)
p.751 POWs return – Vietnam War Memorial – Khmer Rouge – Pol Pot
p.753 War Powers Act
pp.754-755 Literature of the war Ex. Philip Caputo’s A Rumor of War
p.756 John Kerry on Vietnam




Ch 40 The Stalemated Seventies, 1968-1980 (Ch 40 in the 12th edition is Ch 39 in the 13th edition)
In the 1970s the post-war economic boom busts:
One reason for the end of the postwar economic boom in the 1970s was
         – a drastic decline in worker productivity (possibly partially result of shifting economy to service sector)
By the early 1970s, the post-WWII economic boom had crested as a result of
         – a decline in competitive advantage of Am business, the Vietnam War, a slump in productivity,
                 economic recovery of Japan and (West) Germany, What about a large tax increase?
LBJ’s insistence on fighting the Vietnam War & funding the Great Society w/tax increase (eventually) to pay
         for them led to – a drastic inflation of prices in 1970s
The high inflation rate of 1970s stemmed primarily from
         – LBJ’s refusal to raise taxes for spending on social-welfare
The poor economic performance of the 1970s brought an abrupt end to
         – the liberal dream that affluent USA could spend its way to social justice
Nixon’s “Doctrine”:
The Nixon Doctrine proclaimed that USA would – honor its existing defense commitment, but that in future, its
         allies would have to fight their own wars w/out lg #’s of US troops
Nixon & foreign affairs:
Perhaps Nixon’s most valuable asset as he began his presidency in 1969 was his – expertise in foreign affairs
Nixon’s “peace with honor” & Vietnamization:
President Richard Nixon’s policy of “Vietnamization” of the war in Vietnam called for
         – a gradual handover of the ground war to South Vietnamese
Nixon’s Vietnam policy included – Vietnamization, extension of war into Cambodia (& Laos) {both secretly},
         reorganization of US Army in Vietnam into anti-guerrilla units, a de-emphasis on military assaults in
         favor of Vietnamese social reform, What about an end to all US military & economic aid to S. Vietnam?
US armed forces in Vietnam were composed largely of – the least privileged young Americans
         ***** This is not really true – when officers & volunteers & proportions of Af-Am’s fighting & dying,
                 the war was fought by all types of people & officers were not poor & died in very high numbers
                 b/c of leadership positions & Af-Am’s served & died in proportion to their % of US population
                 – plus compared w/WWII where most soldiers were drafted, Vietnam saw a much higher % of
                 volunteers as opposed to draftees than the “good war”
        th
The 26 Amendment:
The 26th Amendment lowered the voting age to eighteen (18). [Why? Think about it relative to Vietnam.]
The “Pentagon Papers” & Daniel Ellsberg (know who he is):
The top secret “Pentagon Papers,” leaked & published in 1971, - exposed the deception (by US presidents &
         their administrations) that had led USA into Vietnam War
Henry Kissinger:
President Nixon’s chief foreign policy advisor was – Henry Kissinger (NSA, then Sec of State)
Détente:
Pres Nixon’s policy of détente (pronounced day-taunt & French for relaxing of tensions)
        – ushered in an era of relaxed tensions b/t USA & 2 leading communist nations, China & USSR
Nixon, Kissinger, ITT, & Chile (look this up):
Nixon administration still reflected a staunch anticommunist policy when it worked to undermine & overthrow
        the leftist (democratically elected) gov’t of – Chile [Salvador Allende] (Think about Loewen & Zinn)
The Warren Court:
Decisions of the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren reflects its – deep concern for the individual
Critics of Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren complained that the Court
        – was ignoring the Constitution in favor of its own social values (p.952)
Sup Crt under Chief Justice Earl Warren outraged religious conservatives in 1962-63 when it
        – ruled that prayer & Bible reading in public schools violated the First Amendment (p.952)
[* Warren Burger replaced Earl Warren as Chief Justice – appointed by Nixon as conservative on the bench]
Under Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Sup Crt handed down rulings to
        – prevent required prayer & Bible readings in public schools, protect rights of individuals accused of a
                 crime (Ex. Gideon, Miranda, & Escobedo) {* Mapp v. Ohio – search & seizure},
                 support civil rights for blacks (Ex. 1954 Brown v. Board of Ed) (p.952)
        [* Warren Burger followed Earl Warren as Chief Justice of Sup Crt – Nixon thought he’d be
        conservative – but his Court gave 1973 Roe v. Wade ruling]
The Supreme Court & privacy rights:
In Griswold v. Connecticut (1962), Supreme Court upheld a married couple’s right to use contraceptives based
        on – “a right of privacy” (p.952)


