AP American Government by yangxichun


									                  AP American Government
     Unit 3: Political Culture (1) Public Opinion (5)Parties (7) Elections (8)
Mr. Andrew Conneen aconneen@d125.org
    Fall 2011
Unit 3 Syllabus: .......................................................................... 2
Political Ideology Quiz ............................................................... 2
Ch. 1, Pages 19-24 Assignment: ................................................. 2
David Brooks: One Nation Slightly Divisible ............................ 2
Ch. 5, Pages 143-157 Assignment: ............................................. 2
Born Political Identity ................................................................ 2
Are You My Mother? ................................................................. 2
With Libya's Megalomaniac 'Philosopher-King' .......... 2
Ch. 5, Pages 158-181 Assignment: ............................................. 2
From The Party’s Over ................................................. 2
Ch. 7, Pages 219-239 Assignment: ............................................. 2
The Endless Campaign ................................................. 2
Ch. 7, Pages 239-247 Assignment: ............................................. 2
Ch. 7, Pages 247-253 Assignment: ............................................. 2
Notes--Political Parties: .............................................................. 2
Why Tuesday? .............................................................. 2
Make voting easier. Weekend elections would be a
start ............................................................................... 2
Five myths about turning out the vote .......................... 2

Ch. 8, Pages 257-271 Assignment: ............................................. 3
Unit 3 Syllabus:
Political Culture (1) Public Opinion (5) Parties (7) and
Elections (8)

For Monday, September 26: Complete Ideology quiz

In class on Tuesday, 9/27: Bring textbook for Ch.1, pages 19-24 questions; Complete Are you my
Mother? Part 1

For Wednesday, September 28: Read “One Nation, Slightly Divisible” and complete grid

For Friday, 9/30: Watch “So Goes the Nation”

For Monday, 10/3: Ch.5, pages 143-157 questions. Read Libya’s Megalomaniac “Philosopher

For Tuesday, 10/4: Born Political Identity due

For Wednesday, 10/5: Complete 2008 Presidential election data (in class assignment)

For Thursday, 10/6: Ch. 5, Pages 158-181 Assignment

For Tuesday, 10/11: Read “The Party’s Over” Questions + reading quiz

For Wednesday, 10/12: Are you my Mother? Part 2

For Thursday, 10/13: Bring textbook. Complete Ch. 7, Pages 219-239 in class

For Friday, 10/14: Read “The Endless Campaign” Complete Ch. 7, Pages 237-247

For Monday, 10/17: Complete Ch. 7, Pages 247-253

For Tuesday, 10/18: Read “Why Tuesday?” “5 Myths about voting”

For Wednesday, 10/19: Complete Ch. 8, Pages 257-271

For Thursday, 10/20: Complete Ch. 8, Pages 271-299

                                      TKO             To Know Objectives
  3. PARTICIPATION: Public Opinion, Political Parties and Campaigns/Elections

                                                                   are either Democrats or Republicans (T.9)
1. Define public opinion. Explain why public                       Democrat issues: global warming; tax the
    policy often differs from public opinion.                      rich; gay marriage; guest-worker programs
    What the public thinks about government and                    Republican issues: pro business tax policy;
    politics (T.1)                                                 against gay marriage; stricter immigration
    People do not have well-formed opinions on                     policy (T.13)
    most issues (T.3)                                              African Americans most consistent
    Typical Americans do not carry around well-                    DEMOCRATS (MT.1) (MT.4)
    formed opinions about all aspects of politics
    (T.14)                                                    6. Identify which demographic groups have the
                                                                   highest voter turnout.
2. Identify the factors that affect the validity of
    public opinion polls.                                          Must be 18 to vote (T.40)
                                                                   Lowest turnout among least educated (T.57)
    RANDOM SAMPLE: is a carefully chosen
    subgroup from a larger group of people (T.6)              7. Explain the relationship between
    Push poll is used to affect, rather than                       socioeconomic status and participation in
    measure, public opinion (T.7)                                  politics.
    Mass survey a set of questions asked of a
    random sample of people (T.16)                                 The higher ones socioeconomic status, the
                                                                   greater the probability of active involvement
3. Describe where Americans get their political                    (MT.6)
    values and explain the concept of political
    socialization.                                            8. Evaluate the various forms of political
                                                                   participation. What are grassroots?
    The influence of parents on people’s values
    and opinions (T.4) (T.15)                                      People with strong party identification
    TRUST in government institutions has                           volunteer for a party and its candidates (T.26)
    dramatically declined since 1950 (T.10)                        Grassroots involves mobilizing local
    Americans tend to dislike government, they                     supporters; ground game (T.53)
    are relatively happy with their Congressman
    (T.11)                                                    9. Explain the relationship between increasing
    Political Socialization = political values are                 suffrage rights since and voter turnout.
    passed to the next generation (MT.15)
                                                                   Giving young people, 18-20, the right to vote
4. Define what it means to be a LIBERAL                            did not translate into high turnout rates
    and/or CONSERVATIVE.
                                                              10. Discuss voter turnout patterns in American
    No significant increase among liberals,                        today.
    moderates, or conservatives in the last 30
    years (T.8)                                                    Votes cast by citizens called ‘the popular
                                                                   vote’ (T.38)
5. Identify which demographic groups vote                          New trend is EARLY VOTING (T.42)
    consistently for Democrats and Republicans.                    College graduates more likely to vote (MT.5)
                                                                   Young people turn out at lower rates (MT.7)
    Most Americans are neither strongly                            Majority of electorate do not vote (MT.8)
    conservative nor strongly liberal (T.2)                        Men and women vote at about the same rate
    There are now more Independents than there                     (MT.9)

    Party Identification is an important influence       Family still an important factor but less so.
    when voting for President (MT.22)
                                                     19. How has the ability of the family to promote a
11. Discuss the type of voters that vote in              partisan identification changed in recent
    primaries compared to those that vote in             years?
    general elections.
                                                         Family most important factor but declining
    More affluent (MT.10)                                (MT.16)

12. Explain the significance of ‘split-ticket’       20. Explain why party identification has declined
    voting.                                              in recent years.

    Voting for candidates of different parties on        Party identification is loyalty that people have
    the same ballot (MT.12)                              to one party (T.25)

13. Define referendum.                               21. Explain the effect of attending college on
                                                         political attitudes.
    Determine whether citizens support an action
    by their state legislature (MT.13) Vote on an        In most cases, a college degree makes one
    issue                                                more conservative

14. Define political efficacy.                       22. Discuss the affects of cross-cutting cleavages
                                                         in public opinion.
    Citizens’ belief that their vote matters;
    government is responsive to the will of the          Issues that split political party coalitions
    people (MT.14)                                       (T.20)

15. Identify the most common form of political       23. Explain why voters in the South have become
    activity in American politics.                       progressively less attached to the Democratic
    Voting in Presidential elections (MT.20)
                                                         Southern Dixiecrats, conservatives who votes
16. Identify which positions (i.e. President,            for Democratic candidates, dealigned in the
    Supreme Court, Senate, House of Reps)                1960s and joined the Republican Party due to
    registered voters directly elect.                    civil rights issues. States rights was an issue
                                                         adopted by Republicans in the 1960s. We
    Original Constitution gave voters a direct           now talk about the “solid South” for
    choice in HOUSE elections only                       Republican candidates.
    President chosen by Electoral College;
    Federal judges appointed                         24. Explain the significance of the Motor Voter
    House and Senate only (MT.21)                        Bill (1993). Define critical realignments and
                                                         explain why they have occurred [also known
17. Discuss differences between elections in the         as critical elections].
    US and elections in Europe. (i.e. voter
    turnout).                                            Motor Voter Bill was passed to address the
                                                         difficulty of voter registration; little impact.
    Lower than most Western democracies                  When a large number of people change from
    (MT.11)                                              identifying with one political party to
                                                         identifying with the other (T.5) (MT.35,36)
18. What percentage of adults adopt the party            When issues that divide the political parties
    preference of their parents and which partisan       change in a way that cuts across existing
    identification is most often transferred from        political coalitions (T.19)
    parent to child?                                     The increase in people who identified as
                                                         independents was initially considered as
                                                         evidence of dealignment, a more recent

    interpretation is that many of these voters do    29. Explain the primary and caucus process, as
    have weak partisan attachments (T.27)                 well as the shift from party control over
                                                          candidates to voter control.
25. Define political parties and factions. Be able
    to differentiate between parties and interest         A primary election is a ballot vote to select a
    groups. What did the Founding Fathers think           party’s nominee (T.28)
    about political parties? What does the                Selecting presidential candidates: caucuses,
    Constitution say?                                     primaries, nominating conventions (T.29)
                                                          Citizens vote for delegates at a national
    Political parties are an organization that            nominating convention which then selects the
    supports candidates for public office and tries       candidate (T.30)
    to unify elected officials behind common              Open primary is an election in which any
    goals (T.17)                                          registered voter can participate in selecting a
    Parties have brand names that evoke certain           party nominee (T.41)
    positions or issues (T.21)                            Closed primary requires registration as a party
    Loosely connected groups with similar goals           affiliate to vote (MT.32)
    (T.23)                                                Increasing importance of presidential
    Parties help voters keep the government               primaries rather than state conventions
    accountable (T.32)                                    (MT.33)
    Career politicians motivated by interest in
    careers, policy goals, and winning office         30. Discuss the origin and function of party
    (T.36)                                                conventions. What is a super delegate?
    Party caucus is an organization within
    government that meets to discuss party                Democrats nominating convention
    positions on issues (T.24)                            proportional; Republicans winner-take-all
    Pol. parties seek to gain control of                  (T.45)
    government; interest groups seek to influence         Attract attention; develop party platform;
    public policy (MT.29)                                 select party’s presidential nomination (T.49)
    Voters identifying themselves as either
    Democrats or Republicans has been in decline      31. Identify the key functions and purpose of the
    (MT.38)                                               party chairman.

