Sir Syed Ahmad khan

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					                                      Sir Syed Ahmad khan
Biographical Details

S i r S y e d A hm a d K ha n w a s b o r n i n 1 8 1 7 i n D e l hi . H e c a m e fr o m a w e a l t hy fa m i l y
w hi c h w a s w e l l k no w n a nd r e s p e c t e d i n t he a r e a . G r e a t c a r e w a s t a ke n b y S i r S ye d ’ s
f a t he r t o e n s u r e t ha t he r e c e i v e d a hi g h - q u a l i t y e d u c a t i o n.

B y t he a g e o f 1 8 he w a s s k i l l e d i n A r a b i c , P e r s i a n, A hm e d K ha n M a t he m a t i c s a nd
M e d i c i ne . H e h a d a l s o b e e n i nt r o d uc e d t o s o m e o f I nd i a ’ s m o s t a b l e w r i t e r s a nd ha d
developed a love for literature.

I n 1 8 3 8 S i r S y e d ’ s f a t he r d i e d a nd he w a s f o r c e d t o s e e k e m p l o y m e nt . H e q ui c kl y
r o s e f r o m a l o w l y p o s i t i o n i n t he l e g a l s y s t e m t o b e c o m e a j ud g e i n D e l hi i n 1 8 4 6
. T ha t y e a r he w r o t e h i s w e l l - k no w n b o o k o n a r c ha e o l o g y c a l l e d A t ha r - a l - S a n a d e e d .
W he n t he W a r o f b r o k e o ut i n 1 8 5 7 S i r S ye d w a s w o r ki ng a s c hi e f j ud g e i n Bi j n a u r
a nd i s s a i d t o ha v e s a v e d t he l i v e s o f m a n y w o m e n a nd c hi l d r e n d ur i ng t he fi g ht i ng .
I n r e t u r n f o r hi s l o y a l t y t he B r i t i s h o f fe r e d hi m a n e s t a t e w i t h a l a r g e i n c o m e , b ut
he r e f u s e d t he o f f e r .

H i s b e l i e f t ha t a r m e d up r i s i ng a g a i ns t t he B r i t i s h w a s p o i nt l e s s hi m u np o p ul a r w i t h
s o m e M us l i m s , b ut i t d i d no t s t o p hi m w o r k i ng t o w a r d s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n b e t w e e n
B r i t i s h a nd t he M u s l i m c o m m uni t y a ft e r t h e w a r . H e a p p o i nt e d C hi e f J u s t i c e i n
M u r a d a b a d a nd l a t e r w a s t r a ns f e r r e d t o G h a z i p o r e . In 1 8 6 4 he w a s t r a ns fe r r e d t o
A l i g a r h w he r e he p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a nt p a r t i n e s t a b l i s hi ng a ne w c o l l e g e . I n 1 8 7 6 he
r e t i r e d c o r k i n t he l a w t o c o nc e nt r a t e o n r u nni ng t he c o l l e g e a n d t o d e vo t e hi m s e l f
t o i m p r o v i ng t he p o s i t i o ns o f M u s l i m s i n t he s ub - c o nt i ne nt t hr o ug h
e d uc a t i o n . A l i g a r h b e c a m e t he c e nt r e o f a ‘ M u s l i m r e na i s s a nc e ’ .

H e d i e d i n 2 7 M a r c h 1 8 9 8 , h a v i ng s e r ve d hi s fe l l o w M us l i m s i n a w a y w hi c h fe w ha d
rivaled.

                                                              Beliefs
S i r S y e d w a s e x t r e m e l y u n ha p p y a b o ut t he p o s i t i o n o f t he M u s l i m s i n t he
s ub c o nt i ne nt . S i n c e t he d a y s o f t he M ug ha l e m p i r e t he i r s o c i a l a nd e c o no m i c s t a t u s
ha d d e c l i ne d s ha r p l y . T he r o l e o f M us l i m s i n t he W a r o f I nd e p e nd e nc e ha d l e d t o a
f ur t he r d e c l i ne i n t he i r f o r t une s a s t he B r i t i s h t o o k m e a s ur e s t o e ns ur e t ha t t he i r
c o nt r o l w o ul d no t b e s ub j e c t t o f ur t he r c h a l l e ng e .

S i r S y e d f e l t t ha t t he p o o r s t a t u s o f t he M u s l i m s w a s d ue t o t he w a y t he y w e r e
t r e a t e d a s s e c o nd - c l a s s c i t i z e n s b y t he Br i t i s h a nd t he H i nd u s , b ut t ha t t he y a l s o
ha d t o t a ke s o m e o f t he r e s p o ns i b i l i t y t he m s e l ve s . M a ny M u s l i m s c o ns i d e r e d t he
B r i t i s h t o b e l i t t l e m o r e t ha n i n v a d e r s i n I n d i a a nd w a nt e d no t hi n g t o d o w i t h t he m .
S i r S y e d b e l i e v e d t ha t t he M u s l i m c o m m u ni t y h a d t o a c c e p t t h a t t he B r i t i s h w e r e
r ul e r s w ho i nt e nd e d t o s t a y f o r m a ny ye a r s . T he M us l i m p o s i t i o n c o ul d o nl y b e
i m p r o v e d i f t he y a d o p t e d a m o r e p o s i t i ve a p p r o a c h t o t he B r i t i s h . T he y ne e d e d t o
a c c e p t m o r e B r i t i s h i d e a s a nd t o t a ke a d va n t a g e o f Br i t i s h e d uc a t i o n. I f t he y d i d
no t , t he n t he H i nd us w o ul d c o nt i n ue t o p r o s p e r b e c a u s e o f t he i r m o r e c o o p e r a t i ve
approach.

S i r S y e d w a nt e d t o s e e t he M u s l i m s u ni t e d a nd p r o s p e r i ng . H e a l s o w a nt e d t o s e e a n
i m p r o v e m e nt i n t he i r e c o no m i c , s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l a nd r e l i g i o us fo r t un e s . H e m a d e t hi s
a m b i t i o n hi s l i f e ’ s w o r k a nd , b e c a us e s o m u c h o f hi s e ffo r t r e vo l v e d a r o u nd a
‘ M us l i m r e n a i s s a nc e ’ t a k i ng p l a c e i n A l i g a r h , he i s s a i d t o ha ve fo u nd e d ‘ T he A l i g a r h
M o v e m e nt ’ .

