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Nanobiotechnology Applications_ Markets and Companies


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Nanobiotechnology Applications, Markets and Companies

Description:    Nanotechnology is the creation and utilization of materials, devices, and systems through the
                control of matter on the nanometer-length scale (a nanometer is one billionth of a meter.
                Nanobiotechnology, an integration of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, chemistry
                and biotechnology holds considerable promise of advances in pharmaceuticals and healthcare. The
                report starts with an introduction to various techniques and materials that are relevant to
                nanobiotechnology. It includes some of the physical forms of energy such as nanolasers. Some of
                the technologies are scaling down such as microfluidics to nanofluidic biochips and others are
                constructions from bottom up. Application in life sciences research, particularly at the cell level sets
                the stage for role of nanobiotechnology in healthcare in subsequent chapters.

                Some of the earliest applications are in molecular diagnostics. Nanoparticles, particularly quantum
                dots, are playing important roles. In vitro diagnostics, does not have any of the safety concerns
                associated with the fate of nanoparticles introduced into the human body. Numerous nanodevices
                and nanosystems for sequencing single molecules of DNA are feasible. Various nanodiagnostics that
                have been reviewed will improve the sensitivity and extend the present limits of molecular

                An increasing use of nanobiotechnology by the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries is
                anticipated. Nanotechnology will be applied at all stages of drug development - from formulations
                for optimal delivery to diagnostic applications in clinical trials. Many of the assays based on
                nanobiotechnology will enable high-throughput screening. Some of nanostructures such as
                fullerenes are themselves drug candidates as they allow precise grafting of active chemical groups
                in three-dimensional orientations. The most important pharmaceutical applications are in drug
                delivery. Apart from offering a solution to solubility problems, nanobiotechnology provides and
                intracellular delivery possibilities. Skin penetration is improved in transdermal drug delivery. A
                particularly effective application is as nonviral gene therapy vectors. Nanotechnology has the
                potential to provide controlled release devices with autonomous operation guided by the needs.

                Nanomedicine is now within the realm of reality starting with nanodiagnostics and drug delivery
                facilitated by nanobiotechnology. Miniature devices such as nanorobots could carry out integrated
                diagnosis and therapy by refined and minimally invasive procedures, nanosurgery, as an alternative
                to crude surgery. Applications of nanobiotechnology are described according to various therapeutic
                systems. Nanotechnology will markedly improve the implants and tissue engineering approaches as
                well. Other applications such as for management of biological warfare injuries and poisoning are
                included. Contribution of nanobiotechnology to nutrition and public health such as supply of purified
                water are also included.

                There is some concern about the safety of nanoparticles introduced in the human body and
                released into the environment. Research is underway to address these issues. As yet there are no
                FDA directives to regulate nanobiotechnology but as products are ready to enter market, these are
                expected to be in place.

                Future nanobiotechnology markets are calculated on the basis of the background markets in the
                areas of application and the share of this market by new technologies and state of development at
                any given year in the future. This is based on a comprehensive and thorough review of the current
                status of nanobiotechnology, research work in progress and anticipated progress. There is definite
                indication of large growth of the market but it will be uneven and cannot be plotted as a steady
                growth curve. Marketing estimates are given according to areas of application, technologies and
                geographical distribution starting with 2011. The largest expansion is expected between the years
                2016 and 2021.

                Profiles of 248 companies, out of over 500 involved in this area, are included in the last chapter
                along with their 183 collaborations.The report is supplemented with 41 Tables, 21 figures and 860
                references to the literature.
Contents:   Executive Summary

            1. Basics of Nanobiotechnology

            Classification of nanobiotechnologies
            Top-down and bottom-up approaches
            Landmarks in the evolution of nanobiotechnology
            Relation of nanobiotechnology to healthcare