26. What are party platforms?                             Oversee and manage party functions

    Written by delegates at national convention;      32. Define party machines and explain their role
    party’s objectives; influences party’s brand          in a democracy.
    name (T.31)
                                                          Spoils system rewards party supporters with
27. Discuss differences between political parties         benefits, like government jobs (T.18)
    in the U.S. and Europe. Where would                   Organization that uses unofficial patronage to
    political parties be the most decentralized?          secure political power for a group of leaders
                                                          and workers (T.22)
    U.S. parties are loose coalitions; more               Local party organization that is tightly
    decentralized                                         disciplined and well staffed and relies on
    European parties, in parliamentary systems,           patronage to create party loyalty (MT.34)
    are more centralized and rigid ideologically
                                                      33. Discuss the two-party system. What factors
28. Explain the difference between unified and            dissuade third parties from influencing
    divided governments.                                  American politics?

    Unified government = President and Congress           Single-member districts; rules for getting on
    from the same political party                         ballots; lack of clear dissatisfaction (T.35)
    Divided government = President and                    (MT.30)
    Congress from different political parties             Duverger’s law – only select one official per
                                                          seat (T.37)

    Winner-take-all elections (MT.37)                 39. Define presidential coattails and their impact
                                                          on elections.
34. What is the difference between a majority and
    a plurality? Apply these concepts to U.S.             When a popular president generates additional
    elections. How do plurality elections and the         support for legislative candidates and helps
    winner-take-all system influence our two              them gain office (T.58)
    party system? What is a popular vote?
                                                      40. Define incumbency. Assess incumbency rates
    Plurality elections mean the candidate with           for the House and the Senate.
    the most votes wins (T.43) (MT.39)
                                                          An open seat is when there is no incumbent
35. Describe the role of third parties in U.S.            (T.51)
    elections.                                            Incumbency wards off competition; easier to
                                                          raise money (T.52)
    Examples: Libertarian Party, Reform Party;            Incumbent senators are less likely to be
    Green Party (T.34)                                    reelected than are incumbent members of the
                                                          House (MT.27)
36. Explain the differences in voters in primary          Most important factor in Congressional races
    elections versus general elections, as well as        (MT.28)
    the different approaches that candidates take
    to appeal to these voters. Define frontloading.   41. What are the potential problems for
                                                          candidates with televised debates?
    Critical players – political parties; interest
    groups; private consultants (T.44)                    Verbal slip ups
    Super Tuesday = day in February when many
    state primaries take place (T.46)                 42. Describe the different ways that presidential
    Frontloading is the increasingly early                and congressional campaigns are funded.
    scheduling of primaries and caucuses (T.47)
    N.H. (T.48)                                           Federal Election Commission regulates
    Frontloading is the tendency of states to             elections (T.55)
    choose an early date on the primary calendar          Hard Money = funds that are subject to clear
    (MT.31)                                               limits on how much can be raised but not on
                                                          how much is spent (T.56)
37. Identify the elections with the highest voter         PACs raise campaign funds to support
    turnout.                                              favored candidates; frequently represent
                                                          business (MT.23,24)
    Presidential elections                                Public monies are used to help finance
                                                          Presidential campaigns only (MT.25)
38. Summarize the differences between                     Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002
    presidential and congressional campaigns and          (McCain-Feingold) banned soft money
    elections. Assess the difference between              (MT.26)
    normal and nationalized elections.
                                                      43. Differentiate between red and blue counties.
    In normal elections there are high reelection
    rates and local issues are important; in              Red = Republican
    nationalized elections reelection rates are           Blue = Democrat
    relatively low and important issues are the
    same across legislative districts (T.39)
    House determines winner if no candidate wins      The following Illinois SEL goals will govern our
    a majority in the Electoral College (T.50)        classroom:
    Key is mobilizing supporters; ground game              1. Develop self-awareness and self-
    (T.53)                                                     management skills to achieve school and
    When behind momentum gained through                        life success.
    attack ads (T.54)

              2. Use social-awareness and interpersonal                             Additionally the following values will be
                   skills to establish and maintain positive                        nurtured in all citizens entering this academic
                   relationships.                                                   arena:
              3.   Demonstrate decision-making skills and                           Self Discipline; Compassion; Responsibility;
                   responsible behaviors in personal, school,                       Friendship; Work; Courage; Perseverance;
                   and community contexts.                                          Honesty; Loyalty; Faith

                                            Political Ideology Quiz
     (1.)     Read the following statements and rate your approval: 0 for strongly disagree; 1 disagree; 2 not sure; 3 agree; 4 strongly agree.
     (2.)     Add up all of your point totals that you placed next to the odd numbered statements (Liberal).
     (3.)     Add up all of your point totals that you placed next to the even numbered statements (Conservative).
     (4.)     What is the difference between the two?
     (5.)     Place yourself on the political spectrum based on your score.

     Liberal                    Moderate                  Conservative

1._____ The economy benefits more from tax cuts on working class people.

2._____ If a majority of students agree, a public high school should give students an opportunity to pray during the
morning announcements.

3._____ Government spending can help grow the economy more than tax cuts.

4._____ The economy benefits more from tax cuts on the wealthiest people.

5._____ Failing schools will improve if the government gives them more money.

6._____ It should be illegal to burn the American flag.

7._____ To make up for past discrimination, the government should require companies to hire women and

8._____ Law abiding citizens should be able to carry guns in public with a minimal amount of training.

9._____ Immigration helps the country more than it hurts the country.

10.____ Marriage should be reserved for heterosexuals.

11.____ Abortions should be legal for women throughout all 9 months of pregnancy.

12.____ The government should not be allowed to tax sales on the internet.

13.____ The U.S. should try to negotiate peace deals with militant Islamic groups.

14.____ Individuals should be allowed to invest the money they pay in Social Security.

15.____ The American government should pay reparations to the descendants of former slaves.

16.____ The problem with the death penalty is that it doesn’t occur as quickly or as often as it should.

17.____ The government should allow gay couples to adopt children.

18.____ Health insurance companies do a better job of providing health coverage than the government could do.

19.____ Government should spend significant money to save the American auto industry.

20.____ The government lets too many immigrants into the country.

21.____ Even accused terrorists deserve full Constitutional rights.

22.____ The government should regulate abortions to make them more rare.

23.____ Decriminalizing drugs would solve more problems than it would create.

24.____ The government should be allowed to use waterboarding when interrogating suspected terrorists.

25.____ Public school students should be required to do 40 hours of community service before graduation.

26.____ Colleges should have the same standards in admitting students of different racial groups.

27.____ The government should provide more educational opportunities to prisoners to reduce the chance of repeat

28.____ Failing schools should be held accountable by forfeiting government funding.

29.____ The government should take extreme measures to get companies to reduce carbon emissions.

30.____ The government can solve the drug problem by getting tougher on drug dealers.

31.____ The government should make health coverage more equal for all Americans.

32.____ The best way to deal with militant Islamic groups is with force.

33.____ The government should work to reduce the total number of guns that are sold.

34.____ The government does a pretty good job of protecting the environment.

Class notes-- Define the following:

Political Ideology--

Liberal—                                                       Conservative—

Economic Issues—belief in …                                    Economic Issues—belief in …

Examples:                                                      Examples:

Social Issues—belief in…                            Social Issues—belief in…

Examples:                                           Examples:

Ch. 1, Pages 19-24 Assignment:
Directions: Read Ch. 1, pages 19-24 in the textbook and answer on a separate
sheet of paper. (Be sure to restate the vocabulary of each question.)
    1. Define free market:

    2. Define economic individualism:

    3. Define redistributive tax policy:

   4. Explain how Democrats and Republicans tend to differ when it comes to these economic

    (Class discussion and notes) Define political culture.

    5. Define culture wars:

6. Describe the how the gender gap has changed over time.
7. Define ideology:

8. Define conservative:

9. Define liberal:

10. Define libertarian:
(Class discussion and notes) Define Red + Blue America

(Class discussion and notes) Define social capital, Bowling Alone, civic society

David Brooks: One Nation Slightly Divisible
The Atlantic Monthly | December 2001

The electoral map of the 2000 presidential race became famous: big blocks of red (denoting states that went for
Bush) stretched across the heartland, with brackets of blue (denoting states for Gore) along the coasts. Our Blue
America correspondent has ventured repeatedly into Red territory. He asks the question—after September 11, a
pressing one—Do our differences effectively split us into two nations, or are they just cracks in a still-united whole?

                                                                napkins, Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer collectible
Sixty-five miles from where I am writing this                   thimbles and spoons, and little snow-covered villages.
sentence is a place with no Starbucks, no Pottery
Barn, no Borders or Barnes & Noble. No blue New                 We in the coastal metro Blue areas read more books
York Times delivery bags dot the driveways on                   and attend more plays than the people in the Red
Sunday mornings. In this place people don't complain            heartland. We're more sophisticated and
that Woody Allen isn't as funny as he used to be,               cosmopolitan—just ask us about our alumni trips to
because they never thought he was funny. In this                China or Provence, or our interest in Buddhism. But
place you can go to a year's worth of dinner parties            don't ask us, please, what life in Red America is like.
without hearing anyone quote an aperçu he first heard           We don't know. We don't know who Tim LaHaye and
on Charlie Rose. The people here don't buy those                Jerry B. Jenkins are, even though the novels they
little rear-window stickers when they go to a summer-           have co-written have sold about 40 million copies
vacation spot so that they can drive around with                over the past few years. We don't know what James
"MV" decals the rest of the year; for the most part             Dobson says on his radio program, which is listened
they don't even go to Martha's Vineyard.                        to by millions. We don't know about Reba or Travis.
                                                                We don't know what happens in mega-churches on
The place I'm talking about goes by different names.            Wednesday evenings, and some of us couldn't tell you
Some call it America. Others call it Middle America.            the difference between a fundamentalist and an
It has also come to be known as Red America, in                 evangelical, let alone describe what it means to be a
reference to the maps that were produced on the night           Pentecostal. Very few of us know what goes on in
of the 2000 presidential election. People in Blue               Branson, Missouri, even though it has seven million
America, which is my part of America, tend to live              visitors a year, or could name even five NASCAR
around big cities on the coasts. People in Red                  drivers, although stock-car races are the best-attended
America tend to live on farms or in small towns or              sporting events in the country. We don't know how to
small cities far away from the coasts. Things are               shoot or clean a rifle. We can't tell a military officer's
different there.                                                rank by looking at his insignia. We don't know what
                                                                soy beans look like when they're growing in a field.
Everything that people in my neighborhood do
without motors, the people in Red America do with               All we know, or all we think we know, about Red
motors. We sail; they powerboat. We cross-country               America is that millions and millions of its people
ski; they snowmobile. We hike; they drive ATVs. We              live quietly underneath flight patterns, many of them
have vineyard tours; they have tractor pulls. When it           are racist and homophobic, and when you see them at
comes to yard work, they have rider mowers; we have             highway rest stops, they're often really fat and their
illegal aliens.                                                 clothes are too tight. ..