Nixon on “entitlements,” “welfare,” affirmative action, & the “war on drugs”:
When it came to welfare programs, Nixon – supported significant expansion in many areas (p.953)
         Ex. Food Stamps, Medicaid, AFDC, Social Security, Affirmative Action all increased
         Affirmative Action helped women more so than Af-Am’s
         {War on Drugs began w/Nixon to}o
Nixon’s Philadelphia Plan (Affirmative Action):
Nixon’s Philadelphia Plan – required construction trade unions to establish timetables & goals for hiring
        black apprentices (Affirmative Action)
Difference b/t LBJ’s “affirmative action” programs & Nixon’s was
        – LBJ intended to help individuals, but Nixon conferred privileges on groups
Part of Nixon’s legacy:
All were created during Nixon’s presidency – Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
        Supplemental Security Income (SSI), Endangered Species Act,
        Occupational Health & Safety Administration (OSHA), What about Medicare program? (LBJ) (pp.953-954)
        {Think about what Zinn would say}
Nixon’s policies & the economy:
To control creeping inflation in early 1970s, Pres Nixon – imposed a 90-day wage & price freeze (p.954)
        {* 1971 – stimulate exports by taking USA off gold standard & devalued the dollar}
        [* Inflation pp.946-948 changing workforce to fewer skills & part-time employment, gov’t regulation of
        businesses, switch to service industries from manufacturing, Vietnam took tax $, oil $ increased, Great
        Society $ at same time – Ex. Military & welfare spending is inflationary b/c it gives $ to people w/out
        adding to supply of goods $ can buy – therefore, too many dollars chase too few goods – then prices
        increase – plus cost of living allowance (COLA) increased – plus USA lost competitive advantage to
        Japan & (W) Germany – new, updated – challenge USA technology – steel, auto, electronics – thus
        “stagflation” – defined as rising inflation & rising unemployment at same time (The Americans p.790)]
As Pres Nixon succeeded in – implementing the Supplemental Security Income program (SSI)
Nixon’s Southern Strategy:
Nixon’s “southern strategy” included policy of – soft-pedaling of civil rights & opposing school busing to
        achieve racial balance (integration)
1972 election:
George McGovern (B-24 Liberator bomber pilot in Europe during WWII)
        – Stephan Ambrose’s book The Wild Blue is about his WWII service – great read!), the Democratic
                nominee for president in 1972, alienated traditional working-class backbone of Dem party
                – by appealing to racial minorities, feminists, & youth
                {* McGovern WWII record vs. Nixon’s WWII record – they don’t compare}
As a pres candidate, South Dakota Sen. George McGovern appealed most strongly to the – antiwar movement
Watergate:
Watergate scandals caused by actions of Nixon’s staff in 1972 pres campaign involved
        – obstruction of justice, use of Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to harass political opponents, illegal use
                of FBI & CIA, burglarizing enemies’ psychiatry offices, * break in by the “Plumbers,”
                What about ballot stuffing?
During the Senate Watergate hearings, one of most damaging revelations for Nixon was that
        – his conversations in person & on telephone had been recorded on (audio) tape
List of Nixon illegal administration activities uncovered in Watergate scandal included
        – breaking into Democratic party headquarters in order to “bug” them, using IRS to harass its
        “enemies,” forging documents to discredit Democrats, & using FBI & CIA to cover up previous crimes,
        What about paying Sup Crt justices to write favorable opinions?
        {* “Executive Privilege” & “National Security” & “Patriotism” – often used as excuses for bad deeds}
Nixon tried to resist giving his taped conversations to the special prosecutor & Congress by claiming that
        – he had “executive privilege” (confidentiality) {his personal, private property – Court disagreed}
        [Nixon v. United States (1974)]
Most controversial action of Gerald Ford’s presidency was – pardoning Nixon for any known and/or unknown
        crimes he had committed while president
During 1974 hearings, House Judiciary Committee adopted impeachment articles charging Pres Nixon w/
        - obstruction of justice, abusing powers of his office, contempt of Congress (with-holding tapes, etc…)
Know the details!
Vietnam, still? Oh, yes, most definitely (and still not truly over yet until April of 1975):
Shaky agreement that brought an end to US fighting in Vietnam in Jan 1973 represented
        – a thinly disguised US retreat (first war lost by USA really)
As part of the cease fire agreement in Vietnam in 1973, - the US withdrew all its troops from Vietnam
        {* Not exactly, US still had an extremely small token force there until Fall of Saigon in 1975}
Plus the 1975 Cambodian seizure of the Mayaguez and Ford’s response
1971 Attica prison riot:
Know the details!
“Spiro is our hero?”:
VP Spiro Agnew was forced to resign in 1973 after being accused of – accepting bribes
        (As Gov of Maryland & as VP of USA)
What happened when we did not have a VP then?:
[* Gerald Ford as VP on 25th Amendment – then chose Nelson Rockefeller as VP w/ 25th Amendment - Nelson
        was Gov of NY during the 1971 Attica prison uprising – Am Pag excludes as usual]
Gerald Ford:
In his brief presidency, Gerald Ford agreed – to sign Helsinki Accords & a full, complete pardon for Nixon
        {* He said taking office – “I’m a Ford, not a Lincoln.”}
        {* 1975 seizure of USS Mayaguez by Cambodians – rescue saved 39, but cost 41 USMC lives}
        {* Two assassination attempts – 1 by Squeaky From, a female Charles Manson follower}
Helsinki Accords:
Helsinki Accords (Finland), signed by Gerald Ford & leaders of 34 other nations
        – pledged signatories to guarantee certain basic human rights (p.962)
Nixon deceives Americans about Cambodian escalation to the Vietnam War:
In 1973 the Am public was shocked to learn that – US Air Force had been secretly bombing Cambodia since
        1969 (before 1970 when USA found out about it)
In response to Congress’s attempt to stop him from con’t the bombing of Cambodia, Nixon
        – repeatedly vetoed Congress’s bills to halt the attacks (Senate override, but not in House)
As result of Nixon’s aerial bombardment of neutral Cambodia (not really neutral b/c Ho Chi Minh Trail went
        through both Cambodia and Laos) in 1973 (since 1969), - the Cambodian economy was ruined & its
        politics revolutionized (Pol Pot’s “Killing Fields”) (pp.957-958)
Domestic results of Nixon’s deceptions about Cambodia:
Results of the Cambodian incursion ordered by Pres Nixon in 1970 included
        – killing of (4) student demonstrators {1 was not actually demonstrating, just changing classes} at
                Kent State University (in Ohio – where SD Charger Antonio Gates played BB)
                {* Plus 2 killed 10 days later at Af-Am Jackson State University in MS
                         – fired massive # of bullets}, repeal of Tonkin Gulf Resolution by Senate,
                                 deepening of division b/t pro-war “hawks” & antiwar “doves”
                                        {Plus more & more antiwar demonstrations}
How did Congress weakly respond to Vietnam and Executive power to wage war?:
1973 War Powers Act – required pres to report to Congress any commitment of US troops (pp.957-958)
       {* Passed over Nixon’s veto – must report w/in 48 hrs – must end w/in 60 days – or Congress must approve 30 day extension}
Cambodia’s “killing fields”:
{* Pol Pot in Cambodia & N. Vietnamese stop killing fields}
Vietnam:
(* 1972 NVA offensive – stopped by USA ground & air forces – next & last offensive will be April 1975 w/Fall
        of Saigon –book ignores)
[* p.949 USMC officer’s quote – “For years we disposed of the enemy dead like so much garbage. We stuck
cigarettes in the mouths of corpses, put Playboy magazines in their hands, cut off their ears to wear around our
necks. We incinerated them with napalm, atomized them with B-52 strikes, shoved them out of doors of
helicopters above the South China Sea…. All we did was count, count bodies. Count dead human beings….
That was our fundamental military strategy. Body count. And the count kept going up.”]
{* From doc “Hell in the Pacific” on Military Channel – USMC “Sledgehammer” considered an ear necklace
        too & explained how he could become so barbaric in war}
People of USA had provided just about everything for South Vietnam (including)
        – most sophisticated aircraft (although USA flew them), hundreds of thousands of troops
                 (~530,000+ at peak in 1968), enough time to win (What does that mean?), & enough $ to build
                 its own military (but S. Vietnamese gov’ts were notoriously corrupt),
                 What about the will to win? No according to the textbook
                 – but I say this is BS! I say this is the book excusing a US loss & blaming the S. Vietnamese
                         for our loss in their “civil war” – one they grew weary of b/c they’d been at war
                                 since before WWII
        {* USA lacked the will to win more than S. Vietnamese – gov’t fought limited war – problem was USA
                 thought war was over communism – it was really a civil war w/foreign powers involved
                         – therefore resented eventually}
In Vietnam, USA lost – respect in eyes of foreigners, confidence in its military prowess (& confidence in
        leaders who had lied), economic power (expensive war), & of course, the war itself (p.963)
When N. Vietnamese launched their full invasion of S. Vietnam in 1975
        – S. Vietnamese gov’t quickly collapsed
1973 Yom Kippur War:
As result of US support for Israel in 1973 (Yom Kippur War) when it was attacked by Egypt & Syria,
        - Arab nations placed an embargo on oil to USA (first energy/gas crisis on 1970s)
International Energy Agency:
In an effort to counter OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), the USA took lead in forming
        – International Energy Agency (to counter OPEC – how? – book does not say
        [* Alaskan pipeline]
        (* OPEC quadrupled the price of oil in 1974)
Interesting quotes to consider:
{* “In war-time, the word “patriotism” means suppression of the truth.” British Army Cpt. S. Sassoon 7/1917}
{* “Before you embark on a journey of revenge, dig two graves.” Confucius}
{* “The death of one man is a tragedy. The death of millions is a statistic.” “Death solves all problems.” Joseph Stalin}
{* “What we do for ourselves dies with us. What we do for others and the world remains and is immortal.” Albert Pine}
{* If you want to sacrifice the admiration of many men for the criticism of one, go ahead, get married.” Katherine Hepburn}
Feminist Movement:
One major social movement born in 1960s that retained & gathered momentum in 1970s & after was
       – the feminist movement (p.963) – {see The Americans Ch 23}
While many of the social movements born in 1960s declined or disappeared, the one that remained strong
& even gathered momentum in 1970s was – the feminist movement (p.963)
The “first wave” of feminism grew out of the abolitionist movement, and the “second wave” of feminism grew
       out of the civil rights movement
Nearly all “second wave” feminists agreed on the issue of – abortion rights
       [* Women should have right to choose was/is their belief]
       {Pro-choice vs. Pro-life – always positive rhetoric}
Term “second wave” feminism refers to – those like Betty Freidan who revived feminism in 1960s & 1970s as
       a broad (no pun intended – older slang for women was “broad”) movement of women’s rights & opportunities
       [* Not Elizabeth Cady Stanton or Susan B. Anthony – 19th century suffragettes – early 20th century too]
Moderate & radical feminists differed over – marriage, how much to expect from US gov’t & capitalism,
       pornography, abolition of all gender differences, What about abortion?