T he c e nt r a l a i m s o f t h e A l i g a r h M o ve m e nt w e r e t o :

- I m p r o v e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t he B r i t i s h a n d M u s l i m c o m m u ni t i e s b y r e m o vi ng Br i t i s h
d o ub t s a b o ut M us l i m l o y a l t y a nd M u s l i m d o ub t s a b o ut B r i t i s h i nt e nt i o n s ,

- I m p r o v e t he s o c i a l a nd e c o no m i c p o s i t i o n o f M us l i m s b y e nc o ur a g i ng t he m t o
r e c e i v e W e s t e r ne d uc a t i o n a nd t a ke up p o s t s i n t he c i vi l s e r vi c e a nd a r m y ,

- I n c r e a s e t he p o l i t i c a l a w a r e ne s s o f t he M us l i m c o m m u ni t y i n o r d e r t o m a ke t he m
a w a r e o f t h e t hr e a t t o t he i r p o s i t i o n f r o m t h e H i nd us p o l i c y o f c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t he
British.

                                                                Work
        1 . I m p r ov i n g R e l a t i o n s b e t we e n t he B r i t i s h a n d M u sl i m C o m m u ni t i e s


S i r S y e d b e l i e v e d t ha t t he p o s i t i o n o f t he M us l i m s i n t he s u b c o nt i ne nt c o ul d o nl y b e
i m p r o v e d i f r e l a t i o n s w i t h t he B r i t i s h w e r e i m p r o ve d a nd M u s l i m s g a i ne d hi g he r -
q ua l i t y e d u c a t i o n. T he r e w e r e t w o m a j o r o b s t a c l e s t o g o o d r e l a t i o ns .
A . T he B r i t i s h h a d p u t t he e nt i r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y fo r t he W a r o f I nd e p e nd e nc e i n
1 8 5 7 o n t he M us l i m s . A s a r e s ul t t he y c a r r i e d o ut p o l i c i e s o f r e p r e s s i o n a g a i ns t t he
M u s l i m s a f t e r 1 8 5 7 . T he H i nd us a nd o t he r r e l i g i o us g r o up s w e r e c o ns i d e r e d t o b e
l o y a l a nd p r e p a r e d t o a s s i s t i n g o ve r ni ng I n d i a , b ut t he M us l i m s w e r e s e e n a s
r e b e l l i o us a nd u nhe l p f ul . E v e n a s e a r l y a s 1 8 4 3 t he Br i t i s h G o ve r no r - G e ne r a l ha d
stated:

I c a n no t c l o s e m y e y e s t o t he b e l i e f t ha t t h e M us l i m r a c e i s f un d a m e nt a l l y ho s t i l e t o
us . O ur t r ue p o l i c y i s t o r e c o nc i l e t he H i nd us ’ .

S i r S y e d w a nt e d t o e n s u r e t ha t t hi s f a l s e vi e w w a s c o r r e c t e d .

B . T he r e w a s a d e e p - s e a t e d r e s e nt m e nt o f t he B r i t i s h a m o n g m a n y i n t he M u s l i m
c o m m uni t y . T hi s w a s s o m e t i m e s b a s e d o n t he f a c t t h a t t he B r i t i s h w e r e s e e n a s
‘ f o r e i g n i nv a d e r s ’ a nd s o m e t i m e s b e c a u s e t he y w e r e t ho ug ht t o b e t r yi ng t o r e p l a c e
Is l a m w i t h C hr i s t i a ni t y . O t he r M us l i m s r e j e c t e d a l l W e s t e r n i d e a s b e c a u s e t he y w e r e
o f t e n no t i n l i ne w i t h Is l a m i c b e l i e fs . S i r S y e d w a nt e d t o e ns ur e t ha t t he b e ne fi t s
a nd a d v a nt a g e s o f B r i t i s h r ul e , i n p a r t i c ul a r i n t he a r e a s o f s c i e nc e a nd t e c h no l o g y
w e r e e m b r a c e d b y t h e M us l i m c o m m u ni t y t o i m p r o ve t he l i ve s o f t he m a s s e s .

C o n vi n c i n g t h e B r i t i s h

I n 1 8 6 0 S i r S y e d w r o t e T he L o y a l M o ha m m a d e ns o f i nd i a . In t hi s w o r k he d e fe n d e d
t he M us l i m s f r o m t he B r i t i s h a c c us a t i o n t h a t t he y w e r e d i s l o y a l . H e g a ve a d e t a i l e d
a c c o u nt o f t he l o y a l s e r v i c e w hi c h M us l i m s ha d g i ve n a nd na m e d va r i o us M u s l i m s
w ho ha d s ho w n p a r t i c ul a r l o y a l t y t o t he Br i t i s h . A t t he s a m e t i m e he c a l l e d o n t he
B r i t i s h t o e nd t he i r ho s t i l i t y t o w a r d s t he M u s l i m c o m m u ni t y .

I n o r d e r t o c o n v i nc e t he B r i t i s h t ha t t he y w e r e w r o ng t o p ut t he f ul l b l a m e fo r t he
e v e nt s o f 1 8 5 7 o n t he M us l i m s , S i r S ye d w r o t e a p a m p hl e t c a l l e d ‘ E s s a y o n t h e
c a u s e s o f t h e I n d i a n R e vo l t '
I n hi s w r i t i ng he p o i n t e d o ut t he m a i n r e a s o ns fo r t he up r i s i ng w e r e :

1 . T he l a c k o f r e p r e s e nt a t i o n f o r I nd i a n g o v e r nm e nt o f t he c o unt r y.
2 . T he f o r c i b l e c o n v e r s i o n o f M u s l i m s t o C hr i s t i a ni t y
3 . T he p o o r m a n a g e m e nt o f t he I nd i a n a r m y

H e a l s o l i s t e d m a n y o t he r m e a s ur e s t a ke n b y t he Br i t i s h w hi c h c r e a t e d
d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a nd l e d t o r e s e nt m e nt a m o n g t he M us l i m c o m m u n i t y.
T hi s p a m p hl e t w a s c i r c ul a t e d f r e e a m o ng s t t he B r i t i s h o ffi c i a l s i n Ind i a a nd w a s a l s o
s e nt t o m e m b e r s o f P a r l i a m e nt i n E ng l a nd .

