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Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Chapter 7

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					             Chapter 7:
        Physical and Cognitive
Development in Early Childhood
          Physical Changes
    Growth and Motor Development

In early childhood:
 Changes in height and weight happen more
    slowly
 Impressive gains in major locomotor skills
Figure 7.1 Stages in Children’s
           Drawing
 The Brain and the Nervous System

                                              •   Basic outline of
                                                  lateralization is
                                                  genetically
                                                  determined
                                              •   Genes dictate
                                                  functions to be
                                                  lateralized
                                              •   Experience
                                                  shapes pace of
                                                  lateralization


Figure 7.2 Lateralization of Brain Function
     The Brain and Nervous System
             Myelinization

Myelinization: protective, fatty material wraps
  around nerve cells in the peripheral and
  central nervous system

   Reticular formation

   Hippocampus
    The Brain and Nervous System
               Handedness

Right or Left…Not right or wrong!
 83% right-handed
 14% left-handed
 3% ambidextrous

 Appears very early in life
 Research suggests genetic link
           Health and Wellness
          Illnesses and Accidents

Accidents
25% of U.S. children under 5 have one
  accident in any one year requiring medical
  attention
Most occur in home
Major cause of death in preschoolers
More common among boys
                 Cognitive Changes
  Piaget’s Preoperational Stage: Overview

Preoperational Stage

     Semiotic
    (symbolic)
   functioning                                Beginning of
     acquired                                 pretend play




                   Increased proficiency in
                         thinking and
                     communicating but
                      difficulty in logical
                            thinking
          Cognitive Changes

Centration: tendency to think of world one
  variable at a time
Animism or belief that inanimate objects are
  alive
Egocentrism: child’s tendency to view things
  from own perspective
Conservation: understanding that change in
  appearance can occur without change in
  quantity
Figure 7.3 Piaget’s Three Mountain
               Task
Three Mountain Task
Figure 7.4   Piaget’s Conservation
              Tasks
Conservation
      Alternative Theories of Early
          Childhood Thinking
      Information Processing Theories
Metamemory: Knowledge about and control of
  memory processes

Metacognition: Knowledge about and control
  of thought processes

Scripts: Cognitive structures underlie behavior
   and emerge during middle childhood
      Alternative Theories of Early
          Childhood Thinking
     Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Theory

Overview
 Emphasis on role of social factors in
  cognitive development
 Problem solutions socially generated and
  learned
 Key principles: Zone of Proximal
  Development (ZPD) and scaffolding
                     Theories of Mind

Theory of Mind: understanding thoughts,
   desires, and beliefs of others



                         Age 3 – some aspects of     Age 4 – recognizes each
     18 months –          link between people’s       person’s actions are
rudimentary beginnings    thinking, feelings, and        based on their
                                 behavior           representation of reality
                 Theories of Mind


4 – 5 year olds                  5 – 7 year olds
• Can’t understand that others   • Understand reciprocal nature
  can think about them             of thought
• Don’t understand that most
  knowledge can be derived
  from inference (this
  understanding develops by
  age 6)
        Theories of Mind




             • understand other people think; don’t
4-5 years:     understand thinking can be about them


5-7 years:   • understanding reciprocal nature of thought

             • realization knowledge can be derived
6+ years:      through inference
        Changes in Language


Grammar Explosion: speech becomes
   more adultlike
Fast-mapping:
   Rapid formation of hypothesis about
      new word’s meaning
 Inflections
 Questions and Negatives
 Complex sentences
Figure 7.6   Invented Spelling
         Differences in Intelligence
            Measuring Intelligence

•   Alfred Binet

•   Lewis Terman: Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

•   Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children
       Differences in Intelligence

Stability and Predictive Value of IQ Scores
    Correlation between IQ score and future
       grades is about .50 – .60.

   Consistent relationship are found within
    social classes and racial groups.

   IQ scores are quite stable BUT do not
    measure underlying competence.
Group Differences in Intelligence Test
              Scores
  Can you hypothesize why these findings
                 occur?
Higher scores than white children
Chinese and Japanese children

Lower scores than white children
African American children

Higher scores in all groups over two centuries
Flynn Effect

				
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