What is Title IX?:
Title IX was passed by Congress in 1972 to
        – prohibit sex discrimination in any federally funded education program or activity (Ex SPHS Softball field)
Equal Rights Amendment:
Proposed Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), passed by Congress in 1972 & eventually ratified by 35 states,
        stated – “Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any
                        state on the basis of sex.” (p.966)
        [* Missed ratification by 3 states – needed 38 – b/c of Phyllis Schlafly]
{* American Heritage Dictionary – defines “feminism” as – “Advocacy of the political, social, & economic
        equality of men & women.”}
ERA failed to be ratified by 38 states needed (only got 35) largely b/c
        – by Phyllis Schlafly stirring sufficient opposition to it (p.966)
                (* 1972 Congress passed – extended in 1979 to 1982 – died in 1982 w/out 3 states needed)
Roe v. Wade (1973):
Sup Crt case Roe v. Wade (1973) declared state laws prohibiting abortion (out-right) were unconstitutional
        b/c they – violated a woman’s constitutional right of privacy in her own person
        (See Griswold v. Connecticut – 1965 – couple’s “right to privacy” in use of birth control)
Busing – forced racial integration in public schools for the poor, but not for the rich in private schools:
Most explosive racial controversy of 1970s was over – busing (Ex Boston – to integrate schools)
Most explosive domestic controversy of 1970s centered around issues of – race (busing)
How did Milliken v. Bradley really hurt poor schools compared to middle-class & wealthy schools?:
Effect of Sup Crt ruling in Milliken v. Bradley (1974), which held that integration did not have to take place
        across school district lines, was to – reinforce division b/t power, minority inner city schools
        & nearly all white suburbs
Affirmative Action – Bakke v. Regents of UC California:
Sup Crt in the Bakke case (Regents of UC of CA {Davis} v. Bakke 1978) that – racial quotas were
        unconstitutional but race could be taken into account as one factor in challenging college admissions
        (* Thurgood Marshall dissented – said it could un-do civil rights gains)
Native American Indians express frustration & discontent:
Major goal successfully pursued by Indian civil rights activists in 1970s was
        – a recognition of semi-sovereign status of various Indian tribes under US law
American Indian activists {American Indian Movement – AIM – not in Am Pag} brought attention to their
        cause in 1970s by seizing – Alcatraz Island (SF, CA) [no longer a prison] {paid the same amount Dutch
        did for Manhattan Island} & Wounded Knee, South Dakota
        {* Clashes w/FBI – Ex “Freedom” by Rage Against the Machine}
Vietnamese immigration to the USA:
The “first wave” of Vietnamese refugees who came to the USA in immediate aftermath of Vietnam War
        – were first forced into “assimilation camps” scattered across USA
A primary goal of both the first & second wave of Vietnamese refugees was
        – to keep their lg extended families together (not split for assimilation)
1976 election:
Opposing major party candidates in bicentennial (200th anniversary of USA 1776-1976) pres campaign of 1976
        were – Gerald Ford (Rep) & Jimmy Carter (Dem)
America’s 200th birthday:
{* Bicentennial 1976 Escondido – ex fire hydrants painted as patriots like revolutionary soldiers, Betsy Ross,
        Washington, etc…, cool original American flags – Vons had different flags each week of year that I
                collected – I was a cute kid! – at least that’s what my Mommy told me – centennial is 100 years}
The economy sucked for Carter’s term:
{* Inflation – very high (I remember learning what it was b/c it was such a topic at the time) – hurt economy
        – Ex. Prime interest rate was 20%}


A peanut farmer from Georgia in the White House:
James Earl (Jimmy) Carter enjoyed considerable popularity when he won presidency b/c
        – his emphasis on honesty contrasted w/corruptions of Watergate
        {* Carter former one-term Gov of GA, USNA grad, Nukes, peanut farmer, humble, Christian, after pres
                 – Habitat for Humanity, etc… his book Up Before Sunrise – documents living w/poor blacks in
                        rural GA – Camp David Accords, “Malaise” speech – 3 Mile Island – book doesn’t
                        mention – Iranian Hostage Crisis – distant relative of Elvis & June Carter Cash}
While president, Jimmy Carter – called for renewal of the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II),
        signed treaties restoring Panamanian sovereignty of the Canal Zone (by 2000), established formal
        diplomatic relations w/mainland (communist) China (different from US backed Nationalist China
        – Taiwan/Formosa), & helped to settle Egyptian-Israeli conflict in Middle East (Begin & Sadat too)
Carter’s foreign policy:
Guiding principle of Carter’s foreign policy was – human rights (strong Christian background)
        {* However, USA backed some scumbags even under Carter – Ex Shah of Iran was pretty bad}
Pres Carter’s most spectacular foreign policy achievement was the – Camp David agreement b/t Israel & Egypt
        {* Menachin Begin - Israel & Anwar Sadat - Egypt}
First major trouble to afflict Pres Carter’s foreign policy was – ominous reheating of Cold War w/USSR
        Ex. Cubans & Russians in Angola, Ethiopia, & elsewhere in Africa
{* Carter – resume full diplomatic relations w/China in 1979 & signed treaties to give Canal Zone to
        Panamanians in 2000 p.971}
Carter’s domestic policies:
Carter believed that fundamental problem of US economy in late 1970s was – US dependence on foreign oil
Energy crises of the 1970s:
“Oil shocks” of 1970s (1973-74 & 1979) brought home to Am’s the stunning fact that
        – their (US) economy was increasingly dependent on foreign trade & global economy
In response to energy crisis in 1973-1974, - Congress sanctioned construction of Alaskan pipeline (for oil),
       Congress enacted 55 mph speed limit {or cut off highway $ for roads}, agitation mounted to use more
       coal & nuclear power (Ex. 3 Mile Island – not in book)
{* Later in 1970s – wind & solar, etc… - My Dad worked on world’s first fusion reactor, Doublet III but
       General Atomic in 1978 – but more power put in to work than power coming out, which is still the
                           problem w/today’s fusion reactor}
Three Mile Island:
Know the details & that the system worked!
Is it worth it’s SALT when the Soviets invade Afghanistan on Christmas Eve 1979?:
Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT) II Treaty b/t USSR & USA died in Senate when Soviets
        – invaded Afghanistan (Dec 1979)
How did the USA respond to the invasion of Afghanistan?:
Boycotting the 1980 Olympic Games (summer – Moscow) was one measure taken by Pres Carter in response to
        – Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (Dec 1979) (p.974)
        [* Carter also placed an embargo on export of grain (wheat) & high-tech machinery to USSR too]
Iranian Hostage Crisis:
Most humiliating failure during the Iranian Hostage Crisis came when
        – Pres Carter’s attempted rescue mission ended in disaster {* 2 helicopters crashed in desert}
{* 1979 Shah of Iran – oppressive regime – put in power by USA in 1953 – Ayatollah Khomeini – US Embassy
        in Tehran – 52 hostages – later some released – rescue attempt & crash – Reagan – 444 Days
                 – yellow ribbons – feeling USA was on decline}
Chronology of events in the 1970s:
Chronology: Arab oil embargo (Oct 1973), Fall of Saigon (April 1975), Iranian-Hostage Crisis (Nov 1979 to
        Jan 1981 – day Reagan was inaugurated – we thought Iran feared Reagan not Carter, so they broke
        down & released them – they just really wanted to hurt Carter by not releasing them while he was
        President), Invasion of Afghanistan [by USSR] (Dec 1979 – their “Vietnam”)

The Cold War thaws?:
Signs that Cold War was thawing a bit in early 1970s included
        – SALT agreement (free numbers of long range-missile for 5 yrs – 1972 SALT) (p.951),
        ABM Treaty (Anti-Ballistic Missile) – {limit US & USSR to 2 clusters of missile types – defining
        2 types of defensive missile types & limited them to 2 clusters/types}, Nixon’s visit to Beijing, then
        Moscow (1972) {* Play the 2 countries off against each other – it worked well} [* Détente & Vietnam]

