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					AP US History
Mr. Trinkner

                                         The Early Republic

A. Struggle to Define Character of New Nation
   1. Determine outcome of clashes between strong competing interests in society
      a. Rural vs. urban
      b. Wealthy vs. commoners
      c. International economy vs. national economy
   2. Test feasibility of defining a new nation, built on tradition, but organized by new philosophy
      a. English privileged virtual representation vs. American government by common man
      b. Transition from achieving goals via protest, to working within civil, constitutional framework
      c. Need to fill “gaps” left open by Constitution: Judiciary Act of 1789, selection of cabinet

B. Factions and Political Parties
   1. Federalists and Anti-Federalists vied to define nation
      a. Federalists: Strong central government vested with states’ powers of taxation, regulation of
          commerce, national bank, military, diplomacy, and judiciary
      b. Anti-Federalists: Minimal national government vested with sufficient centralizing powers, but
          still guaranteeing rights of states and individuals, and avoiding national tyranny
   2. Size of nation was to have prevented domination by party politics, but two-party system evolved:
      incumbents and their opponents
   3. President Washington
      a. created attitude of moderation during 8 years of term
      b. Demonstrated primacy of national government and rule of law in Whiskey Rebellion
   4. Hamilton pressed for nationalizing of financial issues: National Bank to consolidate and pay war
      debt, store the national treasury, create “perpetual” national debt
   5. Under president Adams, Federalists evolved: overly strong national government, unchecked by
      division of powers; jailed opponents under Alien & Sedition Acts
   6. Anti-federalists evolved into Republicans; Jefferson elected in 1800 backlash against Federalists

C. Relationship to Other Nations
   1. US involved in European matters? Or US as isolated individual?
   2. England: important trading partner, but formerly “tyrannical” mother country
      a. Desperately important for import/export businesses, especially in north
      b. Viewed with distrust by southerners, who increasingly traded with other countries
      c. “British Crisis” of 1793:
          (1) England at war with France, impressed English sailors from US ships
          (2) Canadian-based British troops challenged US for control of western lands in Ohio region
          (3) Jay’s Treaty: British out of US, but British to ship sugar/molasses from Caribbean
   3. Revolutionary France: champion of individual rights, or threat of mobocracy?
      a. Feared by order-loving northerners; cheered by individualist southerners
      b. “French Crisis” of 1797
          (1) French at war with Britain, plundered US ships
          (2) “XYZ Affair:” cash-strapped France refused to negotiate treaty unless “bribed” with loan
          (3) US sentiment dramatically shifted: fought naval Quasi-war against France 1798-1800
   4. Spain: Increasing influence in American west, controller of New Orleans
      a. Spain tried to woo western US citizens to become Spanish
      b. Pinckney’s Treaty (Treaty of San Lorenzo) gave Americans right to duty-free use of NO

D. Territorial Definition
   1. Conflict with Spain and England led to American control of land to Mississippi
   2. Republican victory in 1800 forced national government to include rural interests
E. Conclusions
   1. Washington’s presidency demonstrated success of genteel moderation, but succeeded before
      fierce competition of national parties
   2. Adams presidency highlighted dangers of factionalism and fragility of civil, political discourse
   3. Foreign policy crises pressured nation to defend itself both militarily and philosophically
   4. Roots of the critical challenges to Constitutionalism were economic: National Bank, Whiskey
      Rebellion, British Crisis, French Crisis, Spanish land
   5. Faced with the realities of an overly strong central government, voters turned to Jeffersonian
      Republicanism (but just barely)

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