Different sorts of institutions dominate life in these                       Crossing the Meatloaf Line
two places. In Red America churches are everywhere.
In Blue America Thai restaurants are everywhere. In             Over the past several months, my interest piqued by
Red America they have QVC, the Pro Bowlers Tour,                those stark blocks of color on the election-night maps,
and hunting. In Blue America we have NPR, Doris                 I have every now and then left my home in
Kearns Goodwin, and socially conscious investing. In            Montgomery County, Maryland, and driven sixty-five
Red America the Wal-Marts are massive, with                     miles northwest to Franklin County, in south-central
parking lots the size of state parks. In Blue America           Pennsylvania. Montgomery County is one of the
the stores are small but the markups are big. You'll            steaming-hot centers of the great espresso machine
rarely see a Christmas store in Blue America, but in            that is Blue America. It is just over the border from
Red America, even in July, you'll come upon stores              northwestern Washington, D.C., and it is full of
selling fake Christmas trees, wreath-decorated

upper-middle-class towns inhabited by lawyers,
doctors, stockbrokers, and establishment journalists       Red America makes social distinctions that Blue
like me—towns like Chevy Chase, Potomac, and               America doesn't. For example, in Franklin County
Bethesda (where I live). Its central artery is a           there seems to be a distinction between those fiercely
burgeoning high-tech corridor with a multitude of          independent people who live in the hills and people
sparkling new office parks housing technology              who live in the valleys. I got a hint of the distinct and,
companies such as United Information Systems and           to me, exotic hill culture when a hill dweller asked
Sybase, and pioneering biotech firms such as Celera        me why I thought hunting for squirrel and rabbit had
Genomics and Human Genome Sciences. When I                 gone out of fashion. I thought maybe it was just more
drive to Franklin County, I take Route 270. After          fun to hunt something bigger. But he said,
about forty-five minutes I pass a Cracker Barrel—          "McDonald's. It's cheaper to get a hamburger at
Red America condensed into chain-restaurant form.          McDonald's than to go out and get it yourself."
I've crossed the Meatloaf Line; from here on there
will be a lot fewer sun-dried-tomato concoctions on        There also seems to be an important distinction
restaurant menus and a lot more meatloaf platters.         between men who work outdoors and men who work
                                                           indoors. The outdoor guys wear faded black T-shirts
Franklin County is Red America. It's a rural county,       they once picked up at a Lynyrd Skynyrd concert and
about twenty-five miles west of Gettysburg, and it         wrecked jeans that appear to be washed faithfully at
includes the towns of Waynesboro, Chambersburg,            least once a year. They've got wraparound NASCAR
and Mercersburg. It was originally settled by the          sunglasses, maybe a NAPA auto parts cap, and hair
Scotch-Irish, and has plenty of Brethren and               cut in a short wedge up front but flowing down over
Mennonites along with a fast-growing population of         their shoulders in the back—a cut that is known as a
evangelicals. The joke that Pennsylvanians tell about      mullet, which is sort of a cross between Van Halen's
their state is that it has Philadelphia on one end,        style and Kenny Rogers's, and is the ugliest hairdo
Pittsburgh on the other, and Alabama in the middle.        since every hairdo in the seventies. The outdoor guys
Franklin County is in the Alabama part. It strikes me      are heavily accessorized, and their accessories are
as I drive there that even though I am going north         meant to show how hard they work, so they will often
across the Mason-Dixon line, I feel as if I were going     have a gigantic wad of keys hanging from a belt loop,
south. The local culture owes more to Nashville,           a tape measure strapped to the belt, a pocket knife on
Houston, and Daytona than to Washington,                   a string tucked into the front pants pocket, and a
Philadelphia, or New York.                                 pager or a cell phone affixed to the hip, presumably in
                                                           case some power lines go down somewhere and need
I shuttled back and forth between Franklin and             emergency repair. Outdoor guys have a thing against
Montgomery Counties because the cultural                   sleeves. They work so hard that they've got to keep
differences between the two places are great, though       their arm muscles unencumbered and their armpit hair
the geographic distance is small. The two places are       fully ventilated, so they either buy their shirts
not perfect microcosms of Red and Blue America.            sleeveless or rip the sleeves off their T-shirts first
The part of Montgomery County I am here describing         thing, leaving bits of fringe hanging over their BAD
is largely the Caucasian part. Moreover, Franklin          TO THE BONE tattoos.
County is in a Red part of a Blue state: overall,
Pennsylvania went for Gore. And I went to Franklin         The guys who work indoors can't project this rugged
County aware that there are tremendous differences         proletarian image. It's simply not that romantic to be a
within Red America, just as there are within Blue.         bank-loan officer or a shift manager at the local
Franklin County is quite different from, say,              distribution center. So the indoor guys adopt a look
Scottsdale, Arizona, just as Bethesda is quite different   that a smart-ass, sneering Blue American might call
from Oakland, California.                                  Bible-academy casual—maybe Haggar slacks, which
                                                           they bought at a dry-goods store best known for its
Nonetheless, the contrasts between the two counties        appliance department, and a short-sleeved white Van
leap out, and they are broadly suggestive of the sorts     Heusen shirt from the Bon-Ton. Their image projects
of contrasts that can be seen nationwide. When Blue        not "I work hard" but "I'm a devoted family man." A
America talks about social changes that convulsed          lot of indoor guys have a sensitive New Age
society, it tends to mean the 1960s rise of the            demeanor. When they talk about the days their kids
counterculture and feminism. When Red America              were born, their eyes take on a soft Garth Brooks
talks about changes that convulsed society, it tends to    expression, and they tear up. They exaggerate how
mean World War II, which shook up old town                 sinful they were before they were born again. On
establishments and led to a great surge of industry.       Saturdays they are patio masters, barbecuing on their

gas grills in full Father's Day-apron regalia.            Another big thing is that, according to 1990 census
                                                          data, in Franklin County only 12 percent of the adults
At first I thought the indoor guys were the faithful,     have college degrees and only 69 percent have high
reliable ones: the ones who did well in school,           school diplomas. In Montgomery County 50 percent
whereas the outdoor guys were druggies. But after         of the adults have college degrees and 91 percent
talking with several preachers in Franklin County, I      have high school diplomas. The education gap
learned that it's not that simple. Sometimes the guys     extends to the children. At Walt Whitman High
who look like bikers are the most devoted                 School, a public school in Bethesda, the average SAT
community-service volunteers and church attendees.        scores are 601 verbal and 622 math, whereas the
                                                          national average is 506 verbal and 514 math. In
The kinds of distinctions we make in Blue America         Franklin County, where people are quite proud of
are different. In my world the easiest way to             their schools, the average SAT scores at, for example,
categorize people is by headroom needs. People who        the Waynesboro area high school are 495 verbal and
went to business school or law school like a lot of       480 math. More and more kids in Franklin County are
headroom. They buy humongous sport-utility vehicles       going on to college, but it is hard to believe that their
that practically have cathedral ceilings over the front   prospects will be as bright as those of the kids in
seats. They live in homes the size of country clubs,      Montgomery County and the rest of upscale Blue
with soaring entry atriums so high that they could        America.
practically fly a kite when they come through the
front door. These big-headroom people tend to be          Because the information age rewards education with
predators: their jobs have them negotiating and           money, it's not surprising that Montgomery County is
competing all day. They spend small fortunes on dry       much richer than Franklin County. According to some
cleaning. They grow animated when talking about           estimates, in Montgomery County 51 percent of
how much they love their blackberries. They fill their    households have annual incomes above $75,000, and
enormous wall space with huge professional family         the average household income is $100,365. In
portraits—Mom and Dad with their perfect kids             Franklin County only 16 percent of households have
(dressed in light-blue oxford shirts) laughing happily    incomes above $75,000, and the average is $51,872.
in an orchard somewhere.
                                                          A major employer in Montgomery County is the
Small-headroom people tend to have been liberal-arts      National Institutes of Health, which grows like a
majors, and they have liberal-arts jobs. They get         scientific boomtown in Bethesda. A major economic
passive-aggressive pleasure from demonstrating how        engine in Franklin County is the interstate highway
modest and environmentally sensitive their living         Route 81. Trucking companies have gotten sick of
containers are. They hate people with SUVs, and feel      fighting the congestion on Route 95, which runs up
virtuous driving around in their low-ceilinged little     the Blue corridor along the northeast coast, so they
Hondas, which often display a RANDOM ACTS OF              move their stuff along 81, farther inland. Several new
KINDNESS bumper sticker or one bearing an image           distribution centers have been built along 81 in
of a fish with legs, along with the word "Darwin," just   Franklin County, and some of the workers who were
to show how intellectually superior to fundamentalist     laid off when their factories closed, several years ago,
Christians they are.                                      are now settling for $8.00 or $9.00 an hour loading
Some of the biggest differences between Red and
Blue America show up on statistical tables. Ethnic        The two counties vote differently, of course—the
diversity is one. In Montgomery County 60 percent of      differences, on a nationwide scale, were what led to
the population is white, 15 percent is black, 12          those red-and-blue maps. Like upscale areas
percent is Hispanic, and 11 percent is Asian. In          everywhere, from Silicon Valley to Chicago's North
Franklin County 95 percent of the population is           Shore to suburban Connecticut, Montgomery County
white. White people work the gas-station pumps and        supported the Democratic ticket in last year's
the 7-Eleven counters. (This is something one doesn't     presidential election, by a margin of 63 percent to 34
often see in my part of the country.) Although the        percent. Meanwhile, like almost all of rural America,
nation is growing more diverse, it's doing so only in     Franklin County went Republican, by 67 percent to
certain spots. According to an analysis of the 2000       30 percent.
census by Bill Frey, a demographer at the Milken
Institute, well over half the counties in America are     However, other voting patterns sometimes obscure
still at least 85 percent white.                          the Red-Blue cultural divide. For example, minority
                                                          voters all over the country overwhelmingly supported

the Democratic ticket last November. But—in many        should have the right to fire homosexual teachers, but
respects, at least—blacks and Hispanics in Red          only 21 percent of minorities in Blue states do.
America are more traditionalist than blacks and
Hispanics in Blue America, just as their white                       From Cracks to a Chasm?
counterparts are. For example, the Pew Research
Center for the People and the Press, in Washington,     These differences are so many and so stark that they
D.C., recently found that 45 percent of minority        lead to some pretty troubling questions: Are
members in Red states agree with the statement          Americans any longer a common people? Do we have
"AIDS might be God's punishment for immoral             one national conversation and one national culture?
sexual behavior," but only 31 percent of minority       Are we loyal to the same institutions and the same
members in Blue states do. Similarly, 40 percent of     values? How do people on one side of the divide
minorities in Red states believe that school boards     regard those on the other? …