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Ch 40 The Stalemated Seventies, 1968-1980 (Ch 40 in the 12th edition is Ch 39 in the 13th edition)
General Notes:
pp.946-948 Sources of Stagflation
pp.948-949 Nixon “Vietnamizes” the War
       p.949 USMC officer’s quote
       p.949 wrong about poor & blacks b/c of officers & volunteers, plus casualties by proportion
pp.949-950 Cambodianizing the Vietnam War
pp.950-951 Nixon’s Détente with Beijing (Peking) and Moscow
       p.951 Kissinger’s policies (Realpolitik)
       p.951 Nixon on tightrope balancing with wheat b/t China & USSR – political cartoon
pp.951-952 A New Team on the Supreme Bench
pp.952-954 Nixon on the Home Front
       p.953 Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring
p.954         The Nixon Landslide of 1972
pp.954-955 Bombing North Vietnam to the Peace Table
pp.955-956 Watergate Woes
pp.956-957 The Great Tape Controversy
pp.957-958 The Secret Bombing of Cambodia and the War Powers Act
pp.958-959 The Arab Oil Embargo and the Energy Crisis
pp.959-960 The Unmaking of a President
       p.960 Nixon “Law-and-Order-Man” (had run on slogan of “Law and Order” – political cartoon
              - shows Nixon hiding “all the president’s men” behind his cape that says “executive privilege”
        p.960 Praise for US impeachment & strict accountability for Presidents – I found this laughable 
              - impressive demonstration of self-discipline & self-gov’t to world – What a huge load of ____!
pp.960-962 The First Unelected President
[p.961]       Examining the Evidence – The “Smoking Gun” Tape June 23rd, 1972 10:04-11:39am
        p.962 Vietnam War – Presidents & Kissinger – Who Lost the Vietnam War? – political cartoon
pp.962-963 Defeat in Vietnam (Excuses for US loss in Vietnam – blame South Vietnamese) (Costs of War)
        p.963 Picture of “Abortion Wars”
pp.963-966 Feminist Victories and Defeats
        p.963 Title IX
[pp.964-965] The Vietnamese (refugees – 1st & 2nd waves – assimilation camps – “boat people”)
        p.966 Reed v. Reed (1971) & Frontiero v. Richardson (1973)
                      – challenge sex discrimination in legislation & employment
pp.966-967 The Seventies in Black and White
        p.966 Milliken v. Bradley & Bakke cases
        p.966 ERA, Roe v. Wade, Phyllis Schlafly
        p.967 Native American Indians – US v. Wheeler
                      – tribes “unique & limited” sovereignty subject to will of Congress but not the states
        p.967 [AIM] Alcatraz & Wounded Knee & FBI – see The Americans Ch 23
pp.967-970 The Bicentennial Campaign and the Carter Victory
[pp.968-969] The Feminists – Stanton – Seneca Falls, NY 1848 – Anthony – etc…
pp.970-971 Carter’s Humanitarian Diplomacy
        p.971 TR reacts over Panama Canal give away - political cartoon
pp.971-972 Economic and Energy Woes
        p.971 foreign oil trade increases portion of GNP ever since 1970s
        p.972 History of Consumer Price Index 1967-2000 – shows inflation & shrinkage of dollar
                      (must consider the dollar like a man, so the term “shrinkage” is very bad) relative to the
                      CPI (measure of what can be bought w/$) {inflation is a rising cost of goods w/out an
                      increase in the purchasing power of the dollar}
        p.972 Iran’s problems in 1979 led to rise in OPEC’s prices as Iranian oil decreased supply
                      * Odd and Even gas days & lines – sometimes limits – Japanese cars popular
        p.973 “Malaise” speech by carter
pp.973-975 Foreign Affairs and the Iranian Imbroglio (a difficult or intricate situation; an embarrassing misunderstanding)
        p.974 SALT II, Iran & Afghanistan in 1979
        p.975 failure of rescue attempt for Iranian hostages
p.975 Chronology

__________________________________________________________________________________________

From The Americans textbook:

Ch 23 An Era of Social Change pp.758-781

- Section 1 Latinos and Native Americans Seek Equality pp.760-765

Latino diversity in USA – patterns of immigration & migration for migrant workers – percentages of types of
Latinos – desperate journeys – “coyotes” & suffering – INS – César Chávez – National Farm Workers
Association – Dolores Huerta – Women in org – United Farm Workers Organizing Committee – boycott –
grapes – lettuce - ***** My César Chávez story at CSUSM ***** - pride – “brown power” – (HBO film
Walkout 1968 LA public schools) – Chicano movement – political power – La Raza Unida – MAPA (Mexican-
American Political Association) – Native Americans – some refuse to assimilate under Dawes Act of 1887
brought back by Ike – Declaration of Indian Purpose – American Indian Movement (AIM) – self-defense group
– CO Sen. Ben Nighthorse Campbell – protests – symbol of stars on US flag – upside down flag – Russell
Means – Alcatraz – Wash DC at Bureau of Indian Affairs – Wounded Knee, SD – vistories –reforms & such –
some won land in court – 1972 Indian Education Act - 1975 Indian Self-Determination & Education Assistance
Act – Migrant Workers patterns

- Section 2 Women Fight for Equality pp.768-772

Betty Freidan – feminism – workplace – glass ceiling - $ not equal to men – gender job adds – Civil Rights Act
of 1964 – discrimination suits – National Organization for Women – Gloria Steinem – undercover as a Playboy
bunny – MS. Magazine – Miss America Pageant of 1968 – Roe v. Wade – ERA – Af-Am women – more
discrimination as women rather than Af-Am according to Shirley Chisholm (first Af-Am women in House) –
Phyllis Schlafly – pro-family – New Right – Legacy – “A Woman’s Place Is in the House…and Also in the
Senate” poster

- Section 3 Culture and Counter-culture pp.773-779

Tune in, turn on, drop out – Timothy Leary – Harvard prof advocating taking LSD – hippies – Bob Dylan –
Haight-Ashbury in SF, CA – Flower Power – drugs – Zen – decline after Manson murders in LA 1969 & deaths
of Janis Joplin & Jimi Hendrix – overdoses – got older – had to pay bills – Andy Warhol – Beatles – Stones –
Woodstock – Sgt Pepper’s – Sexual Revolution – the “pill” – styles – VW vans – Afro’s – hippies – Motown
soul music – The Supremes – The Doors – 2001: A Space Odyssey – Easy Rider – Beach Boys – Cool TV –
mini-skirts to pants-suits

Ch 24 An Age of Limits pp.784-815

- Section 1 The Nixon Administration pp.786-792

Henry Kissinger – Richard Nixon – New Federalism – revenue sharing – impounding funds – Family
Assistance Plan – Nixon bio – “had to win” – Law and Order Politics – FBI, CIA, IRS – “enemies list” –
Agnew – 1969 Apollo 11 – southern strategy – busing – Boston – 26th Amendment 1971 – 18yr-olds vote –
Supreme Court – Burger in 1969 appt’d by “Tricky Dick” Nixon – stagflation – causes – OPEC – 1973 Yom
Kippur War – Kissinger – Realpolitik – détente – China – USSR – 1972 – SALT I

- Section 2 Watergate: Nixon’s Downfall pp.793-799

Watergate – Imperial Presidency – The “President’s Men” – John Dean, John Ehrlichman, John Mitchell, HR
Haldeman – CREEP – burglary – “Plumbers” plug “leaks” – Washington Post – Woodward & Bernstein –
Judge John Siricia – Senate investigations – Sam Ervin of NC – testimonies – Sat Night Massacre – Tapes –
House Judiciary Committee – Resigns 8-8-74 – Am’s distrust gov’t after Vietnam & Watergate – TV in USA –
Roots – All in the Family – SNL – MNF – Hawaii Five-O

- Section 3 The Ford and Carter Years pp.800-807

Ford – “I’m a Ford, not a Lincoln.” – 25th Amendment – Rockefeller – {Attica} – WHIP inflation – vetoes –
stagflation – pardon Nixon – foreign policy – Kissinger – USS Mayaguez 1975 Cambodia – lost 41 USMC to
rescue 39 hostages – Carter – peanut farmer – former GA Governor – {Grad of USNA – nukes} – walk to
White House for inaugural – (“I’ll never lie to you.”) – Energy Crisis – National Energy Act – Texas oil boom
of 1980s – DALLAS TV show – Economy worsens – stagflation chart p.803
– changing economy chart p. 804 – civil rights – lots of minority & female appointments – appt’d Andrew
Young (first Af-Am) ambassador to UN – Bakke case – human rights – but inconsistent when backing someone
like Shah of Iran – other scumbag oppressive dictators – Panama Canal – SALT II – Afghanistan – Soviet
Premier Brezhnev – Camp David – Iran – Khomeini – 444 Days – Etc…
- Section 4 Environmental Activism

Lois Gibbs – Love Canal in Niagra Falls, NY & Hooker Chemical Corp – Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring –
DDT, etc… - Earth Day 4-22-1970 was first one – environmentalism – EPA – cars – air pollution –
conservation – Alaska pipeline – Nuclear Energy – Three Mile Island in PA – not in Am Pag – 1989 Exxon
Valdez oil tanker spill – captain was drunk and ran into a reef – immense damage – Republicans less friendly to
environment since Reagan – {TR helped start idea as Rep} – USA ahead in some areas – lags in others –
environmentally speaking, our record is not good, and not improving too much as of the last decade or so