E v e n m e m b e r s o f t he R o y a l f a m i l y r e c e i ve d c o p i e s . S o m e B r i t i s h o ffi c i a l s w e r e
a ng e r e d b y w h a t S i r S y e d w r o t e a s he s e e m e d t o b e b l a m i ng t he m fo r t he up r i s i ng .
O t he r s r e a d w ha t he w r o t e w i t h s ym p a t h y a nd a c c e p t e d t ha t t he r e w a s t r ut h i n hi s
w o r d s . S i r S y e d a l s o t r i e d t o c l e a r up a m i s u nd e r s t a nd i ng a m o ng s t t he B r i t i s h w ho
r e s e nt e d b e i ng c a l l e d ‘ N a d a r a t h ’ b y t he M us l i m s . T he Br i t i s h t ho u g ht t h a t t hi s w a s
a n i ns ul t , b ut S i r S y e d p o i nt e d o ut t ha t t he w o r d c a m e fr o m ‘ N a s i r ’ , a n A r a b i c
w o r d m e a ni ng he l p e r . S o t he t e r m w a s a r e fl e c t i o n o f t he p o s i t i v e i m a g e M u s l i m s
ha d o f B r i t i s h , no t a n i n s ul t .

C o n vi n c i n g t h e M u s l i m s

S i r S y e d w a s a w a r e t h a t t he B r i t i s h k ne w ve r y l i t t l e a b o ut Is l a m . I nd e e d , o n a vi s i t
t o E ng l a nd he w a s s o o f f e nd e d b y a n E ng l i s h b o o k o n ( P . B . U . H ) t ha t he i m m e d i a t e l y
w r o t e hi s o w n w o r k c o r r e c t i ng t he m a n y e r r o r s .

It w a s a l s o t r ue , ho w e v e r , t ha t t he M us l i m s i n I nd i a k ne w ve r y l i t t l e a b o ut
C hr i s t i a ni t y . H e t r i e d t o o v e r c o m e t hi s w a s b y w r i t i ng Ta b yi n - u l - K a l a m , i n w hi c h he
p o i nt e d o ut t he s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n I s l a m C hr i s t i a ni t y. D ue t o l a c k o f r e s o ur c e s t he
w o r k w a s no t f i ni s he d , b ut i t s ho w e d S i r S y e d ’ s c o m m i t m e nt t o i m p r o vi ng r e l a t i o ns .

A no t he r e x a m p l e o f t h i s w a s t he B r i t i s h I nd i a n A s s o c i a t i o n w hi c h S i r S ye d
e s t a b l i s he d t o t r y t o i nc r e a s e c o - o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t he t w o p e o p l e s .

M a ny M u s l i m s , ho w e v e r , w e r e v e r y s u s p i c i o us o f a n y Br i t i s h i n fl u e nc e b e c a us e t he y
b e l i e v e d i t c o r r up t e d Is l a m i c l e a r ni ng . S i r S ve d r e a l i z e d t ha t he ne e d e d t o i nc r e a s e
a w a r e ne s s o f t he b e n e f i t s o f w e s t e r n t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s . H e d i d no t a c c e p t t he
a r g um e nt s o f B r i t i s h C hr i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s t h a t t he t e c h no l o g i c a l a d va nc e s t h a t ha d
b e e n m a d e i n E ur o p e w e r e a r e s ul t o f t he t e a c hi ng s o f C h r i s t i a ni t y. H e b e l i e ve d t h a t
t he y ha d t o d o w i t h g r e a t e r p o l i t i c a l d e ve l o p m e nt a nd a hi g he r s t a nd a r d o f
e d uc a t i o n , p a r t i c ul a r l y i n s c i e n c e . H e t he r e fo r e l a i d g r e a t e m p h a s i s o n t h e ne e d t o
b r i ng a b o ut i m p r o v e d e d uc a t i o n f o r M us l i m s .

                               2 . E n c ou r a g i n g t he gr o w t h of W e s t e r n e d uc a t i o n

A s w e ha v e s e e n a f t e r 1 8 5 7 t he M u s l i m c o m m u ni t y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a t t he ha nd s o f
t he o t he r B r i t i s h , w hi l s t t he o t he r g r o up s w e r e s up p o r t e d . T he H i nd us fo r e x a m p l e ,
ha d d e c i d e d t ha t t he y s ho ul d w o r k w i t h t he B r i t i s h. T hi s he l p e d t he B r i t i s h t o s e e
t he m a s a c o u nt e r t o t he s up p o s e d l y ‘ d i s l o y a l M u s l i m s ’ , S o H i nd u s w e r e ke e n t o
l e a r n t he E ng l i s h l a ng ua g e a nd t o a c q ui r e a B r i t i s h e d u c a t i o n i n t he s ub c o nt i ne nt .
T hi s he l p e d t he m t o g a i n e m p l o y m e nt a nd t o m a ke p r o g r e s s i n s o c i e t y . B y 1 8 7 1
t he r e w e r e 7 1 1 H i nd u s i n g o v e r n m e nt e m p l o ym e nt c o m p a r e d w i t h o nl y 9 2 M us l i m s .

T he ‘ H i nd u M o v e m e nt ’ g a i ne d s t r e ng t h a s m o r e a nd m o r e H i n d u s r e c e i ve d e d u c a t i o n
i n t he ne w s c ho o l s , c o l l e g e s a nd u ni ve r s i t i e s w hi c h w e r e s p r i ng i n g up . T hi s
i nc r e a s e d c o n f i d e nc e a m o ng H i nd u s a l s o l e d t o t he m vi e w i ng M u s l i m s w i t h a n
i nc r e a s i ng l a c k o f r e s p e c t .