Red v. Blue America

Directions: After reading the above excerpt by David Brooks, complete the following grid.
                                Red America                 Blue America
Describe difference in

Describe the difference
in shopping habits
Describe the difference
in career aspirations
Describe the difference
in outdoor hobbies
Describe the difference
in automobiles

Ch. 5, Pages 143-157 Assignment:
Directions: Read Ch. 1, pages 143-157 in the textbook and answer on a separate
sheet of paper. (Be sure to restate the vocabulary of each question.)
   1. Describe three factors that can cause a person’s political opinions to change:
   2. Summarize the data from Figure 5.2. Explain what this indicates about who will win the
  next presidential election.
   3. Research the latest approval ratings for the President. Describe how these ratings compare
  and contrast with the data from Figure 5.3.
   4. Define political socialization:
   5. Describe 7 factors that can shape political socialization.
   6. Using the data on Table 5.2, explain which group characteristics create the widest
  differences in public opinion. Then explain which group characteristics create the least
  differences in public opinion.

   (Class notes--define political efficacy)

Conneen                                                                     Government

                              Born Political Identity
                An Exercise in Intergeneratonial Social Studies

Directions: Talk to an adult family member and type a 1 page analysis of their
political ideology, party affiliation and political efficacy.

Your analysis should include the following:

• A description of this person’s political ideology and three factors that
influenced the development of this person’s political ideology. (Ideology is the
person’s beliefs about what government should do...i.e. liberal/conservative.)

• A description of this person’s association (or non-association) with a political
party and a description of the factors that influenced this association.

• A description of this person’s political efficacy and the factors that influenced
this person’s political efficacy (Efficacy is the person’s belief that voting and
other involvement matters.

          --Focus on HOW the person interviewed developed their beliefs.

                                Are You My Mother?
Directions: You will chart and explain the political ideology of political parties and current
elected officials.

Part 1:

• Read the 1996 Party Platforms (Dems + GOP)

          -- Underline 3 liberal stances (one must be from the GOP)

          -- Circle 3 conservative stances (one must be from the Dems)

Part 2:

• You should research the political viewpoints of four candidates using their websites or
periodical websites.

President--                   • Mitt Romney                   • Rick Perry
• Michelle Bachman            • Ron Paul                      • Barak Obama
10th Congressional District--
• Bob Dold                    • Brad Schneider                • Ilya Sheyman

1. Chart the (2) names on an ideological chart to accurately depict the officials’ political

                                                                                        • Alan Keyes

2. For each official, cut and paste 2 quotes from a website or publication that clearly indicate
each official’s ideology. Then briefly describe why these quotes are liberal, conservative or
moderate. (Cite each source!)

Example: Alan Keyes

• “I will do everything in my power to overthrow Roe vs. Wade and get us back where we belong in the
acknowledgment of God.”
           Source: http://www.issues2000.org/Celeb/Alan_Keyes_Abortion.htm
• “If they tell us that we cannot pray in the classroom, we should pray.”
           Source: http://www.issues2000.org/Celeb/Alan_Keyes_Education.htm

 Explanation: Both quotes indicate that Alan Keyes should be placed on the far right of the political spectrum. His
quotes demonstrate that he supports government promotion of traditional social values like making abortions illegal

                                      With Libya's Megalomaniac
    and returning prayer to public schools.

          In a tent in the desert, Gadhafi explained why he could never tolerate
                             any challenge to his supreme will
                                             By Robert D. Putnam
                                  The Wall Street Journal February 26, 2011
                                                        discussing sociology and political theory. It was
                                                        a strange encounter at the time, and after the
    On Jan. 19, 2007, my wife, Rosemary, and I
                                                        horrific events of the past week in Libya, it
spent several hours with Col. Moammar Gadhafi
                                                        seems stranger still.
in his tent in the Libyan desert, sipping tea and

    Several months earlier a former student of        a palm frond to shoo flies. The tableau gave the
mine, working for an international consulting         impression that we were seated in a pastoral
firm that was advising the Libyan government on       Bedouin landscape, guests of a local chieftain.
economic and political reform, had called to see
                                                          Col. Gadhafi looked ill at first. With his
whether I might be interested in traveling to
                                                      lined and pockmarked face, he resembled the
Libya to discuss my research on civil society and
                                                      aging Mick Jagger, and he mumbled. But as the
democracy, particularly "Making Democracy
                                                      conversation progressed, he became more
Work," my book on why democracy functions
                                                      animated. He clearly understood some English,
well in northern Italy but not in the country's
                                                      occasionally saying "Yes" or "I agree" before the
south. My hosts were willing to pay my standard
                                                      translator had spoken.
consulting fee, and to be honest, I was curious.
Col. Gadhafi fancied himself an intellectual, I            We had a lively conversation for two hours
was told, and considered his own "Green Book"         about his political ideas, my own writings, and
an original contribution to political philosophy.     how the development of civil society might be
                                                      applied to democratic reform in Libya. Col.
    We were kept waiting for more than 24
                                                      Gadhafi is inordinately proud of his Green Book,
hours in a dormitory outside the provincial town
                                                      an archaic mixture of primitive socialism, 1960s-
of Sirte, Col. Gadhafi's birthplace. But early the
                                                      style "people power" rhetoric, and traditional
next morning, in a caravan of Mercedes
                                                      Bedouin values; it has been the touchstone and
limousines, we raced at 90 miles per hour across
                                                      straightjacket for politics in Libya for nearly four
the Libyan desert to a walled enclosure
containing a one-mile square patch of desert,
populated by some Land Rovers, a few                      I noted his emphasis on social solidarity in
communications vans and motor homes, lots of          the Green Book, but added that in the modern
men with guns, and several tents set amid fields      world, he needed to extend his ideas to include
of wildflowers. We were quickly ushered to the        civil society, voluntary groups and freedom of
entrance of the largest tent, and there, standing     association. I drew examples from my own
just inside, was Col. Gadhafi, wearing a black        childhood in small-town Ohio, but my argument
skull cap and a brown blanket thrown over what        gave the translator problems. Libyan history
looked like black pajamas.                            includes nothing remotely analogous to Rotary
                                                      or Little League or the Knights of Columbus, so
    We all shook hands and sat down, with Col.
                                                      we settled on "veterans' associations" as the only
Gadhafi behind a table, the translator to his left,
                                                      intelligible illustration of my argument.
me to his right, and Rosemary and a note-taker
to my right. Nowhere at the camp did we see the           Students of Western political philosophy
scurrying aides that accompany heads of state in      would categorize Col. Gadhafi as a
more institutionalized regimes; Col. Gadhafi          quintessential student of Jean-Jacques Rousseau:
seemed curiously alone. It was a modest setting.      He made clear that he deeply distrusted any
We sat in white molded-plastic patio chairs of        political group that might stand between
the sort familiar in any American suburb. Inside      individual citizens and the "General Will" as
the tent were four radiators, several neon lights     interpreted by the Legislator (i.e., Col. Gadhafi
and a television. The floor was covered in layers     himself). When I argued that freedom of
of carpet over the desert gravel.                     association could enhance democratic stability,
                                                      he vehemently dismissed the idea. That might be
     Col. Gadhafi faced out the entrance of the
                                                      so in the West, he insisted, but in Libya it would
tent, overlooking eucalyptus trees, lavender
                                                      simply strengthen tribalism, and he would not
wildflowers, a wood fire and a small herd of
                                                      stand for disunity.
camels. Throughout the discussion he idly waved

     Throughout, he styled our meeting as a           on the underlying social order, so to ask "who
conversation between two profound political           will rule?" is to ask "who is best organized?" In
thinkers, a trope that approached the absurd          Russia in 1917 the answer was the Bolsheviks, in
when he observed that there were international        Iran in 1979 the answer was Khomeini's Islamic
organizations for many professions nowadays,          militants, and in Egypt in 2011 the answer
but none for philosopher-kings. "Why don't we         appears to be the military.
make that happen?" he proposed with a straight
                                                           The saddest legacy of Moammar Gadhafi
face. I smiled, at a loss for words. Col. Gadhafi
                                                      and his brutal revolutionary philosophy may be
was a tyrant and a megalomaniac, not a
                                                      that, in Libya in 2011, the answer seems to be
philosopher-king, but our visit left me convinced
                                                      "no one at all."
that he was not a simple man.
                                                          —Mr. Putnam is a professor of public policy
    Was this a serious conversation or an
                                                      at Harvard. His books include "Bowling Alone:
elaborate farce? Naturally, I came away
                                                      The Collapse and Revival of American
thinking—hoping—that I had managed to sway
                                                      Community" and "Making Democracy Work:
Col. Gadhafi in some small way, but my wife
                                                      Civic Traditions in Modern Italy."
was skeptical. Two months later I was invited
back to a public roundtable in Libya, but by then
I had concluded that the whole exercise was a
public-relations stunt, and I declined.
    In reflecting today on the future of
democracy in Libya and the rest of North Africa,
I'm drawn to the work of two influential
sociologists, Moisey Ostrogorsky and Robert
Michels. They taught generations of political
scientists that power in the modern world rests

Ch. 5, Pages 158-181 Assignment:
Directions: Read Ch. 1, pages 158-181 in the textbook and answer on a separate
sheet of paper. (Be sure to restate the vocabulary of each question.)
    1. Define random sample:
    2. Define push poll:
    3. Define sampling error:
   4. Describe three factors in mass surveys that can cause problems in measuring public
   5. Use figure 5.4 to describe how the ideological views of the American public have changed
  over the last three decades.
    6. Use figure 5.5 to describe three trends of party identification seen since the 1970s.