Ch. 41 The Resurgence of Conservatism, 1980-2000 (Ch 41 in the 12th edition is Ch 40 in the 13th edition)
1980 election:
In the 1980 national elections
        - Edward Kennedy challenged incumbent Pres. Carter for the nomination of the Democratic Party
Edward Kennedy’s campaign to take the presidential nomination away from Carter in 1980 was handicapped by
         - lingering suspicions about his involvement in an automobile accident
        - (in which he was driving) and a young woman was killed (drowned) [Chappaquiddick]
Carter’s own party complains about him:
Liberal Democrats complained that Carter had removed regulatory controls from major industries
The “New Right” (conservatives, neo-conservatives, & religious conservatives):
The “new right” movement that helped elect Ronald Reagan was spearheaded by
        - evangelical Christians
Many “new right” activists were most concerned about – cultural & social issues
Which of these social issues was not a primary concern for the “new right?”
        – birth control were: pornography, homosexuality, abortion, affirmative action
The neoconservatives of the 1980s believed in
        - free-market capitalism, a return to traditional values of individualism and the centrality of the family
        - fewer government restraints on economy, strengthening white working-class
                 What about détente with the Soviet Union?
                        Foreign policy was not a major issue to them then
The “new right” developed many of its tactical approaches by imitating the methods of – the New Left
        (*conscious raising – prayer, rights & entitlements – “right-to-life,” & civil disobedience)
The following were ways the “New Right” of 1980s imitated tactics & approaches of “New Left” of 1960s
        - “making the personal political”, practicing “identity politics” using small group sessions to “raise
        consciousness”, engaging in tactics of street protest & civil disobedience.
        What about seizing control of colleges & universities? No! What about abortion clinics? Yes!
Enter actor, turned politician, first a Democrat, then later a Republican, Ronald Wilson Reagan:
Ronald Reagan was similar to FDR in that both men
        - championed the “common man” against vast, impersonal menaces --- (But is this really true?)
Reagan differed from FDR in that FDR branded big business as the enemy of the common man
        (meanwhile helping big business), while Reagan depicted big government as the foe
Reagan began to abandon his liberal New Deal political philosophy & to espouse a conservative,
        anti-government line – when he became spokesman for GE (General Electric)
“Sagebrush rebels”:
The “Sagebrush Rebellion” was a fiercely anti-Washington movement that had sprung up in protest
        - federal control over rich mineral & timber resources in Western states
Carter’s weaknesses as President:
Perhaps Carter’s greatest weakness as president was his - lack of managerial talent
Reagan’s agenda:
Reagan planned to reduce the size of government by – shrinking the federal budget & lowering taxes
        {He did not really do this though}
Proposition 13 in CA & the “tax revolt”:
The strong “tax revolt” against extensive government programs & spending was spurred
        - by the passage of Prop 13 in California
Carter’s reputation:
Despite his failure in the White House, Carter earned widespread admiration in the post-president years for his
        - humanitarian & human rights activities (ex. Habitat for Humanity)
Reagan’s domestic policies:
Reagan’s essential domestic goal as president was to
        – dismantle “welfare state” (& instead increased defense spending)
        – shrink the size of federal government (which he did accomplish but with many negative effects too)
True to his campaign promises, as President Reagan – cut taxes (see Zinn Ch. 21) (see immediately below)
Besides cutting the federal budget, Reagan’s other main domestic initiative when he took office was
        - to cut taxes by about 25% (resulting in mostly the rich & extremely rich seeing the greatest gains)
Reagan’s major goal as president was to – reduce the size of the federal government (see above)
Reagan’s “supply side” economic advisers assured him that the combination of budgetary discipline & tax
        reduction would - stimulate investment, boost productivity, foster dramatic economic growth, balance
        the budget; what about produce a recession-proof economy? – (“Reagonomics”) (Did this work?)
        {What does Zinn Ch. 21 say?}
The 1st [first] results of Reagan’s supply-side economics in 1982 was
        - a sharp recession & rise in unemployment
The immediate consequence of President Reagan’s new economic policies was - a rise in the value of the dollar
        [*poor, disabled, etc … hurt – rich benefit “Reaganomics” – huge deficit
                 all led to high interest rates – which raised value of US $ (dollar)]
Reagan’s highest political objective as president was - the containment & then shrinkage of the “welfare state”
        {*at whose expense?} – {read Zinn Ch. 21}
Who were the “boll weevils”?:
Conservative Democrats who helped Reagan to pass budget & tax cutting legislation were called – boll weevils
Who was a “yuppie”?:
The term “yuppies” was slang applies to – high-living young people who practiced “conspicuous consumption”
Economic inequality grows (another Gilded Age):
In 1980s, for first time in 20th century, - income gaps widened between richest & poorest Americans
US Government acquires a huge debt – why and what was the result?:
One consequence of record – high deficits & high interest rates of 1980s was – a soaring value for the dollar
Some economists believe that the economic upturn in the 1980s was the result of
        - massive military expenditures
One of the greatest consequences of Reagan’s expansion of federal debt was - to make new social spending
        practically & politically impossible
The greatest increase in the national debt occurred – during Reagan’s eight years in office
In 1986, Congress passed legislation mandating – a balanced budget by 1991 (nice try, but no cigar!)
“The Evil Empire”:
To Reagan “the focus of evil in the modern world” was – the USSR/Soviet Union {the “evil empire”}
A woman finally gets to be on the big ticket, even if it is the losing side; and it only took almost 200 years:
The first woman to receive the Vice- President nomination of a major political party was
        - Geraldine Ferraro (Democrat 1984 with Walter Mondale)
Glasnost & Perestroika:
For the Soviet Union’s new policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) to work, it was
        Essential - that the Cold War end {for the economics to work}
The Iran-Contra Scandal & the “Teflon President”:
The Iran-Contra investigations revealed Reagan as a president who – napped through cabinet meetings
        {“I don’t recall” – Reagan about a million times when questioned in hearings}
       {Reagan was “Teflon” because the new no-stick cooking surface was novel at the time & nothing stuck to Reagan}
Reagan came to be labeled the “Teflon President” because – he seemed always able to avoid blame for failed
        foreign policies (nothing “stuck” to him)
A woman finally sits on the highest court in the USA:
The first woman appointed to the US Supreme Court was – Sandra Day O’Connor {retired}
        [Ruth Bader Ginsburg was 2nd woman & only woman on court currently – appointed by Clinton 1993]
Tiananmen Square, 1989:
In response to China’s crushing of its pre-democracy movement, the USA under George Bush (1989)
        - maintained normal relations with China (we wanted the $)
                (Zinn Ch. 21-compare to US in Panama # of deaths)
Women’s rights as relating to the right to an abortion is a most controversial issue in America:
In cases of Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989) & Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)
        the Supreme Court – permitted states to put some restrictions on abortion while fundamentally
                upholding the abortion rights decision of Roe v. Wade (1973)
Poland’s “Solidarity” movement:
“Solidarity” was – a massive working-class labor union of Polish dissidents (APEC)
1988 election:
George Herbert Walker Bush (Reagan’s VP) defeats Michael Dukakis (Gov of MA)
Among Democrats whom Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis defeated for the party’s nomination to run
        against George Bush in 1988 were – Gary Hart & (Rev.) Jesse Jackson