S i r S y e d t o o k s t e p s t o c ha ng e M u s l i m a t t i t u d e s t o r e c e i vi ng B r i t i s h e d u c a t i o n. I n
t hi s he c a m e i nt o c o n f l i c t w i t h ul e m a . T he y b e l i e ve d t h a t a c c e p t a nc e o f s c i e nt i fi c
a nd t e c h no l o g i c a l i d e a s m i g ht u nd e r m i ne I s l a m i c b e l i e fs . S i r S ye d b e l i e ve d t ha t t he
H o l y Q ur a n e m p h a s i z e d t he ne e d t o s t ud y a nd t h a t a n u nd e r s t a nd i ng o f m o d e r n
s c i e nt i f i c b e l i e f s a c t u a l l y he l p e d r e ve a l t he f ul l m a j e s t y o f G o d .

- T o g a i n s up p o r t f o r h i s v i e w s S i r S ye d s e t up a n U r d u j o u r na l c a l l e d T a hd hi h - u l -
A k hl a q . T hi s j o ur n a l c o nt a i ne d a r t i c l e s fr o m i n fl ue nt i a l M us l i m s w ho a g r e e d w i t h S i r
S y e d t ha t t he r e w a s a ne e d f o r a ne w a p p r o a c h t o e d uc a t i o n. A l t h o ug h s o m e ul e m a
a t t a c k e d t he j o ur na l , i t p l a y e d a m a j o r p a r t i nb r i ng i ng a b o ut a n i nt e l l e c t ua l
r e v o l ut i o n a m o ng s t M us l i m t hi n k e r s .

- I n 1 8 6 3 S i r S y e d f o u nd e d t he S c i e nt i fi c S o c i e t y a t G ha z i p o r e . It s m a i n p ur p o s e w a s
t o m a k e s c i e nt i f i c w r i t i ng s a v a i l a b l e t o a w i d e r m a r ke t b y t r a n s l a t i ng t he m fr o m
E ng l i s h, P e r s i a n o r A r a b i c i nt o U r d u . W he n he w a s t r a n s fe r r e d t o A l i g a r h i n 1 8 6 4 he
c o nt i nue d hi s w o r k a n d i n 1 8 6 6 b e g a n i s s ui ng a j o u r na l c a l l e d t h e ‘ A l i g a r h I ns t i t ut e
Gazette’.

- H e ha d a l r e a d y s ho w n hi s c o m m i t m e nt t o e xp a nd i ng e d u c a t i o na l o p p o r t uni t i e s
w he n , i n 1 8 5 9 , he o p e ne d a s c ho o l i n M u r a d a b a d . I n 1 8 6 4 he o p e ne d a no t he r s c ho o l
i n G ha z i p o r e .

- I n 1 8 6 9 S i r S y e d t r a v e l l e d t o E ng l a nd t o s t ud y t he u ni ve r s i t y s y s t e m t he r e . H e
d r e a m e d o f s e t t i ng up a uni v e r s i t y fo r M us l i m s i n t he s u b - c o nt i ne nt .
H e w a s v e r y i m p r e s s e d b y t he u ni ve r s i t i e s o f O x fo r d a nd C a m b r i d g e a nd ho p e d t o
s e t up a n e d u c a t i o na l i ns t i t ut i o n b a s e d o n t he i r m o d e l . H o w e ve r , o n r e t u r ni ng ho m e ,
he f o u nd t h a t hi s p l a n s w e r e o f t e n m e t w i t h s us p i c i o n . H e c o ul d n o t s t a r t w i t h a
u ni v e r s i t y s t r a i g ht a w a y . S o i n s t e a d he d e c i d e d t o b e g i n w i t h a s c ho o l .

- A c o m m i t t e e w a s s e t up , w hi c h t o ur e d t he c o u nt r y r a i s i ng f und s fo r a ne w M us l i m
s c ho o l . O n 2 4 M a y 1 8 7 5 , t he M o ha m m a d e n A ng l o - O r i e nt a l S c ho o l w a s s e t up i n
A l i g a r h o n t he p a t t e r n o f E ng l i s h p ub l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m . S i r S ye d w o r ke d h a r d t o
ha v e t he s c ho o l up g r a d e d t o a c o l l e g e . I n 1 8 7 6 he r e t i r e d f r o m hi s e m p l o ym e nt a nd
d e v o t e d hi m s e l f f ul l - t i m e t o t he s c ho o l . I n 1 8 7 7 t he s c ho o l w a s r a i s e d t o c o l l e g e
l e v e l , b ut a s p a r t o f t he U ni v e r s i t y o f C a l c u t t a . T he B r i t i s h w o ul d no t a l l o w i t t o b e
a f f i l i a t e d w i t h a M us l i m u ni v e r s i t y o ut s i d e Br i t i s h t e r r i t o r y s o , fo r t he m o m e nt i t
c o ul d no t b e c o m e t he M u s l i m U ni ve r s i t y t ha t S i r S y e d w a nt e d .

- T he c o l l e g e o f f e r e d b o t h W e s t e r n a nd I nd i a n e d u c a t i o n, t ho ug h I s l a m i c e d uc a t i o n
w a s a l s o p r o v i d e d . It b e c a m e m uc h m o r e t h a n a n e d uc a t i o na l i ns t i t ut i o n . I n t he
d a y s b e f o r e t he M us l i m L e a g ue , i t b e c a m e a s y m b o l o f M us l i m u ni t y . M a n y o f t he
f ut u r e l e a d e r s o f P a k i s t a n , s uc h a s L i a q ua t A l l K h a n a nd A y ub K h a n , w e r e e d u c a t e d
t he r e a nd s o m e hi s t o r i a n s ha v e c o m m e nt e d t ha t t he c o l l e g e w a s t he i n s t i t ut i o n
w hi c h c o nt r i b ut e d m o r e t ha n a n y o t he r t o t he fo r m a t i o n o f P a ki s t a n .

- I n 1 9 2 0 , s o m e y e a r s a f t e r t he d e a t h o f S i r S ye d , t he c o l l e g e b e c a m e t he U ni ve r s i t y
of Aligarh.