   7. Use figure 5.6 to describe the trend of trust in government since the 1950s. Explain why
  this trend seemed to happen.
   8. Explain why Americans can have a favorable view of their “representatives” while having
  a negative viewpoint of their “government.”
   (Class discussion)     What’s a strange implication that you can make about the polling
question in Figure 5.8?
   8. Explain why it’s difficult to get an accurate measure of public opinion on an issue like
  health care reform.
   9. Link                                                                                   to
   • Link to a specific opinion poll of the 2012 presidential election and find the following:
   A. Describe the most significant result of the opinion poll data.
   B. Identify how many people were surveyed.
    C. Identify the number and type of people who were surveyed (Republican voters,likely
   voters, any American, etc.)
    D. Describe the methods used to conduct the interview (live callers v. robo calls, calls to land
   lines v. calls to cell phones.)
   E. Identify the margin of sampling error for this survey.

                          From The Party’s Over
                            by David Broder (Harper and Row, 1972)
                                                     As his book title cleverly implies, journalist

David Broder acknowledges the decline of
American political parties. Writing in the early     Political parties in America have a peculiar
1970s, he mourns their weakening and holds out       status and history. They are not part of our
hope for a reinvigorated party system. Broder        written Constitution. The Founding Fathers, in
attributes many of America's governmental            fact, were determined to do all they could to see
problems to the parties' problems, and he pleads     they did not arise. Washington devoted much of
for stronger party unity in Congress and an          his Farewell Address to warning his countrymen
expanded role for parties in the campaign            against “the dangers of party in the state.” And
process. Turning to voters, Broder asks for less     yet parties arose in the first generation of the
ticket-splitting and more partisan allegiance. As    nation, and have persisted ever since. Their very
the decades have passed, Broder observations         durability argues that they fill a need. That need
about the decline of the parties - dealignment, as   is for some institution that will sort out, weigh,
scholars term it - have been borne out. His hopes    and, to the extent possible, reconcile the myriad
for the rejuvenation of American political parties   conflicting needs and demands of individuals,
have proved less promising. Among most voters        groups, interests, communities and regions in
and even many office-holders, the Democratic         this diverse continental Republic, organize them
and Republican parties are no longer the heart       for the contest for public office; and then serve
of the American political process.                   as a link between the constituencies and the men
                                                     chosen to govern. When the parties fill their
My view is that American politics is at an           mission well, they tend to serve both a unifying
impasse, that we have been spinning our wheels       and a clarifying function for the country.
for a long, long time; and that we are going to      Competitive forces draw them to the center, and
dig ourselves ever deeper into trouble, unless we    force them to seek agreement on issues too
find a way to develop some political traction and    intense to be settled satisfactorily by simple
move again. I believe we can get that traction,      majority referendum. On the other hand, as
we can make government responsible and               grand coalitions, they are capable of taking a
responsive again, only when we begin to use the      need felt strongly by some minority of the
political parties as they are meant to be used.      population and making it part of a program
And that is the thesis of this book.                 endorsed by a majority.

It is called The Party’s Over, not in prophecy,      When they do not function well, things go badly
but in alarm. I am not predicting the demise of      for America. The coming of the Civil War was
the Republicans or the Democrats. Party              marked by a failure of the reconciling function
loyalties have been seriously eroded, the            of the existing parties. Long periods of
Democratic and Republican organizations              stagnation, too, can be caused by the failure of
weakened by years of neglect. But our parties are    the parties to bring emerging public questions to
not yet dead. What happens to them is up to us to    the point of electoral decision. When the parties
decide. If we allow them to wither, we will pay a    fail, individual citizens feel they have lost
high price in the continued frustration of           control of what is happening in politics and in
government. But, even if we seek their renewal,      government. They find themselves powerless to
the cost of repairing the effects of decades of      influence the course of events. Voting seems
governmental inaction will be heavy. The             futile and politics a pointless charade....
process will be painful and expensive. Whatever
the fate of our political parties, for America the   The governmental system is not working
party is over...                                     because the political parties are not working. The
                                                     parties have been weakened by their failure to
... The reason we have suffered governmental         adapt to some of the social and technological
stalemate is that we have not used the one           changes taking place in America. But, even
instrument available to us for disciplining          more, they are suffering from simple neglect:
government to meet our needs. That instrument        neglect by Presidents and public officials, but,
is the political party.                              particularly, neglect by the voters. It is to remind

us that the parties can be used for positive           parties or ad hoc political coalitions to pressure
purposes that this book is written.                    for change.... Is there not a better way to resolve
                                                       our differences, to move ahead on our common
Some students of government who share this             problems? I believe there is.... The instrument
view of the importance of political parties in         that is available to us ... is the instrument of
American government nonetheless think it futile        responsible party government. The alternative to
to exhort readers on their behalf. Such political      making policy in the streets is to make it in the
scientists as James L. Sundquist and Walter            voting booth....
Dean Burnham, whose knowledge of American
political history is far deeper than my own,           But, if that is to be more than a cliché answer,
believe we are simply in the wrong stage of the        there must be real choices presented at election
political cycle to expect anything but confused        time--choices involving more than a selection
signals and weak responses from the parties.           between two sincere-sounding, photogenic
                                                       graduates of some campaign consultant's
The last major party realignment, it is generally      academy of political and dramatic arts. The
agreed, took place in 1932, and set the stage for      candidates must come to the voters with
the New Deal policies of government                    programs that are comprehensible and relevant
intervention in the economy and the                    to our problems; and they must have the kind of
development of the welfare state. We are, these        backing that makes it possible for them to act on
scholars argue, perhaps overdue for another            their pledges once in office.
realigmnent, but until an issue emerges which
will produce one, an issue as powerful as the          The instrument, the only instrument I know of,
Great Depression, it is futile to complain that        that can nominate such candidates, commit them
party lines are muddled and governmental action        to a program and give them the leverage and
is all but paralyzed. Their judgment may be            alliances in government that can enable them to
correct, but I do not find it comforting. The          keep their promises, is the political party...
cyclical theory of party realignment is an easy
rationalization for throwing up our hands and          . . . Where do we turn? To ourselves. Obviously,
doing nothing. But we do not know when the             that must be the answer. There is no solution for
realignment will take place. Some scholars have        America except what we Americans devise. I
thought there was a thirty-six-year cycle, with        believe that we have the instrument at hand, in
1896 and 1932 as the last “critical elections.”        the party system, that can break the long and
But 1968, the scheduled date, on this theory, for      costly impasse in our government. But it is up to
another "critical election," has come and gone,        us to decide whether to use it.
and our drift continues....
                                                       What would it entail on our part if we
... Basically, I believe that our guarantee of self-   determined to attempt responsible party
government is no stronger than our exercise of         government? First, it would mean giving strong
self-government; and today the central                 public support to those reform efforts which in
instruments of self-government, the political          the recent past have been carried on entirely by a
parties, are being neglected or abused. We must        small group of concerned political insiders,
somehow rescue them if we are to rescue                aimed at strengthening the machinery of political
ourselves ....                                         parties and government.

... Popular dissatisfaction with the two-party         We should seek to strengthen the liaison between
system is manifested in many ways: by the              the presidency and Congress, on a mutual basis,
decline in voting; by the rise in the number of        and between the presidency and the heads of
voters who refuse to identify themselves with          state and local government. We should elect the
either party; by the increase in ticket splitting, a   President in the same way we elect all other
device for denying either party responsibility for     officials, by direct vote of his constituents, with
government; and by the increased use of third          high man winning.

                                                      operate with a fine disdain for the role of party
We should expand the role and responsibilities        and policy in government. We need to devise
of the party caucuses and the party leaders in        ways to make television the prime medium of
Congress. The caucus should choose the floor          political communication - somewhat more
leaders and policy committee members, the             sensitive to the claims of the parties to be a
legislative committee chairmen and committee          regular part of the political dialogue, and to
members, not on the basis of seniority but on the     protect the vital institution of the nominating
basis of ability and commitment to the party          convention from being distorted by the demands
program. That leadership ought to be held             of the television cameras.
accountable for bringing legislation to which the
party is committed to a floor vote in orderly and     All these reforms would help, I believe, but they
timely fashion, with adequate opportunity for         would not accomplish the invigoration of
debate and particularly for consideration of          responsible party government unless they were
opposition party alternatives. But procedures for     accompanied by a genuine increase in the
due consideration should not justify devices like     participation by the public in party affairs. The
the filibuster, which prevent the majority party      cure for the ills of democracy truly is more
from bringing its measures to a final vote....        democracy; our parties are weak principally
                                                      because we do not use them. To be strong and
We need to take every possible measure to             responsible, our parties must be representative;
strengthen the presidential nominating                and they can be no more representative than our
convention as the key device for making the           participation allows. Millions more of us need to
parties responsible. The current effort to open       get into partisan political activity.
the Democratic delegate-selection process to
wider public participation is a promising start,      We need also to become somewhat more
and its emphasis on the congressional-district        reflective about what we do with our votes. We
nominating convention offers corollary benefits       need to ask ourselves what it is that we want
for integrating congressional and presidential        government to accomplish, and which candidate,
constituencies. Both parties should experiment        which party comes closest to espousing that set
with devices for putting heavier emphasis on the      of goals. That may sound so rationalistic as to be
platform-writing phase of the convention's work,      unrealistic. But this nation has more education,
including the possibility of a separate               more communication, more leisure available to it
convention, following the nomination, where the       than ever before. In the nineteenth century,
party's officeholders and candidates debate the       James Bryce wrote of us, "The ordinary citizens
program on which they pledge themselves to run        are interested in politics, and watch them with
and to act if elected.                                intelligence, the same kind of intelligence
                                                      (though a smaller quantity of it) as they apply to
Most important of all the structural reforms, we      their own business. . . They think their own
need to follow through the effort to discipline the   competence equal to that of their representatives
use of money in politics, not only by setting         and office-bearers; and they are not far wrong"
realistic limits on campaign spending and by          Are we to think less of ourselves today? Finally,
publicizing individual and organizational gifts,      we need to examine some of our habits. It seems
but also by channeling much more of the money         to me we should ask, before splitting a ticket,
(including, in my view, all general election          what it is we hope to accomplish by dividing
spending) through the respective party                between the parties the responsibility for
committees, rather than through individual            government of our country, our state or our
candidates' treasuries.                               community. Do we think there is no difference
                                                      between the parties? Do we distrust them both so
We need to strengthen the party organizations         thoroughly that we wish to set them against each
and their staffs, and recapture for them the          other? Do we think one man so superior in
campaign management functions that have been          virtue and wisdom that he must be put in office,
parceled out to independent firms which tend to       no matter who accompanies him there? Why are

