Elements_ Compounds_ Mixtures

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					Elements and Compounds


    Composition of Matter
Early Man (4 mya)
Man begins to use fire and stone
        tools (2 mya)
Cro-Magnon man is a skilled hunter
          (0.03 mya).
            HEY!
Where’s all the skateboards and
    CDs and Gameboys?
How did all our stuff get here?
 How did all our stuff get here?
• 1) We found different materials like plastic,
  steel and concrete buried in deep mines
• 2) Different materials blow out of
  volcanoes at different times
• 3) A few dozen materials make everything
  in the universe
Element = Type of atom
 (An atom is the smallest particle of
               matter)
Mercury
Copper
Oxygen
Silver
Lead
Gold
Tungsten
Americium
Aluminum
Element = Type of atom
 (An atom is the smallest particle of
               matter)
     Molecule
(Two or more atoms bonded
         together)
Is there more than one atom here?
       Are these molecules?
     To make a molecule,
1) you can use different elements and
thousands of atoms
2) you can use more than two atoms, but
they must all be the same element
3) you must use only two atoms, but they
can be different elements
     Molecule
(Two or more atoms bonded
         together)
Molecules can have huge numbers
        of different atoms
Or molecules can have just two
   atoms of the same kind.
     Molecules are the same as
           compounds.
• 1) False

• 2) True
Let’s build a molecule
    (a compound)!
     How about salt?
  To make the compound salt, we
              need
• 1) two white powders to mix together
• 2) a yellow gas and a white solid to mix
  together
• 3) two gray powders that turn white when
  you mix them together
    The solid metal sodium and the
poisonous gas chlorine mix together to
              form SALT!
Hydrogen gas plus oxygen gas
      makes WATER!
Burning a piece of coal makes
     CARBON DIOXIDE
When different elements are mixed
      together, you make
• 1) a compound that has the same
  properties as the elements
• 2) a compound that has different
  properties than the elements
• 3) a molecule that has different properties
  than the elements
• 4) a white powder
• 5) 2 and 3
  We started with atoms:
Two or more bonded together
     make a compound
 Can we mix compounds together
       to make mixtures?
Most foods and drinks are
        mixtures.
Clothing materials are often
         mixtures.
There are different types of
        mixtures:

          Solutions
           Colloids
         Suspensions
Let’s start with
 SOLUTIONS
Solutions contain small molecules
        spread out evenly.
    What are some more examples of
               solutions?
•   1) lemonade
•   2) hot chocolate
•   3) hot chocolate with marshmallows
•   4) 1 and 2
•   5) 1 and 2 and 3
      In a solution, compounds are
•   1) concentrated
•   2) dilute
•   3) spread out evenly
•   4) foggy
•   5) sweet
 In a solution, do particles settle to
             the bottom?
• 1) Yes

• 2) No
Stainless steel (silverware) is an
              alloy.
An alloy is a solution containing:
•   1) gas in liquid
•   2) liquid in liquid
•   3) solid in liquid
•   4) solid in solid
      Air is a solution containing:
•   1) gas in liquid
•   2) gas in gas
•   3) gas in solid
•   4) liquid in gas
There are different types of
        mixtures:

          Solutions
           Colloids
         Suspensions
Let’s look next at
  COLLOIDS
Fog is a colloid.
Light beams get “scattered”
      through colloids.
     In a colloid, the particles are
    _________ than in a solution.
• 1) smaller

• 2) larger

• 3) colder

• 4) hotter
  In a colloid, do particles settle to
             the bottom?
• 1) Yes

• 2) No
There are different types of
        mixtures:

          Solutions
           Colloids
         Suspensions
Next, let’s check out
 SUSPENSIONS
  (No, you’re not in trouble)
Muddy water is a suspension.
     In a suspension, particles are
     _________ than in a solution.
•   1) larger
•   2) smaller
•   3) darker
•   4) lighter
In a suspension, do particles settle
          to the bottom?
• 1) Yes

• 2) No

• 3) Depends on the temperature
How do we describe
    mixtures?
      Solute
      Solvent
    Which of the following is NOT a
         solute in a solvent?
•   1) Koolaid in water
•   2) Cream in coffee
•   3) Vinegar in oil
•   4) Carbon dioxide bubbles in pop
        Which of the following are
               mixtures?
•   1) colloids, suspensions, solutions
•   2) suspensions, solutes, solvents
•   3) alloys, solutes, solvents
•   4) gases, liquids, solids

				
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