- H o w e v e r , S i r S y e d ’ s w o r k i n e d uc a t i o n d i d no t e nd w i t h t he fo r m a t i o n o f t h e
c o l l e g e . H e w a nt e d t o p ub l i c i z e t he ne w e d uc a t i o na l m e t ho d s b e i ng u s e d a t A l i g a r h.
S o i n 1 8 8 6 he s e t up t he M o ha m m a d e n Ed u c a t i o n a l C o nfe r e n c e . I t s a i m w a s t o r a i s e
e d uc a t i o n a l s t a nd a r d s a m o ng M u s l i m s . It he l d m e e t i ng s a t a nu m b e r o f c i t i e s a c r o s s
t he s ub c o nt i ne nt a nd s ub - c o m m i t t e e s w e r e fo r m e d i n m a n y p l a c e s . T he C o n fe r e nc e
a t t r a c t e d f a m o us o r a t o r s a n d w r i t e r s a nd a l s o p l a ye d a m a j o r r o l e i n e s t a b l i s hi ng a
p o l i t i c a l p l a t f o r m f o r M u s l i m s , i n t he d a ys b e fo r e t he fo r m a t i o n o f t he M us l i m
L e a g ue .


                                      3 . I n c r e a si n g P ol i t i c a l A wa r e ne s s

S i r S y e d w a s d e t e r m i ne d t o i m p r o ve t he s t a t us o f t he M u s l i m c o m m u ni t y. B y w r i t i ng
hi s E s s a y o n t he C a u s e s o f t h e I n d i a n R e vo l t a n d Th e L o ya l Mo h a m m a d e n s o f I n d i a he h a d
s ho w n a d e s i r e t o r e - e s t a b l i s h g o o d r e l a t i o ns hi p s w i t h t he B r i t i s h, a s he ho p e d t hi s
w o ul d l e a d t o g r e a t e r o p p o r t u ni t i e s fo r M u s l i m s . T hi s e a r ne d hi m a r e p ut a t i o n o f
b e i ng t o o m o d e r a t e a nd t o o B r i t i s h . B ut , i n f a c t , S i r S ye d r e a l i s e d t h a t t he Br i t i s h
w e r e t o o p o w e r f ul t o o v e r t hr o w a nd t ha t M us l i m s w o ul d g a i n m o r e b y c o o p e r a t i ng
w i t h t he m .

H e a l s o b e l i e v e d t ha t M u s l i m s s ho ul d h a ve g o o d r e l a t i o ns w i t h H i nd us , a s t he y ha d a
c o m m o n l o ng - t e r m a i m — t o r e s t o r e t he a u t ho r i t y o f t he l o c a l p e o p l e i n t he i r o w n
c o u nt r y . I n a s p e e c h t o t he I nd i a n A s s o c i a t i o n he s a i d :
‘W e H i n d u s a n d Mu s l i m s l i ve t o g e t h e r s a m e s o i l u n d e r t h e s a m e g o ve r n i n t e r e s t s a n d
p r o b l e m s a r e c o m m o n a n d , t h e r e f o r e I c o n s i d e r t h e t wo f a c t i o n s a s o n e n a t i o n . ’

H o w e v e r , S i r S y e d s o o n r e a l i s e d t h a t t he n o t s o ke e n o n w o r ki ng w i t h M us l i m s a nd
t hi s l e d hi m t o t he c o nc l us i o n t h a t t he t w o g r o up s c o ul d no t w o r k t o g e t he r . I n t i m e
he c a m e t o b e l i e v e t h a t H i nd u s a nd M us l i m s w e r e d i ffe r e nt e no u g h t o b e c o ns i d e r e d
a s t w o s e p a r a t e g r o up s w i t hi n t he s u b c o nt i n e nt .

I n d i a n N a t i on a l C o n g r e s s

- I n 1 8 8 5 t he I nd i a n N a t i o na l C o ng r e s s w a s fo r m e d . T he B r i t i s h s a w t hi s b o d y a s a
m e a n s b y w hi c h t he y c o ul d he a r t he vi e w s o f t he e d uc a t e d e l i t e i n I nd i a n s o c i e t y .
T he C o ng r e s s s a i d t ha t i t w o ul d r e p r e s e nt t he vi e w s o f a l l t he c o m m u ni t i e s
r e g a r d l e s s o f t he i r r e l i g i o n. H o w e ve r , i t s o o n b e c a m e a p p a r e nt t h a t t he C o ng r e s s
d o m i na t e d b o d y w hi c h w a s w o r k i ng t o e s t a b l i s h H i nd u s up r e m a c y o ve r t he M u s l i m s .

P ol i t i c a l R e p r e se n t a t i o n

- A g o o d e x a m p l e o f t h i s w a s t he c a l l b y C o n g r e s s fo r t he i nt r o d uc t i o n o f a
d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m o f p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e nt a t i o n s i m i l a r t o t ha t p r a c t i c e d i n B r i t a i n.
T hi s s o u nd e d f a i r , b ut s i nc e t he y w e r e fo u r t i m e s a s m a n y H i nd us a s M us l i m s , t he y
w o ul d w i n e v e r y e l e c t i o n. D e m o c r a c y w o ul d l e a ve t he M us l i m s w i t h no
r e p r e s e nt a t i o n a t a l l . S i r S y e d s p o ke a ng r i l y a g a i ns t a n y s uc h p l a n s s a yi ng :
‘ I a m c o n vi n c e d t h a t t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e l e c t i o n . . . . wo u l d b e a t t e n d e d w i t h
e vi l s o f g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e . Th e l a r g e r c o m m u n i t y w o u l d t o t a l l y o ve r r i d e o f t h e s m a l l e r
c o m m u n i t y’

Competitive Examinations

- C o ng r e s s a l s o s ug g e s t e d t h a t a p p o i nt m e nt s i n t he g o ve r n m e nt s e r vi c e s ho ul d b e b y
c o m p e t i t i v e e x a m i na t i o n. S i n c e M us l i m s w e r e no t r e c e i vi ng e d uc a t i o n o f a s t a nd a r d
s i m i l a r t o t ha t r e c e i v e d b y H i nd us , t hi s w o ul d g r e a t l y d i s a d v a nt a g e t he m . S i r S ye d
c o m m e nt e d t ha t o nl y w he n e q ua l e d uc a t i o n a l o p p o r t u ni t i e s w e r e p r o vi d e d c o ul d
such an idea work.