we splitting tickets? My guess is that, if we         that neither can govern. If we were willing to
asked those questions, we would more often be         risk this strategy, knowing that we would be able
inclined to give a temporary grant of power to        to throw rascals out if they failed, we might even
one party at a time, rather than dividing             discover to our amazement that they are not
responsibility so skillfully between the parties      always rascals.

Check Your Understanding:

    1. What remedy does David Broder prescribe for the apparent political malaise of his time?

    2. What basic argument does Broder provide which suggests that political parties are in
       their essence - needed?

    3. According to Broder, list the basic responsibilities of our political parties.

    4. “Popular dissatisfaction with the two party system is manifested in many ways.” said
       Broder. List at least two (2) examples.

    5. List two ways in which Broder suggested we strengthen political parties.

BONUS: Agree or Disagree with the following statement made by David Broder. Explain “The

cure for the ills of democracy truly is more democracy.”   Ch. 7, Pages 219-
239 Assignment:
Directions: Read Ch. 7, pages 219-239 in the textbook and answer on a separate
sheet of paper. (Be sure to restate the vocabulary of each question.)
    1. Define political parties:
    2. Define spoils system:
   3. Define realignment and describe 2 of the more recent party realignments in American

   4. Define crosscutting:
   5. Explain how the Republican and Democratic parties are an example of political
   6. Explain how the organization of both American political parties is limited.
    (Class discussion-- Describe the conflict that arose regarding the scheduling of presidential
primaries in 2008. How does that conflict compare to the most recent scheduling issues with the
nomination primaries?)
   7. Define political party machine and describe two factors that weakened the influence of
  party machines in the last 40 years.
   8. Define governmental caucus:
   9. Describe 3 grassroots activities performed by party activists.
    (Class discussion-- Describe the conflict that arose regarding the scheduling of presidential
primaries in 2008. How does that conflict compare to the most recent scheduling issues with the
nomination primaries?)
   10. Use Figure 7.4 to help identify 3 historical events that influenced party identification
   among American voters.
   11. Define political dealignment:
   (Class notes-- Causes of political dealignment)
   12. Use table 7.2 to explain two reasons why Barack Obama won in 2008.

                         The Endless Campaign
                      Karl Rove Wall Street Journal December 20, 2007

The Iowa caucuses are 14 days away, with the          voting period Jan. 25 and South Carolina
New Hampshire primary five days later. And            Democrats vote on Jan. 26. Florida goes to the
what follows from there won't be pretty. The          polls Jan. 29 and Maine Republicans caucus on
way Americans are selecting our presidential          Feb. 1. Then, in a rush, there will be 23 contests
candidates in 2008 is, frankly, a mess.               on Tuesday, Feb. 5. What candidate can
                                                      effectively campaign in more than a handful of
The first problem is the overall length of the        the 32 states voting in the first month?
campaign. There are few more demanding
physical activities than running for president,       In the presidential 2000 race, 25% of the
other than military training or athletics at a very   delegates were selected by March 7, 50% by
high level -- and this will be the longest            March 14, and 75% of the Democratic delegates
presidential contest on record. The first             by April 4 and 75% of the Republican delegates
candidate this season announced Dec. 12, 2006;        by May 2. This time around, the 25% and 50%
virtually all the Democrats declared by late          thresholds will be crossed on Feb. 5, and by
January, and almost every Republican by mid-          March 4 over 75% of the delegates will be
March. So next fall we'll elect a president who's     selected.
spent two years rocketing around the country in
an aluminum tube and sleeping in strange hotel        Cutting the length of the primary season by more
rooms on a brutal, exhausting campaign trail.         than half by jamming the contests together raises
                                                      the likelihood of a bandwagon developing for the
This gives America the longest leadership             candidate who wins the first few contests. This
selection contest in the democratic world.            would allow a candidate to sweep to victory in
                                                      the subsequent contests that rapidly follow
It wasn't always like this. Bill Clinton announced    because all that voters will see is his (or her) face
for president on Oct. 3, 1991. At this point in the   on the evening news and in the papers.
1992 presidential contest, he'd been a candidate
for 10 weeks. George W. Bush made his first           Remember: Few Americans have seen these
campaign speech on June 12, 1999. At this point       candidates up close, except voters in Iowa, New
in the 2000 race, he'd been a candidate for just      Hampshire and South Carolina. In an
over five months.                                     abbreviated primary season, the weight these
                                                      early state voters carry is even more exaggerated.
In 2008 voting will also begin earlier than ever.     Both parties could end up with a candidate
In 2000, the Iowa caucuses were held Jan. 24.         chosen in haste and repented of at great cost.
This time, they'll be Jan. 3. For the first time,
some New Year's partygoers will still be nursing      If primaries and caucuses were spread out with
hangovers when they caucus.                           weeks, not days and hours, between them, then
                                                      voters in more states could learn more about the
Yet despite the seemingly endless campaign, the       candidates. Candidates would have more time to
nomination contest will be settled quicker than       come back from an early loss to a contender who
ever. In 2000, there were seven contests in five      was briefly the flavor of the moment in one state.
weeks beginning with Iowa. This time here will
be contests in 32 states in roughly the same          Candidates would also benefit from having more
amount of time.                                       time to think about the big, important things they
                                                      want to do for the country. The process side of
Two days after Iowa's contest on Thursday, Jan.       politics is now undermining the intellectual side.
3, Wyoming Republicans will caucus on                 It was revealing that at a health-care forum last
Saturday, Jan. 5. New Hampshire holds its             March, Sen. Barack Obama admitted he didn't
primary on the next Tuesday, Jan. 8. On Jan. 15,      have a health-care plan but promised to have one
Michigan votes, followed by Nevada's caucuses         by this January.
and the South Carolina Republican primary on
Jan. 19. Hawaii Republicans start a two-week

In addition, the current process increases             past) the American people. It will certainly work
pressure on candidates to narrowly focus on the        to the disadvantage of the better-known
concerns of their party's activists in the early       candidate, who could appear as yesterday's news
states. This crowds out other important things         and uninteresting when compared to a fresh face.
that tell the voters who they are. It's hard for       Some of the candidates already seem like overly
candidates to resist. For example, then Texas          familiar figures -- and not a single vote has yet
Gov. George W. Bush spoke early in the primary         been cast.
season about rallying the armies of compassion
to confront hopelessness of spirit and condition.      The media will be partly to blame. By next
This wasn't a "base theme." Rather, it was an          spring (at the latest), journalists will have tired of
appeal to all Americans. His primary opponents         the candidates and their messages and demand
criticized his focus on compassion. But Mr. Bush       they say or do something new, different and
rejected any retreat from the theme, an action         controversial, or they will be made to suffer. The
that served him well in the general election.          result of all this is that we're putting pressure on
Now, because of the calendar, many candidates          candidates to act in ways that have nothing to do
feel forced to devote much of their rhetoric and       with how well they will govern. The purpose of
time to appealing to a faction in their party.         a campaign ought to be the opposite.

Is it really good or fair for so much of America       It's too late to do anything about 2008, but
to outsource its candidate selection to activists in   Americans deserve better next time. One answer
a handful of the states at the front of this clipped   might be to create a series of days on which
process?                                               states across the country could hold their
                                                       primaries or caucuses. These contest days would
A longer primary process would give more               be spread out over the winter and spring. Each
Americans a chance to make a considered                day would have a mix of states, representing
decision about who should be president. The            different regions of the country. Rep. Sander
process could still honor the role of Iowa, New        Levin (D., Mich.) and Sen. Bill Nelson (D., Fla.)
Hampshire and South Carolina, but give other           have introduced legislation along these lines.
states the opportunity to more fully participate in    There are also proposals from the state
the selection of our nominees.                         secretaries of state and groups of leaders in both
                                                       parties. Perhaps a reform structure could be
There will be a vast stretch of time between           arrived at by the two major parties and their
when each nomination is likely to be secured           rules, without requiring congressional action.
(early February) and the conventions where they
are ratified (Aug. 25-28 for the Democrats and         Longer, earlier and shorter -- at least when it
Sept. 1-4 for the Republicans). Let's not kid          comes to selecting our presidential candidates --
ourselves: Next year, the general election starts      is not in the country's best interests. The
in earnest on Feb. 6.                                  presidential primary mayhem and next year's
                                                       seemingly endless general election campaign
A general election campaign that lasts nine            will be compelling evidence for reform.
months will bore (even more than it has in the

Ch. 7, Pages 239-247 Assignment:
Directions: Read Ch. 7, pages 239-247 in the textbook and answer on a separate
sheet of paper. (Be sure to restate the vocabulary of each question.)
    1. Define primary election:

   2. Define nominating convention:
   3. Describe the differences between closed primaries, open primaries and caucuses.
   4. Explain the positive and negative consequences of having party leaders select candidates
  instead of primary election voters.
   5. Use figure 7.6 to compare and contrast campaign fund raising between the Democrats and
  Republicans in 2008.
   6. Define party platform:
   7. Define back bencher:
   8. Describe how developing agendas and coordination play roles in how parties governing
  when they do get elected power.
   9. Define unified government and responsible parties:
   Define divided government and describe the benefits and detriments of divided government.