Democrats hopes for 1988 election rose sharply because of major scandals in Reagan administration involving
        - Iran-Contra affair & savings & loans banks (see Zinn Ch. 21)
                 *broke law with Lt. Col. Oliver North USMC sold guns/arms to Iran – took profits & gave to
                        Contras for arms – violated Congressional ban on arms sales
                        “Teflon” Reagan was untouched – why Iran? Because needed their help getting some
                               hostages released
                 Savings & Loans lost $$$ - needed government bail out
                        shady investments – lost $$$ of depositors
What is the legacy of the Reagan-Bush presidencies?:
Legacy of Reagan/Bush? – early 1990s average or median incomes decreased for all but top 20% – See chart on p. 988
US-Israeli relations based on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict:
Israel badly strained its bonds of friendship with the USA by
        - allowing new settlements to be established in the occupied territory of the West Bank (of River Jordan)
Reagan sends the USMC to Lebanon in 1983 – a mistake:
In 1983, President Reagan sent USMC to Lebanon as part of an international peace-keeping force; many of
        Whom - (~200) died in a terrorist attack (bombing of barracks 10-23-83)
A crazy dude tries to kill Reagan:
{On 3-30-81 John Hinckley, Jr. shot Reagan to profess his undying love & devotion for actress Jodie Foster}
Operation Urgent Fury:
During Reagan’s presidency, - US troops invaded Grenada (see Zinn Ch. 21)
Find out why and what the results were!
Reagan’s second term:
The issue that dominated Reagan’s 2nd term as president was – foreign policy
The break up of the Soviet Union:
As one consequence of demise of USSR, - long-suppressed ethnic hatreds flared in former Soviet republics
1992 election:
In 1992 political campaign, the following issues or development revealed popular disgust with incumbents
        - intractable budgetary crisis, stagnant economy, revelation many House members had written bad
                 checks from their accounts in private House “bank”, Ross Perot’s winning nearly 20% of vote
                        What about debate over “family values?”
Backlash to the Great Society:
Modern conservatism springs from – a disapproval of priorities & strategies from the Great Society
“New World Order”:
In response to collapse of USSR, President George Bush called for a “New World Order” where
        - democracy would reign supreme and diplomacy would replace weaponry ( for real)
1990’s Desert Shield becomes 1991’s Desert Storm:
USA joined its allied in the Persian Gulf War in order to –roll back Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait
The result of the Persian Gulf War was that – Kuwait was liberated but Saddam Hussein stayed in power
        (*Zinn Ch. 21 – Why? To check other regions US felt were dangerous – ex. Iran)
Who replaced Thrugood Marshall, was there controversy, & was that dude a good replacement for Marshall?:
The explosive Senate hearings that nearly prevented Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas (African
        American replacing Thurgood Marshall African American – 1991) from being confirmed involved
        Charges (from Law Professor Anita Hill African American) that Thomas was guilty of sexual
        Harassment {*everyone became aware of “sexual harassment” because of these hearings}
        [lots of jokes, movies, TV episodes, etc. – ex. SNL]
        *I know you want to know what he did – Hill claimed, although not corroborated by others that Thomas
                 constantly told dirty jokes & referenced the size of his anatomy
Thomas is a conservative, while Marshall was a liberal, so it depends on how you see things I guess.
President William (Bill) Jefferson Clinton:
The primary issue that enabled Bill Clinton to defeat President Bush & Ross Perot in 1992 election was Bush’s
        - management of a seriously slumping economy
        see political cartoon on p.998 {plus he said, “Read My Lips - NO NEW TAXES! – then had to raise taxes}
The “gun control” controversy:
One of Bill Clinton’s few early successes in advancing his reform agenda during his first term was
        - the Brady gun control bill (James Brady shot in Reagan attempt-1981)
“Why I could whip you with my one good arm George Bush.” (Dan Ackroyd as Senator Bob Dole on SNL):
The leader of the right-wing movement that won a sweeping victory for Republicans in the 1994 Congressional
        elections was – Senator Robert Dole/Bob Dole
Clinton’s second term:
Facing a Republican Congress during his 2nd term, Bill Clinton embraces more cautious & conservative
        policies, including notably his support for - a welfare reform bill (see Zinn Ch. 21)
Clinton’s foreign policy:
The Clinton foreign policy in Africa, the Balkans, and China was marked by
        - a great caution & a reluctance to engage American diplomatic or military power
Clinton was impeached – why & what happened?:
Understand the impeachment process!
The two charges on which President Clinton was impeached & then acquitted after a Senate trial in January &
        February 1999 were – perjury before a Grand Jury & Obstruction of Justice
Clinton’s legacy:
As President, Bill Clinton’s legacy would likely include - consolidating the Reagan-Bush revolution of lowered
        expectations for government’s ability to solve social ills
Clinton functioned very much like a Republican while in office, especially in his second term
2000 election:
The razor-thin election of 2000 between George W. Bush and Al Gore was finally resolved when
        - US Supreme Court ended further recounts in FL Giving Bush the electoral vote victory
        {The Court interpreted that Bush’s 14th Amendment rights were being violated}

       Not all of the following questions will be in the 12th edition, but they are in the 13th
edition.
1992 election (again):
In 1992 national elections, Democratic candidate Bill Clinton – campaigned as a New Democrat
        who proposed to move away from his party’s traditional liberalism
A principal constituency that voted heavily for Clinton over Bush & Perot was – women
President Clinton:
Two of Clinton’s early political blunders occurred in the areas of
        - gays in the military (“Don’t ask, Don’t tell”) & health care (Hilary Clinton’s labyrinth plan)
Waco:
The Branch Dravidians were – a fundamentalist sect assaulted by federal government (1993)
        [Waco, TX 1993 FBI & ATF assault compound after days of siege & shootouts
                 fire, death, David Koresh]
Why did many people grow to distrust the government in the 1990s?:
[1993 WTC bombing – 1995 Oklahoma City – April 19th, 1995 on the anniversary of Waco – 168 KIA
        – McVey - Unibomber of 1980s & 1990s – Ruby Ridge – militias – April 20th, 1999 Columbine, etc.]
A widespread public attitude of the early 1990s that affected many areas of politics & society was
        - disillusionment & distrust of federal government
Clinton sells out Democratic Party ideals to save his presidency:
President Clinton aroused hostility of liberals within his own party when he – signed the Welfare Reform Bill
        (Zinn Ch. 21-22?)
How did the “Contract with America” backlash on the Republicans?:
After they gained control of both houses of Congress in the 1994 mid-term elections, the Republicans
        - over-reached with conservative policies that bred a backlash favoring President Clinton
What did Clinton do about affirmative action?:
President Clinton’s approach to controversial policy of affirmative action was – a plea to “mend it, not end it”


How was the economy in general in the 1990s?:
Clinton’s primary political advantage throughout his two terms of office was
        - the tremendously prosperous economy
Clinton’s foreign policy:
Clinton’s foreign policy stumbled in the first 5-years of his presidency in
        - human rights & trade with China, US troops in Somalia (“Black Hawk Down-1993), bringing
                 democracy to Haiti, ethnic conflict (genocide) in the Balkans
                         What about relations with US allies Germany & France?
Clinton attempted to promote peace negotiations & better relations among
        - Israelis & Palestinians, Protestants & Catholics in N. Ireland, North & South Korea, India & Pakistan,
                 What about China & Taiwan?
2000 election & Federal surpluses instead of deficits:
One highly unusual issue in the 2000 presidential campaign between Al Gore & George W. Bush was
        - how to spend the huge federal budget surpluses (didn’t take long – deficits)
Supreme Court’s ruling prohibiting further recounting of Florida’s votes & awarding the 2000 election to
        George Bush was based on - a finding that Florida’s inconsistent standards for evaluating ballots
                 violated equal protection clause of Constitution (14th Amendment)
In his campaign for presidency in 2000, George W, Bush promised to
        - bring reconciliation after the sharp partisan divisions of Clinton years (plus honesty & dignity)
                 {Has that worked for him?}
President George W. Bush:
Polarizing conservative policies George W. Bush pursued when he became president include
        sharply cutting taxes (federal taxes), withdrawing US support from international programs sanctioning
        abortion, refusing to permit government sponsored “stem-cell” research, repudiating the Kyoto Treaty
        (limit greenhouse emissions – of which US is worst – said Science wasn’t conclusive & would hurt US
        businesses), & opening Alaska to more oil exploration
        [*He let Vice President Cheney negotiate energy policy out of public view with corporate leaders]
        What about appointing extreme conservatives to Supreme Court? He tried-Congress said no!
Osama Bin Laden:
The original home of Osama bin Laden, the organizer of Al Qaeda & {one of the} presumed organizer{s} of the
       September 11th attacks was – Saudi Arabia
Some Results of 9/11/01:
New cabinet level agency charged with protecting America against foreign terrorist attacks was/is
       - Department of Homeland Security
USA-Patriot Act (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept
       And Obstruct Terrorism Act) provided for, among other things,
                - the detention & deportation of immigrants suspected of terrorism
                {*Also allows for wire tapping, incarceration without habeas corpus, etc.} (See Zinn Ch. 24 or 25)
“Axis of Evil”:
To President George W. Bush, “the axis of evil” that menaced American security consisted of nations of
       Iran, Iraq, & North Korea {*Note “axis” – like WWII – Team America: World Police, we need you!}
War in Iraq:
Among Bush’s advisers who pushed most strongly for the invasion of Iraq (in March 2003) were
       - Vice President Richard “Dick” Cheney (“Lookout, he’s got a shotgun!”) and administration
                “neoconservatives” (ex. Ex-Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld)
                        {*Rumsfeld said in meeting on 9-12-01 – we could use this (9/11) to go into Iraq}
After ousting Saddam Hussein from power, the US military in Iraq was faced with
       - violent resistance from Iraqi insurgents & foreign militants drawn to the country
In June 2004, the USA handed over political power & limited sovereignty to new interim government of Iraq.
       {*No WMDs were found! No ties to 9/11 proven! - *US media coverage & censorship - *Abu Graib
                prison scandal - lots of Iraqi lives lost – US service personnel KIAs & WIAs in 1000s – IEDs}

Recent affirmative action cases:
In two affirmative action cases involving the University of Michigan decided in 2003, US Supreme Court ruled
       that – numerical formulas for minority admission were unacceptable but flexible individually-based
               procedures were constitutional
The “recall” of Gray Davis:
In 2003, California voters used the 100-year old procedure of recall (to get rid of Democratic Gov Gray Davis)
       to select a new governor, Arnold Schwarzeneggar (“the Terminator-the Governator”)
               (Another former actor turned California governor!)