Language

- A f u r t he r c a us e o f c o nc e r n o f S i r S ye d w a s t he H i nd u - U r d u C o nt r o ve r s y ’ . I n 1 8 6 7
t he H i nd us d e m a nd e d t ha t H i nd i s ho ul d b e m a d e t he ne xt o ffi c i a l l a ng ua g e i n p l a c e
o f U r d u ( w hi c h ha d b e c o m e t he o f fi c i a l l a ng ua g e i n 1 8 2 5 ) . It w a s no t u nt i l a ft e r hi s
d e a t h t ha t H i nd i b e c a m e t he s e c o nd l a ng ua g e , b ut t he H i nd u o p p o s i t i o n t o U r d u w a s
a no t he r f a c t o r g ui d i ng S i r S y e d t o w a r d s hi s ‘ T w o i o n T he o r y’ .

- S i r S y e d w a s b i t t e r l y o p p o s e d t o t hi s a t t a c k o n U r d u a nd p a r t i c u l a r l y s ho c ke d t o
f i nd t ha t t he H i nd u m e m b e r s o f hi s S c i e nt i f i c S o c i e t y w a nt e d t he s o c i e t y ’ s j o ur na l t o
b e p ub l i s he d i n H i nd i .

S i r S y e d ’ s b e l i e f t ha t C o ng r e s s w a s w o r k i ng i n t he i nt e r e s t s o f H i nd us , a nd i n a w a y
w hi c h w a s h a r m f ul t o M u s l i m c o m m u ni t y, l e d hi m t o r e f us e t o a t t e nd i t s m e e t i ng s .
I ns t e a d he o r g a ni z e d a n a l t e r n a t i ve b o d y
C a l l e d t he U ni t e d P a t r i o t i c A l l i a n c e . I n 1 8 9 3 t hi s b e c a m e t he M o h a m m a d e n D e fe nc e
A l l i a nc e . B y t hi s t i m e r i v a l r y b e t w e e n t he H i nd u a nd M u s l i m c o m m u ni t i e s w a s
i nc r e a s i ng a nd t he r e w e r e s e v e r a l e xa m p l e s o f H i nd us s ho w i ng d i s r e s p e c t fo r t he
M u s l i m r e l i g i o n . In B o m b a y s o m e H i nd u e xt r e m i s t s b e g a n p l a yi ng l o ud m u s i c
m o s q ue s .

It s e e m e d t ha t i n s o m e a r e a s i t w a s b e c o m i ng i n c r e a s i ng l y d i ffi c u l t fo r M u s l i m s a nd
H i nd u s t o l i v e i n p e a c e f ul c o - e x i s t e nc e .



                                                                Importance

S i r S y e d A hm e d K h a n p l a y e d a v i t a l r o l e i n i m p r o vi ng t he s t a t us o f t he M u s l i m
c o m m uni t y i n s ub c o nt i ne nt .

- H e w o r k e d t i r e l e s s l y t o r e s t o r e r e l a t i o n s w i t h t he Br i t i s h, p a r t i c u l a r l y a ft e r t he W a r
o f I nd e p e nd e nc e . W he n m a n y B r i t i s h w e r e o f t he o p i ni o n t h a t t he M u s l i m s w e r e
d i s l o y a l a nd unt r u s t w o r t h y . H i s , hi s w r i t i ng s , hi s t i r e l e s s w o r k a n d t he e xa m p l e he
s e t w a s t o c o nv i n c e t he B r i t i s h t o s e e t he M u s l i m s i n a ne w l i g ht .

- S i r S y e d p l a y e d a m a j o r p a r t i n b r i ng i ng a b o ut a M us l i m r e vi va l , l a r g e l y
t hr o ug h t he w o r k o f t he A l i g a r h M o ve m e nt . M us l i m s c a m e t o va l u e e d uc a t i o n a s a
m e a n s o f s e l f - i m p r o v e m e nt a nd o f o b t a i ni ng b e t t e r e m p l o y m e nt . F r o m t hi s c a m e
g r e a t e r f e e l i ng o f s e l f - w o r t h .

- L i n k e d t o t he M us l i m r e v i v a l w a s a g r e a t e r p o l i t i c a l a w a r e ne s s . A s H i nd us s o ug ht t o
t a k e a d v a nt a g e o f t he p o o r r e l a t i o ns b e t w e e n t he M u s l i m s a nd t h e B r i t i s h, S i r S ye d
e m p h a s i s e d t he t h r e a t t o M u s l i m s a nd d e ve l o p e d hi s ‘ T w o N a t i o n T he o r y ’ . O n c e
M u s l i m s c a m e t o a c c e p t t he w i s d o m o f t hi s t he o r y, i t w a s o nl y a s m a l l s t e p t o c a l l
f o r p a r t i t i o n. F o r t hi s r e a s o n S i r S ye d A hm e d K ha n c a n r i g ht l y b e c a l l e d ‘ T he
F a t h e r of t h e P a k i st a n M o v e m e n t ’ .




Iran was first to recognize Pakis tan.