Ch. 7, Pages 247-253 Assignment:
Directions: Read Ch. 7, pages 247-253 in the textbook and answer on a separate
sheet of paper. (Be sure to restate the vocabulary of each question.)
   1. Describe 3 reasons why minor parties still run for office.
   2. Describe 3 reasons why the US has a two-party system.
   3. Define single-member district:
   4. Define plurality voting:
   5. Define Duverger’s law:
   6. Explain how American political parties are heterogeneous and explain how this impacts
  the American political system.
   (Comparative Government--Describe how western political party systems tend to differ
from the American party system.

Notes--Political Parties:
   Functions of Political Parties:
   -- Most important part of American Government not mentioned in the Constitution.
   (“Linkage institution” Citizens to government)

   • Categorize and nominate candidates (labels)
   --Conventions --> State Caucuses (Iowa)-->Primary elections (NH)
          Democratization ---------------->
          <--------------------Party strength

   • Educate (Party label / campaign ads) and galvanize voters (GOTV)

   • Govern as the party in power or critique (watch dog) the governing party.

Reasons for a two-party system:

  History--Federalists v. anti-Federalists (power of central government v. states’
             rights) Inter-governmental dispute = more consistent ideology

  Winner-takes-all / single member districts (SMD)
  Brits call this First Past the Post (FPTP) --
  Bob Dold (GOP) 45% ---> plurality winner (most votes, but not necessarily
                                                       a majority)
  Dan Seals (Dem) 40%
  Dave Elbaum (Green) 15% --> no incentive for finishing 2nd or 3rd

  (Electoral College is the most dramatic example of winner takes all)

  US does NOT have Proportional / Party List elections--
  GOP 45%      Dems 40%               Green 15%
  45/100 seats 40/100 seats           15/100 seats

  --> coalition government needed to form majority in legislature
  --> promotes existence of multiple parties
  --> appointment of representatives promotes more loyalty to party leaders
  --> coalitions can complicate policy making more than majority party rule

Reasons for unresponsible Parties (less party discipline than U.K.)
    (i.e. The Party’s Over; parties and candidates not held accountable for policy failure):

     Federalism = blame goes to various levels (more decentralized than Europe)
     Separation of Powers = blame goes to other branches
     Divided Government (President / House / Senate not all the same party) = blame
     goes to other party
     Growth of independent voters: split-ticket voting; single issue voters;
     Single member districts: Election of personalities (not parties) to Congress
     Primaries = party voters more powerful than Party leaders in nominating
     candidates; candidates become more independent
     Campaign costs = Congressional candidates rely on their individual fundraising
     more than Party funds.
     Big tents = American parties are more broad-based coalitions (many factions within
     each party) than in Europe
Political Party dealignment

     Party Realignment / critical elecitons = 1860; 1896; 1932
     --when a vital issue cuts across party divisions (slavery / New Deal)
     --Increased voter turnout ; sharp and enduring partisan changes

     1968 -- Nixon but Democratic Congress
     1980-- Reagan but Democratic Congress
     1994 -- GOP Congress but Democratic President

     Dealignment -- when a large portion of voters abandon a previous party identification without

     1964           v.        1992
     27%            S.D.      18%

             25%             W.D.        18%
             10%             S.R.        11%
             15%             W.R.        15%
             25%             Ind.        37%

             Divided government (president of one party/ Congress = the opposing party) is the new

             1964 = political realignment in the South due to Civil Rights
             -- Had been 6-1 Democratic officials in 1952; now 50/50

        3rd Parties / Minor Parties

             Bring new issues to the forefront = abolition; women’s suffrage; ending child labor; 40-hour
             work week; balanced budget
             -- Help provide a voice for the marginalized; voter venting

             3rd parties as bumble bees = sting once and then they die (Major parties tend to borrow
             popular platform stances after 3rd party success.)

             Obstacles for 3rd parties
             • state laws about ballot access to get names on the ballot
             • federal laws about accessing public campaign funds (must get 5% of the presidential vote)
             • rules by the national presidential debate commission (must have 15% support in polls to
               get onto national debates.)

        Presidential Election Process

           2010 = Potential candidates form “Exploratory Committees” hire key staff, start raising
                      money; start visiting IA, NH, MI, NV, FL, CA + SC

           Early 2011 = Make candidacy official, (Obama = Feb 10th, 2007) Retail Politics (shaking
                       hands) in IA, NH, + SC, raise money; create a personal following; develop
                       GOTV organization

           January, 2012 = Start Caucus (IA) and Primary (NH) season; raise money
           --Frontloading...staging early nomination contests in IA and NH
           --Horserace journalism...reporting campaigns as sporting events

           March, 2012 = Secure unofficial nomination ; raise money
           August, 2012 = Official nomination at National Conventions; raise money; campaign in
                         battleground (swing) states
           Nov. 6th, 2012 = General Election (Obama, Democrat vs. ???????, Republican)

                           Jan. 20th 2013 = Inauguration   Why Tuesday?
                    Make voting easier. Weekend elections would be a start
                                      Norm Ornstein Roll Call November 9, 2005

We don’t have the numbers yet, but most likely the             spectacularly high turnouts we see in countries like
elections Tuesday drew an average level of turnout             Australia and Italy come because of coercive
for off-off-year contests — which means less than              measures we would never accept — denial of
one-third of voters participating.                             government benefits if citizens don’t vote. But we are
                                                               at the other end of the scale: We throw all kinds of
Our turnout, which is basically the lowest among               burdens and barriers in the way.
Western democracies, is pretty embarrassing. The

On Monday, I joined Andrew Young, the former U.S.         had made this recommendation with a series of
ambassador to the United Nations, and pollsters Ed        caveats. Under current federal law, there will be a
Goeas and Celinda Lake at a press conference for the      requirement in a few years that a photo identification,
organization “Why Tuesday?” The question in the           the REAL ID, be used for homeland security
organization’s title refers to Election Day — which in    purposes. If such a requirement is to exist anyhow,
fact was set in 1845 as the first Tuesday following the   why not use it as well for voting? At the same time,
first Monday in November, in order to fit agrarian        the commission said that any photo ID requirement
schedules for farming, harvesting and going to            must provide the IDs free of charge to everyone who
market. Tuesday was the day most eligible voters          lacks them and make them readily accessible. The
traveled to their county seats if they had business to    panel did not accept the noxious Georgia standard,
conduct, thus making it easier for them to vote at the    which is a latter-day poll tax.
same time.
                                                          But leave the controversial ID requirement aside and
Young and I, along with former Rep. Jack Kemp (R-         the other recommendations are important and
N.Y.), former Sen. Bill Bradley (D-N.J.) and others,      necessary. These include moving rapidly to update
have been asking that question as part of a larger        statewide voter registration lists, to make them
effort to rethink and reform our election                 interoperable across states, to make sure that polling
administration and system. Yes, I know Congress           places have enough machines with adequate paper
engaged in a Herculean effort to pass the Help            trails for validation and recounts, and to have enough
America Vote Act in 2002 — the first serious federal      trained poll workers.
reform of elections ever. But HAVA has not been
fully implemented, much less fully funded (an even        Election officials have their own interesting
more difficult goal now with budget cutbacks              recommendation, building on successful experiments
looming). We did not have an election catastrophe in      conducted in such places as Larimer County, Colo.,
November 2004 as we had in November 2000, but             and Harris County, Texas: To consolidate voting
anyone who looks closely at elections knows we            precincts into a smaller number of vote centers on
barely dodged a bullet.                                   Election Day. Larger centers would permit
                                                          consolidation of equipment and a concentration of
Goeas and Lake conducted a poll of voters on election     poll workers, thus accommodating more voters easily
issues, and they found that only 52 percent of            and smoothly, saving resources and making voting
Americans believe our elections are fair and that         easier. Of course, to do so would require things such
votes are actually counted and recorded. Only one-        as mobile vans cruising neighborhoods to pick up
third of African-Americans are in that category. They     voters and take them to the centers and back to their
also found that two-thirds of Americans want              own neighborhoods, so that polling places are
Congress to make voting easier, and that 45 percent       accessible to those without cars or alternate
would favor moving elections to the weekend.              transportation options.
Weekend voting was especially popular among young
voters, African-American voters and working parents.      So here is my Wal-Mart approach to voting. First,
Goeas noted that the lowest turnout comes from            make Election Day a 24-hour period, from noon
women with small children at home — no great              Saturday to noon Sunday, removing any Sabbath
surprise, perhaps, but also a sign that moving            problems and eliminating the burden for working
elections to the weekend would not necessarily favor      people who can vote only early in the morning or
Democrats.                                                after the workday and who often face two-hour lines
                                                          at peak periods. Wal-Mart stores that stay open 24/7
Moving Election Day to the weekend is no panacea. It      do not usually have huge lines at the checkout
ought to be done in conjunction with a series of other    counters.
reforms, some of which have been suggested by
election officials and others of which were included      Second, allow early voting on the Wednesday,
in the recommendations by the Carter-Baker                Thursday and Friday before the weekend of Election
Commission on election reform, co-chaired by former       Day, so that people who would otherwise be away for
President Jimmy Carter and former Secretary of State      the weekend can go to the polls and vote. This
James Baker.                                              eliminates the problem that absentee balloting has —
                                                          the extended period of several weeks that has far too
Their commission has been given a bum rap, heavily        many people casting their ballots before they
criticized for one of its recommendations — that we       assimilate the information from the final days of a
move to a required photo ID for voting. Carter-Baker      campaign. It also curbs the expansion of voting by

mail, which erodes the civil culture of voting together   computer provide a ballot that allows them to vote on
on Election Day and builds in far greater                 federal, state and local races to fit their residence.
opportunities for undue influence by removing the
zone of privacy that a voting booth provides.             These reforms would entail some added expense, but
                                                          such outlays would be trivial in the context of a $3
Third, expand election centers to create a more           trillion budget and a $12 trillion economy. If Wal-
efficient and pleasant environment for voting. Wal-       Mart can stay open 24/7/365, surely our polling
Mart stores are large entities that consolidate           places can stay open 24/1/once every two years.
products, provide adequate parking and have enough
people working there to answer questions and handle       Our election system is a bit reminiscent of New
consumer needs.                                           Orleans before Hurricane Katrina. We had made half-
                                                          hearted and underfunded efforts to put an adequate
Fourth, create the kind of registration system that       system in place, but it was clear that a perfect storm
allows voters going to the election centers to give       would overwhelm the system and create genuine
their names, addresses (and, I would add, the last four   catastrophe. I hope, for the sake of our democracy,
digits of their Social Security numbers) and have a       that the complacency disappears soon.