Ch. 41 The Resurgence of Conservatism, 1980-2000 - pp. 976-1013
General Notes:
      p. 986 Intro
pp.997-979 The Election of Ronald Reagan, 1980
      p. 987 1980 electoral Map
      p. 979 Iranian Hostages Come Home - picture
      p. 980 political cartoon – The New Look in Washington – All Right Wing
              political cartoon – Wallflowers Cartoon – Reagan dances with huge Defense Men
                              Cities, Social Security, & Environment sit out
      p. 980 Reagan hurt poor for rich, Hinckley shoots Reagan (over Jodie Foster)
pp. 980-981 The Battle of the Budget, Cut backs-hurt poor
pp. 981-982 Reagan renews the Cold War
      p. 982 political cartoon – Reagan & SDI/Star Wars – “Beam Me Up Scotty” (STAR TREK)
pp.982-984 Troubles Abroad
      p. 983 two maps – Middle East & Central America & Caribbean (related to US interests/actions)
pp. 984-985 Round two for Reagan
      p. 984 Election of 1984
      p. 984 Gorbachev, Mikhail
       p. 985 Reagan & “Gorby” – picture from 1988
pp. 985-987 The Iran-Contra Imbroglio
pp. 985-986 Nicaragua – Lebanon had US hostages – Iran (vs. Iraq-US backing)
       p. 986 Lt. Col. Oliver North USMC – NSA-Admiral John Poindexter
                                                         – Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger
      p. 987 Reagan at hearing {“I don’t recall”}
      p. 986 National Debt 1930-1999 chart
      p. 986 Reagan confuses himself
      p. 987 Reagan’s Economic Legacy
      p. 987 Oliver Stone’s Wall Street – character Gordon Gekko Quote (Michael Douglas – Kirk Douglas’s son)
      p. 987 “Reagonomics” hurt “welfare state” (business not hurt-still got welfare)
      p. 988 Decline of Income chart 1978-1998 by Quintile
      p. 988 The Religious Right
      p. 988 Moral Majority – sex, abortion, feminism, spreading gay rights
      p. 988 Civil disobedience at abortion clinics (& harassment & bombings by extremists)
                        (*pain compliance) (defensive bubbles) (scandals-Jim Baker & others)
pp. 988-989 Conservatism in the Courts
      p. 989 Sandra Day O’Connor
      p. 989 Reversals of Affirmative Action
      p. 989 Roe v. Wade – Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989)
                        Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)
       p. 989 Reagan quote on abortion
pp. 989-990 Referendum on Reaganism in 1988
            p. 990      political cartoon on Savings & Loan scandals
pp. 990-994 George Bush and the End of the Cold War
       p. 991 pictures – George H. W. Bush & Tiananmen Square
       p. 990 George Bush – born with “silver spoon in his mouth” – according to book
       p. 992 quotes Gorbachev & Bush on end of Cold War
       p. 993 map End of Cold War – changes in Europe
       p. 993 Chechnya and Yugoslavia – “ethnic cleansing” (genocide)
pp. 994-995 the Persian Gulf Crisis
pp. 995-996 fighting Operation Desert Storm
       p.996 map of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia – Persian Gulf War 1991
       p. 996 picture of “The Hundred-Hour War” (“ground war”)
       p. 995 (US-buddies with Saddam v. Iran in 1980-1988 war – 1 million dead)
                US “all-volunteer” army – (What does Zinn say?)
                When all diplomatic efforts failed, the US Congress voted UN to war?
                        (That is what textbook says) (What does Zinn Ch. 21 say?)
                Iraqis claimed “probably rightly” that civilians were killed
                        (what our book says – sounds stupid – because we did)
                precision warfare (yet on ~10% of bombs used in 1991 were “smart”)
                        (many were left over from Vietnam) (Zinn Ch. 21-only ~1/2 hit targets of “smart” used)
                        [therefore – of ~10% “smart bombs” – only ~1/2 hit what they were supposed to]
                        (Highway of Death-picture in 13th edition-not in 12th edition)
                “some remembering the antiwar movement of the 1960s, protested against the war.”
                        (our text writes this – but silly suggestion really – think about it)
       p. 996 “war failed to dislodge Saddam from power” (American Pageant) (Zinn Ch. 21-why?)
pp. 996-998 Bush on the Home Front
       p. 996 ADA 1990 passed
       p. 997 Pictures of Clarence Thomas and Anita Hill
       p. 998 political cartoon of Bush “Read my nose, no new taxes!”
pp. 999-1000 Bill Clinton: The First President Baby Boomer President
       p. 999 map of Electoral of 1992 & picture of debates with Clinton, Perot, & Bush
      p. 999 Clinton – womanizer, draft dodger (“I didn’t inhale” marijuana)
pp. 999-1000 Perot, Bush, Clinton
                       VP Danforth Quayle {“potatoe”} – “jug-eared” Ross Perot USNA, businessman, Dana
                       Carvey on SNL – Ginsburg & O’Connor & Janet Reno Attorney General (later
                       Madeline Albright-first woman Secretary of State}
pp. 1000-1002 A false start for reform
       p. 1000 “Don’t ask, don’t tell” & Health Care Reform
       p. 1001 picture of Oklahoma City Federal Building 1995
       p. 1001 Brady Bill – Reagan’s Press Secretary shot in 1981 assassination attempt
       p. 1001 1993 New York City World Trade Center bombing – Oklahoma City 1995 – Waco, Texas 1993
                       “militias”
      p. 1001 “plague of firearms” – really?
      p. 1002 distrust of federal government
      p. 1002 the Politics of Distrust
      p. 1002 welfare assaults (Zinn Ch. 21)
pp.1003-1005 Clinton again
      p. 1003 electoral map – 1996 Clinton, Dole, Perot – again
      p. 1004 (picture of “God”) – Alan Greenspan – Federal Reserve chairman from Reagan until recently
      p. 1004 NAFTA – (free trade always benefits 1 side more than the other) – fight tobacco & guns
      p. 1005 Columbine 4-20-99 – Million Mom March (Million Man March) – Somalia 1993
pp.1005-1007 problems abroad
            p. 1005 1993 Somalia
       p.1006 pictures of Columbine (Littleton, CO)

       p.1006 Clinton and China – Rwanda – Haiti – (Bosnia) – Balkans
              No “high road” on human rights with China
      p.1007 Middle East – PLO – Israel – Albright, Secretary of State – Koreas – N. Ireland
                                                                                        – Pakistan & India
      p.1007 picture of Clinton – Ehud Barak – Yassir Arafat at Camp David, Maryland
      p.1007 Kenya & Tanzania (US Embassies) – (USS Cole in Yemen) – (Al Qaeda)
                     (FBI had people who knew about threats – people in charge dropped the ball)
pp.1007-1008 scandal and impeachment (sex scandals – lots of jokes)
pp.1008-1009 Clinton’s legacy
      p.1009 deficits into surpluses chart 1992-2000
pp.1009-1011 the Bush-Gore presidential battle
pp.1009-1010 Al Gore & George Bush 2000 – “W” - “dubbya”
      p.1010 picture of counting chads in Florida for 2000 close election
      p.1011 map of 2000 electoral
      p.1012 chronology
      p. 1013 Where Did Modern Conservatives Come From?
                     Pre WWII-drift leftward
                     Post WWII-drift to right
                     Modern-roots in 1970s backlash to Great Society of 1960s