• Pakistan opened its first embassy in Iran.
• E g yp t w a s f i r s t t o o p e n i t s e m b a s s y i n P a k i s t a n . ( c h k )
• F i r s t g o ve r n o r o f S t a t e B a n k Z a h i d H u s s a i n .
• First Lady governor Rana Liaquat Ali (Sindh) 1973 -1976.
• First lady federal minister Vikarun Nisa Noor (Tourism).
• F i r s t s t a t e t o j o i n P a k i s t a n wa s B a h a w u l P u r , 1 9 5 4 .
• P a k : c r i c k e t t e a m f i r s t vi s i t e d E n g l a n d . ( c h k : I n d i a )
• First captain of cricket team Abdul Hafeez Kardar.
• F i r s t c e n t u r y N a za r Mo h a m m d a g a i n s t I n d i a i n 1 9 5 4 i n L a c k n o w.
• F i r s t W om a n U n i ve r s i t y i s l o c a t e d i n R a w a l p i n d i .
• F i r s t g o ve r n o r o f P u n j a b = F r a n c i s Mo o d y .
• F i r s t C M o f P u n j a b = I f t i k h a r H u s s a i n Ma m d o t .
• F i r s t G o ve r n o r o f S i n d h = G h u l a m H u s s a i n H i d a ya t u l l a h .
• F i r s t C M o f S i n d h = A yu b K h o r o .
• F i r s t G o ve r n o r o f B a l u c h i s t a n = L t : G e n e r a l R i a z H u s s a i n .
• F i r s t C M o f B a l u c h i s t a n = A t t a u l l a h Me n g a l .
• First Chief Justice of Pak: Sir Abdur Rasheed.
• F i r s t P M o f A za d K a s h m i r = A b d u l H a m i d K h a n .
• First President of AJK=Sardar Ibrahim Khan.
• F i r s t C o m m a n d e r - i n - C h i e f o f P a k : A r m y wa s F r a n k Mi s e r vi .
• F i r s t c h a i r m a n J o i n t C h i e f s o f S t a f f C o m m i t t e e wa s G e n e r a l Mo h d : S a h r i f .
• F i r s t c h i e f o f S t a f f o f a r m e d f o r c e s wa s G e n e r a l Ti k k a K h a n .
• F i r s t g o ve r n o r S t a t e B a n k wa s Z a h i d H u s s a i n .
• F i r s t d a i l y n e ws p a p e r i s A m r o z 1 9 4 7 .
• First lady pilot was Shukriya Khanum.
• First museum of Pak established in Karachi in 1950.
• F i r s t B a n k wa s U n i t e d B a n k ( 7 t h A u g u s t , 1 9 4 7 )
• First Agriculture Reforms in Pak: Jan: 24, 1959.
• F i r s t C h i e f E l e c t i o n C o m m i s s i o n e r o f P a k : Mr . K h a n F . M. K h a n ( 2 5 t h Ma r c h , 1 9 5 6 )
• E l e c t i o n C o m m i s i o n wa s c r e a t e d o n 2 3 r d Ma r c h , 1 9 5 6 u n d e r A r t i c l e 1 3 7 o f 1 9 5 6
consititution.
• F i r s t Mu s l i m C o m m a n d e r i n C h i e f o f P a k : A yu b K h a n .
• F i r s t R a d i o S t a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d wa s o f K a r a c h i .
• F i r s t T . V s t a t i o n wa s s e t u p a t L a h o r e o n N o v: 2 6 , 1 9 6 4 .
• F i r s t l a d y L a d y Ma j o r G e n e r a l i n P a k : D r . S h a h i d a Ma l i k .
• First Space satellite was launched by Pak: in 1990.
• F i r s t p r i va t e T V C h a n n e l S TN l a u n c h e d i n 1 9 9 0 .
• First Chairman Senate was Habibullah Khan.
• F i r s t w o m a n j u d g e o f H i g h C o u r t : Ma j i d a R i z vi .
• First constructed barrage of Pak: Sukkur Barrage. 1923 -1932
• F i r s t S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l o f P a k : C h : Mo h d : A l i .
• First Agro museum is at Lailpur.
• First bio-gas plant was installed in 1974.
• First woman bank established on Dec: 1, 1989.
• Badshahi mosque built in 1670 A.D.
• D e s i g n a t a i o n o f G G c h a n g e d i n t o P r e s i d e n t o n 2 3 r d Ma r c h , 1 9 5 6 .
• Largest Hockey stadium is National Hockey Stadium Lahore.
• F i r s t m i n o r i t y m i n i s t e r o f P a k : J o g i n d e r N a t h M a n d a l h e l d t h e p o r t f o l i o o f l a w.
• First Atomic Reactor establ ished in Islamabad in 1956. (chk).
• L a r g e s t r a i l wa y t u n n e l i s K h o j a k .
• S m a l l e s t d a m o f P a k : W ar s a k d a m .
• Largest fort of Pak: “Rani Kot”.
• City Bank is the largest bank in the country.(chk: Habib Bank)
• N i s h a n - e - P a k : i s t h e h i g h e s t c i vi l a w a r d o f P a k :
• S e c o n d h i g h e s t c i vi l a w a r d i s H i l a l - e - P a k :
• A yu b N a t i o n a l P a r k ( R a wa l p i n i d i ) i s t h e l a r g e s t P a r k i n P a k i s t a n .
• L a h o r e Mu s e u m i s t h e b i g g e s t i n P a k : ( c h k )
• Largest Railway station is Lahore.
• H i g h e s t P a s s i s Mu zt a g P a s s wh i c h c o n n e c t s G i l g i t t o X i n k i ya n g .
• L a r g e s t c a n a l i s L l o yd B a r r a g e C a n a l o r S u k k u r B a r r a g e o r L a n c e D o wn P u l l b u i l t i n 1 9 3 6 .
• L a r g e s t C e m e n t P l a n t i s L u c k y C e m e n t P l a n t n e a r L u k i Ma r wa t .
• Largest road is Shahrah-e-Pak:
• S h o r t e s t r i ve r i s R a vi .
• S m a l l e s t d i vi s i o n i s K a r a c h i .
• L a r g e s t d i vi s i o n i s K a l a t .
• L a r g e s t d i vi s i o n o f S i n d h i s Th e r p a r k a r .
• H a b i b B a n k P l a za K a r a c h i h a s 2 3 s t o r i e s ( 3 4 5 f t )
• Mi n a r - e - P a k : i s 1 9 6 f t , 8 i n c h e s h i g h .
• P a k i s t a n h a s i t s l o n g e s t b o u n d a r y wi t h A f g h a n i s t a n .