Norman Ornstein is a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute.

             Five myths about turning out the vote
                                  The Washington Post October 29, 2006
If you're an upstanding U.S. citizen, you'll stand up     presidential elections and 39.4 percent in midterm
and be counted this Election Day, right? Well, maybe      elections for the past three decades. There has been
not. Just because Americans can vote doesn't mean         variation, of course, with turnout as low as 51.7
they do. But who shows up is what decides the tight       percent in 1996 and rebounding to 60.3 percent by
races, which makes turnout one of the most closely        2004. Turnout in the most recent election, in fact, is
watched aspects of every election -- and one that has     on a par with the low-60 percent turnout rates of the
fostered a number of myths. Here are five, debunked:      1950s and '60s.

1. Thanks to increasing voter apathy, turnout             2. Other countries' higher turnout indicates more
keeps dwindling.                                          vibrant democracies.

This is the mother of all turnout myths. There may be     You can't compare apples and oranges. Voting rules
plenty of apathetic voters out there, but the idea that   differ from nation to nation, producing different
ever fewer Americans are showing up at the polls          turnout rates. Some countries have mandatory voting.
should be put to rest. What's really happening is that    If Americans were fined $100 for playing voter hooky
the number of people not eligible to vote is rising --    on Election Day, U.S. participation might increase
making it seem as though turnout is dropping.             dramatically. But in fact, many people with a ballot
                                                          pointed at their head simply cast a blank one or a
Those who bemoan a decline in American civic              nonsense vote for Mickey Mouse.
society point to the drop in turnout from 55.2 percent
in 1972, when 18-year-olds were granted the right to      Moreover, most countries have national elections
vote, to the low point of 48.9 percent in 1996. But       maybe once every five years; the United States has
that's looking at the total voting-age population,        presidential or congressional elections every two
which includes lots of people who aren't eligible to      years. Frequent elections may lead to voter fatigue.
vote -- namely, noncitizens and convicted felons.         New European Union elections, for instance, seem to
These ineligible populations have increased               be depressing turnout in member countries. After
dramatically over the past three decades, from about 2    decades of trailing turnout in the United Kingdom,
percent of the voting-age population in 1972 to 10        U.S. turnout in 2004 was on a par with recent British
percent today.                                            elections, in which turnout was 59.4 percent in 2001
                                                          and 61.4 percent in 2005.
When you take them out of the equation, the post-
1972 "decline" vanishes. Turnout rates among those        Americans are asked to vote more often -- in national,
eligible to vote have averaged 55.3 percent in            state, local and primary contests -- than the citizens of

any other country. They can be forgiven for missing      through phone calls, door-to-door solicitation and the
one or two elections, can't they? Even then, over the    like find that it does have some positive effect on
course of several elections, Americans have more         turnout. But people vote for many reasons other than
chances to participate and their turnout may be higher   meeting a campaign worker, such as the issues, the
than that in countries where people vote only once       closeness of the election and the candidates'
every five years.                                        likeability. Further, these studies focus on get-out-the-
                                                         vote drives in low-turnout elections, when contacts
3. Negative ads turn off voters and reduce turnout.      from other campaigns and outside groups are
                                                         minimal. We don't know what the effects of
Don't be so sure. The case on this one is still open.    mobilization drives are in highly competitive races in
Negative TV advertising increased in the mid-1980s,      which people are bombarded by media stories,
but turnout hasn't gone down correspondingly. The        television ads and direct mail.
negative Swift boat campaign against Sen. John F.
Kerry (D-Mass.) apparently did little to depress         Republican get-out-the-vote efforts could make a
turnout in the 2004 presidential race.                   difference in close elections if Democrats simply sat
                                                         on the sidelines. But this year Democrats have vowed
Some academic studies have found that negative           to match the GOP mobilization voter for voter. So it'll
advertising increases turnout. And that's not so         take more than just knowing whether a prospective
surprising: A particularly nasty ad grabs people's       voter owns a Volvo or a BMW for Republicans to eke
attention and gets them talking. People participate      out victory in a competitive race.
when they're interested. A recent GOP attack ad on
Rep. Harold E. Ford Jr. (D-Tenn.), a Senate              5. Making voter registration easier would
candidate, has changed the dynamic of the race,          dramatically increase turnout.
probably not because it changed minds or dissuaded
Democrats, but because it energized listless             Well, yes and no.
                                                         In 1993, the Democratic government in Washington
We'll have to wait to see whether the attack on Ford     enacted "Motor Voter," a program that allowed
backfires because voters perceive it as unfair. That's   people to register to vote when they received their
the danger of going negative. So campaigns tend to       driver's license or visited a welfare office. Democrats
stick to "contrast ads," in which candidates contrast    thought that if everyone were registered, turnout rates
their records with those of their opponents. When        would increase -- by as much as 7 percentage points.
people see stark differences between candidates,
they're more likely to vote.                             But while many people registered to vote, turnout
                                                         didn't go up much. Subsequent studies found only
4. The Republican "72-hour campaign" will win            small increases in turnout attributable to Motor Voter,
the election.                                            perhaps 2 percentage points.

Not necessarily. You can lead citizens to the ballot,    Sizable increases in turnout can be seen in states with
but you can't make them vote.                            Election Day registration, which allows people to
                                                         register when they vote. This may be related to the
Republicans supposedly have a super-sophisticated        fact that lots of people don't make up their minds to
last-minute get-out-the-vote effort that identifies      vote until Election Day, rather than months in
voters who'll be pivotal in electing their candidates.   advance when they get a license.
Studies of a campaign's personal contact with voters

Class Notes


Cannot Voters                        Do Not Voters                 How to increase

State Regulations of Elections                       Federal Regulation of Elections

Ch. 8, Pages 257-271 Assignment:
Directions: Read Ch. 8, pages 257-271 in the textbook and answer on a separate
sheet of paper. (Be sure to restate the vocabulary of each question.)
   1. Define the popular vote:
   2. Define the electoral vote:
   3. Define incumbent:
   4. Define nomination:
   5. Define open primary:
   6. Define closed primary:

 7. Define no-excuse absentee voting:
 8. Define general election:
 9. Explain how a a candidate seeking the party nomination might take a different campaign
strategy than that same candidate might make in seeking a victory in the general election.
 10. Describe a runoff election and explain why a runoff election system is sometimes called
a two-round ballot system.
 11. Define undervote and explain why technology can impact the undervote rate.
 12. Describe what happens if no presidential candidate wins a majority of electoral votes:

      • How 2008 primaries were different
      -- Obama wins Iowa; Hillary finishes 3rd
      -- Hillary wins New Hampshire but they split Super Tuesday
      -- Hillary “wins” Michigan and Florida but delegates aren’t counted due to
                  violations of DNC scheduling rules.
      -- Tie on Super Tuesday--regional primary (proportional allocation =
                  dividing the delegates proportionally the the primary / caucus
                  result. GOP has moved to this in 2012 away from winner-takes-
                  all primaries)
      -- Obama wins string of post Super Tuesday caucuses and primaries
      (Obama has superior caucus organization; caucuses tend to be held in
                  smaller GOP states so Democrats are more liberal)
      -- Democrats split delegates proportionally so Obama is able to maintain
                  delegate lead despite loses in Ohio and PA.
      -- Hillary loses “superdelegate” edge as Obama maintains lead in
                  delegates (Superdelegates --party leaders who can cast a
                  delegate vote (20% of the delegates in 2008) at the Democratic
                  National Convention for any Democratic candidate as a way to
                  ensure party leader influence in close contests.)

    • State Primary Elections
    -- Key step in nomination process since 1972 (36 states have primaries..rest =
    -- Party voters express presidential preference
    -- Party voters (base) select delegates to national conventions
    -- Federal (Starts with Iowa Caucus / N.H. Primary in early January of election year)
            – Frontloading = small less diverse states have large voice at beginning
    -- Expensive -- state to state process = huge media buys / costly state organizations
    -- Partisan -- Party voters (grassroots) tend to dislike moderate candidates

    • National Conventions

       -- Official step in nomination of party candidates for General Election
       -- Have become rubberstamps of primary voters since 1972
       -- Pep rally / fundraising parties for the parties
       -- Party Platform (issue stances) unveiled
       -- First chance for much of the public to see new candidates on national stage (Sarah
                         Palin 2008; Obama’s keynote speech in 2004)       Ch. 8, Pages 271-
299 Assignment:
Directions: Read Ch. 8, pages 271-299 in the textbook and answer on a separate sheet of
paper. (Be sure to restate the vocabulary of each question.)
   1. Define permanent campaign and explain how this can impact governing:
   2. Define opposition research:
   3. Is wholesale politics or retail politics more effective at voter mobilization to GOTV in the ground
  game? Provide a full explanation as to why.
   4. Define campaign platform:
   5. Describe two campaign tactics a candidate who is losing in a race might use to gain momentum:
   6. Define presidential coattails:
   7. Define Federal Election Commission:

   8. Define hard money:

   9. Define soft money:

   10. Describe three provisions of the original Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act:

   11. Describe a 527:

   12. Define PAC:

   13. Describe the incentive and the drawback for presidential candidates receiving federal campaign

 14. Describe the impact of Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission on campaign finance

15. Explain how the 1st Amendment makes the regulation of campaign finance more complicated.


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