Ch. 42 The American People Face a New Century (Ch 42 in the 12th ed. is also Ch 42 in the 13th ed.)
Did the USA really pioneer mass democracy?:
The USA pioneered the technique of – mass democracy (Zinn!!) [What about the Iriquois, the Athenians, other societies?]
The rise of the computer:
Rise of computer corporations like Microsoft and “dot.com” businesses signaled the advent of
        - the global information age
The spread of American popular culture:
Much of the world seems to emulate all of the following icons of American youth culture except:
        - American Football
        Does emulate: blue jeans (Levis), rock music (rap too), soft drinks like Coca-Cola, Hollywood films
[*Did you know the two most recognized words in the world are “okay/ok” and “Coca-Cola/Coke”?]
Information age economy:
The following proved to be characteristics of the new information age economy
        - Instant global communications, high-tech computer and media business, the decline of traditional
        Occupations mediating between products & clients, “outsourcing” (sending jobs out of the USA) of
        White collar American jobs to Third World countries
        What about an end to the boom-and-bust capitalist business cycle? Of course not! Think about today!
Shifts in the economy:
The leading firm in the shift to the economy of mass consumerism was
        - General Motors (by 1920s mass producing millions of cars)
        *From US Steel to GM (mass consumerism by 1920s) – to IBM in 1950s
Biotech & medical advances or hindrances?:
Major advances in genetic and stem-cell research led to -
        the prospect of major new medical therapies, the prospect of large profits for bioengineering companies,
        concern about the ethical implications of cloning and the destruction of embryos,
        the development of new high-yield crops
        What about the cloning of human beings? NO {What about sheep? YES]



The future fate of teachers?:
Occupations that the new communication tools threaten to wipe out include - teachers (I doubt that!), postal
       delivery people (Again, I doubt it!), bank tellers (not all of them I’m sure!), stock brokers (Not even!)
       What about repair technicians?
“Big Science”:
The post-WWII rise of “Big Science” was characterized by – a close alliance of federal government,
       defense-oriented industries, & American research universities.
Another Gilded Age? The gap between rich & poor continues growing even larger still:
During the past two decades, the gap between rich & poor in USA – widened considerably
Gap between rich & poor widened in 1980s and 1990s because
       - intensifying global economic competition, the decline of unions, the growth of part-time & temporary
               work, the greater economic rewards for education
       What about the tax policies of the Carter & Clinton administrations?
       (What would Zinn say in Ch. 21, 22, 23, 24, & 25?)
Are women economically equal with men today in the 21st Century?:
Group most profoundly affected by the great economic changes of the late 20th century was – women
       (Still make less than a man’s $1 - ~76cents+?)
By 1990s, one of most astonishing trends for women in the job market was – employment of mothers
       (of course, poor, lower class mothers always have)
Despite numerous victories, feminists in the 1990s and 2000s continued to be frustrated because
       - the % (percent) of women physicians (doctors) in USA remained low, women generally were paid less
               than men for performing corresponding jobs, women remained concentrated in traditional
               “feminine” occupations, women continue to bear greatest responsibilities for welfare of children
       What about continued to be legally barred from holding high-level, high-prestige jobs?
One reason that many women remained in low-skill, low-prestige, and low-paying occupations was that they
       - bore more of the burdens of parenthood than men
American families in the 21st Century:
By the 2000s, the traditional nuclear family unit was undergoing severe strain because
       - divorce rate increased, number of single-parent households rose, parent-substitutes had assumed the
               role of child rearing, the family no longer served many of its traditional functions
Americans living in poverty:
One dramatic trend regarding American poverty that occurred in the 1990s & 2000s was
       - a decrease in poverty for those over age 65
Social Security:
The dollars used to provide Social Security payments to retirees comes from
       - Social Security taxes paid by current workers
Immigration:
In terms of immigration patterns, the period from the 1980s to 2004 has witnessed
       - the heaviest influx of immigrants in America’s experience
The new immigrants of the late 20th & early 21st centuries
       - came to America primarily in search of jobs & economic opportunity
The Latino immigrant population maintained their language and culture better than most previous groups
       because - of large numbers & geographic concentration
The Immigration and Control Act of 1986 attempted to
       - penalize employers for hiring illegal immigrants (not really enforced) (1987 Born in East LA)
By the end of the 1990s, the foreign born population accounted for about 11% of the USA’s population
Studies show that illegal immigrants - pay more dollars in taxes than they claim in welfare payments
       (*Not to mention cheap [exploitive] labor for cheaper products – ex. fruits & vegetables)
The most populous group of Latinos in the USA comes from - Mexico
The group with the highest household incomes is - Asian Americans


African-American demographics:
By 2002, approximately 50% of African Americans lived in central cities
African-American politicians:
Douglas Wilder was the first African American to serve as a - state governor (VA 1989)
        [*Carol Moseley-Braun was the first African American woman elected to US Senate (IL 1994)]
One reason more black politicians were winning electoral office in the 1990s & 2000s was that
        - they appealed to a wide variety of voters
        [*1980s – black mayors – of course an exception to most, Washington DC’s Marion Barry – crack head]
African-American education & affirmative action:
African Americans goal of achieving higher education received a substantial boost when Supreme Court
        ruled in 2003 that – affirmative action in admissions was legitimate so long as rigid quotas or point
                                                                                            systems were not used
Native American Indians demographics:
Of 2.5 million American Indians counted by the 2000 census,
        - approximately ½ (50%) lived away from the reservations in cities
Demographic shifts:
America’s “urbanage,” when a majority of the population lived in cities rather than in rural areas, small towns,
        or suburbs, lasted from approximately – 1920 to 1995 (**key is to remember 1920s)
Cultural pluralism/multiculturalism:
A few early 20th century intellectuals like Horace Kallen and Randolph Bourne were advocates of
        - cultural pluralism
Critics of multiculturalism in American education charged that too much of it would lead to
        - a loss of national cohesion & appreciation of shared American values (*Really?)
LA riots in 1992:
The major racial disturbances of the 1990s occurred in - Los Angeles
        {*Rodney King LA 1992 – (Sublime) – then OJ Simpson}
African-Americans experience a gap between the poor & the middle class:
One of the major problems affecting African Americans in the late 20th century was
         - growing gap between affluent black middle class (the Cosby Show & The Fresh Prince of Bel Air)
                 and the poor in inner-cities (Colors, American Me, & Boys in the Hood)
Mutualistas & Mexican immigration:
Mexican American Mutual Aid Societies or “Mutualistas” provided
         - recreation, aid for the sick & disabled, & defense against discrimination
         (*1968 LA schools for Hispanics/Chicanos – HBO’s Walkout – very good movie)
First significant numbers of Mexican American immigrants to USA came during
             - the era of the Mexican Revolution, 1910-1920
             [Don’t choose “aftermath of Mexican War, 1850-1860 – however, many were “ceded along with
                 the huge Mexican Cession after war 1846-1848]
                          {“Don’t Mess With Texas!” – Will Ferrell on SNL as George W. Bush 2000}
Reasons Mexican immigrants were for a long time slow to become US citizens
       -   most lived very close to Mexico & remained identified with that country, many returned frequently to Mexico
           to visit home & family there, it was often considered a badge of dishonor to adopt American citizenship, the
           Mexican government actively discouraged Mexicans from taking US citizenship
           Did almost all Mexican immigrants remain migrant farm laborers unable to settle down in cities?
Literature & demographic shifts to the West:
The West became the subject of a rich literary outpouring
        - because of the population shift westward (in the late 20th century)
Art in NYC:
After WWII, the art capital of the world was - New York
Who is graduating from college?:
By the 1990s, the % of college graduates in the 25-34 age-group was approximately -one-quarter (1/4) (25%)

Notable African-American writers since the 1930s:
Notable African American writers since 1930s
       - Zora Neale Hurston, Toni Morrison, August Wilson, Alice Walker
               [*Alice Walker’s – The Color Purple]
       Cultural information in your book:
       KNOW THE INFO ON pp.1031-1032 FOR CULTURE’S SAKE 
Prominent American playwrights or musical theater creators of late 20th century:
Prominent American playwrights or musical theater creators of late 20th century
       - August Wilson, David Mamet (The Unit), Tony Kushner, George Wolfe
       *Frank McCourt – Angela’s Ashes – moving, autobiography – Irish
American painters:
The leading painting movement in the immediate post-WWII period was
       - abstract expressionism (ex. Jackson Pollock – paint-flinging)

				
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