• P a k i s t a n i s 3 4 t h l a r g e s t c o u n t r y i n t h e w o r l d , 6 t h p o p u l a t i o n wi s e .
• S m a l l e s t c i vi l a w a r d i s Ta m g - e - K h i d m a t .
• First census of Indo-Pak: 1881.
• H i g h e s t d a m i s Ma n g l a d a m .
• P a k : e xp e d i t i o n t o A n t a r c t i c a r e a c h e d o n 5 J a n , 1 9 9 1 e s t a b l i s h e d J i n n a h R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n
• L o n g e s t t e n u r e a s G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l w a s G h u l a m Mo h a m m a d .
• L o n g e s t t e n u r e a s P r e s i d e n t wa s A yu b K h a n .
• Longest period of rule was of Zia.
• Longest tenure as PM was of Liaquat Ali
• S h o r t e s t t e n u r e a s P M o f A yu b K h a n ( 3 d a ys ) t h e n S h u j a a t H u s s a i n ( 4 7 d a ys ) .
• Shortest tenure as Pre sident is of Bhutto.
• Shortest tenure as Governor General is of Quaid.
• L o n g e s t t e n u r e a s G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l i s o f G h u l a m Mo h d :
• L a r g e s t l i b r a r y i s Q u a i d - e - A za m l i b r a r y.
• L a r g e s t U n i ve r s i t y i s i n P u n j a b .
• O l d e s t u n i ve r s i t y i s i n P u n j a b .
• Th e o n l y n o n - m i l i t a r y s h a h e e d t o r e c e i ve N i s h a n - e - H a i d e r wa s S u b a i d a r L a l i k J a n h e
belonged to NLI.
• H i g h e s t p e a k o f S u l a i m a n m o u n t a i n s i s Ta k h t - e - S u l a i m a n .
• H i g h e s t p e a k i s K 2 ( G o o d wi n A u s t i n 5 , 6 1 1 m e t e r s )
• 2nd largest glacier of Pak: is Batura.
• L a r g e s t I s l a n d o f P a k : i s Ma n o r a .
• Smallest city is Jehlum.
• Longest tunnel rail= Khojak (2.43 miles) (Baluchistan), road=Lowari Tunnel (5 miles),
w a t e r =W a r s a k D a m Tu n n e l ( 3 . 5 m i l e s ) .
• Rainiest city is RawalPindi.
• R a i n i e s t p l a c e i s Mu r e e .
• F i r s t Me d i c a l C o l l e g e w a s N i s h t a r Me d i c a l C o l l e g e .
• S m a l l e s t D a m i s W a r s ak d a m .
• Largest mountain range is Karakoram.
• F i r s t t o r e c e i ve N i s h a n - e - H yd e r wa s Mo h d : S a r w a r S h a h e e d .
• F i r s t p r i va t e a i r l i n e o f P a k i s t a n i s H a j va r i .
• Pak’s Second largest city is Lahor e.
• A b d u r R a s h e e d wa s t h e f i r s t c h i e f J u s t i c e w a s t h e f i r s t c h i e f j u s t i c e o f P a k i s t a n .
• Zafarullah khan was the first foreign minister of Pakistan.
• Keenjhar is the largest man made lake in Pakistan.
• Ma n c h a r L a k e i s t h e b i g g e s t l a k e o f P a k i s t a n .
• Tr i c h Mi r i s t h e h i g h e s t p e a k o f H i n d u K u s h .
• Largest coal mine is in Quetta.
• I n P a k i s t a n , f i r s t wo m a n b a n k wa s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e ye a r 1 9 8 9 .
• Pakistan’s first geo-scientific laboratory is functioning in Islamabad.
• Th e h i g h e s t p o i n t o f t h e K h y b e r P a s s i s L a n d h i K o t a l .
• Th e f i r s t a t o m i c p o w e r s t a t i o n o f P a k i s t a n w a s i n s t a l l e d i n K a r a c h i .
• Th e F i r s t P r e s i d e n t o f A m e r i c a wh o m a d e a n o f f i c i a l vi s i t t o P a k i s t a n w a s D wi g h t D .
E i s h e n h o we r
• Largest airline is PIA.
• L a r g e s t a i r p o r t i s Q u a i d - e - A za m I n t e r n a t i o n l A i r p o r t , K a r a c h i .
• L a r g e s t c a n a l i s L l o yd B a r r a g e C a n a l .
• L a r g e s t d a m i s Te r b e l a .
• L a r g e s t d e s e r t i s Th a r .
• Largest district is Khuzdar (Baluchistan).
• L a r g e s t i n d u s t i a l u n i t i s P a k : S t e e l Mi l l .
• L a r g e s t i n d u s t r y i s Te x t i l e .
• L a r g e s t i s l a n d i s Ma n o r a ( K a r a c h i )
• L a r g e s t J u n g l e i s C h a n g a Ma n g a ( K a s u r ) .
• Largest lake (artificial) is Keenjhar.
• L a r g e s t l a k e ( n a t u r a l ) i s Ma n c h a r .
• L a r g e s t l i b r a r y i s P u j a b P u b l i c L i b r a r y, L a h o r e .
• L a r g e s t m i n e i s S a l t Mi n e s o f K h e w r a .
• L a r g e s t m o t o r wa y i s L a h o r e - I s l a m a b a d .
• L a r g e s t m u s e u m i s N a t i o n a l Me s e u m , K a r a c h i .
• L a r g e s t c i r c u l a t e d u r d u n e ws p a p e r i s J a n g , E n g h i s h i s Th e N e ws .
• Largest nuclear reactor is KANUPP, Karachi.
• Largest oil field is Dhurnal Oil Field.
• L a r g e s t p a r k i s A yu b N a t i o n a l P a r k , R a w a l p i n d i .
• Largest Radio Station is Islamabad.
• L a r g e s t u n i ve r s i t y i s P u n j a b U n i ve r s i t y, L a h o r e .
• Longest coast is of Baluchistan (771 km)
• L a r g e s t r a i l wa y p l a t f o r m i s o f R o h r i .
• L o n g e s t r a i l wa y t r a c k : K a r a c h i t o L a n d i K o t a l .
• L o n g e s t r o a d : K a r a c h i t o P e s h a wa r .
• First TV station in Pakistan started at Lahore.
• P a k i s t a n ’ s f i r s t r a d i o s t a t i o n wa s s e t u p a t K a r a c h i .

				
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