            2. Technologies

            Micro- and nano-electromechanical systems
            Microarrays and nanoarrays
            Dip Pen Nanolithography for nanoarrays
            Protein nanoarrays
            Microfluidics and nanofluidics
            Nanotechnology on a chip
            Microfluidic chips for nanoliter volumes
            Nanogen's NanoChip
            Use of nanotechnology in microfluidics
            Construction of nanofluidic channels
            Nanoscale flow visualization
            Moving (levitation) of nanofluidic drops with physical forces
            Electrochemical nanofluid injection
            Nanofluidics on nanopatterned surfaces
            Nano-interface in a microfluidic chip
            Nanofluidic channels for study of DNA
            Visualization and manipulation on nanoscale
            4Pi microscope
            Atomic force microscopy
            Basic AFM operation
            Advantages of AFM
            Force sensing Integrated Readout and Active Tip
            Cantilever technology
            CytoViva® Microscope System
            Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer
            Magnetic resonance force microscopy and nanoscale MRI
            Multiple single-molecule fluorescence microscopy
            Near-field scanning optical microscopy
            Nano-sized light source for single cell endoscopy
            Nanoparticle characterization by Halo? LM10 technology
            Nanoscale scanning electron microscopy
            Use of SEM to reconstruct 3D tissue nanostructure
            Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens
            Photoactivated localization microscopy
            Scanning probe microscopy
            Partial wave spectroscopy
            Super-resolution microscopy for in vivo cell imaging
            Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond
            Visualizing atoms with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy
            Companies that provide microscopes for nanobiotechnology
            Surface plasmon resonance
            Types of nanoparticles
            Fluorescent nanoparticles
            Gold nanoparticles
            Paramagnetic and superparamagnetic nanoparticles
            Quantum dots
            Silica nanoparticles
Assembly of nanoparticles into micelles
Biomedical applications of self-assembly of nanoparticles
Production techniques for nanoparticles
Bacterial structures relevant to nanobiotechnology
Bacterial spores
Nanostructures based on bacterial cell surface layers
Bacterial magnetic particles
DNA-nanoparticle conjugates
DNA octahedron
Potential applications
Carbon nanotubes
Carbon nanotubes and DNA
Applications of nanotubes
Nanoporous silica aerogel
Nanostructured silicon
Networks of gold nanoparticles and bacteriophage
Polymer nanofibers
Protein-nanoparticle combination
Nanomaterials for biolabeling
DNA Nanotags
Fluorescent lanthanide nanorods
Magnetic nanotags
Molecular computational identification
Nanophosphor labels
Organic nanoparticles as biolabels
Quantum dots as labels
SERS nanotags
Silica nanoparticles for labeling antibodies
Silver nanoparticle labels
Companies providing services and products for nanobiotechnology

3. Applications in Life Sciences

Nanotechnology and biology
NanoSystems Biology
Nanobiology and the cell
Biosensing of cellular responses
Control of T cell signaling activity
Measuring mass of single cells
Nanostructures involved in endocytosis
Nanotechnology-based live-cell single molecule assays
Quantum dots for cell labeling
Quantum dots for study of apoptosis
Single cell injection by nanolasers
Study of complex biological systems
Molecular motors
Nanomotor made of nucleic acids
phi29 DNA packaging nanomotor
Light-activated ion channel molecular machines
Application of AFM for biomolecular imaging
Future insights into biomolecular processes by AFM
4Pi microscopy to study DNA double-strand breaks
Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry
Applications of biomolecular computing in life sciences
Molecular electronics
Microbial nanomaterials
Use of bacteria to construct nanomachines
Bacteriophage nanoshells
Natural nanocomposites
Nanotechnology in biological research
Nanoparticles for biological research
Disguising quantum dots as proteins for cell entry
Molecular biology and nanotechnology
Structural DNA nanotechnology
Reversibly binding of gold nanospheres to DNA strands
RNA nanotechnology
Genetically engineered proteins for nanobiotechnology
Single molecule studies
Optical trapping and single-molecule fluorescence
3D single-molecular imaging by coherent X-ray diffraction imaging
Studying the molecular mechanisms of enzymes
Nanoscale pH Meter
Nanolaser applications in life sciences
Nanomanipulation by combination of AFM and other devices
Surgery on living cells using AFM with nanoneedles
Optoelectronic tweezers
Optical manipulation of nanoparticles
Manipulation of DNA sequence by use of nanoparticles as laser light antennas
Nanomanipulation of single molecule
Fluorescence-force spectroscopy
Nanomanipulation for study of mechanism of anticancer drugs
Nanotechnology in genomic research
Nanotechnology for separation of DNA fragments
Nanostructured devices for controlled gene expression
Nanotechnology-based DNA sequencing
Single-molecule detection of DNA hybridization
Role of nanobiotechnology in identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms
Nanobiotechnology for study of mitochondria
Nanomaterials for the study of mitochondria
Study of mitochondria with nanolaser spectroscopy
Role of nanotechnology in proteomics research
Study of proteins by atomic force microscopy
Single cell nanoprobe for studying gene expression of individual cells
Dynamic reassembly of peptides
High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility mass spectrometry
Multi Photon Detection
Nanoflow liquid chromatography
Nanoproteomics for study of misfolded proteins
Nanotube electronic biosensor for proteomics
Nanometer photomasks from bacterial protein
Protein nanocrystallography
QD-protein bioconjugate nanoassembly
Proteomics at single molecule level
Study of protein synthesis and single-molecule processes
Protein expression in individual cells at the single molecule level
Single-molecule mass spectrometry using nanotechnology
Biochips for nanoscale proteomics
Protein biochips based on fluorescence planar wave guide technology
Nanofilter array chip
Role of nanotechnology in study of membrane proteins
Nanoparticles for study of membrane proteins
Study of single protein interaction with cell membrane
Quantum dots to label cell surface proteins
Study of single membrane proteins at subnanometer resolution
Nanoparticle-protein interactions
Protein engineering on nanoscale
Nanowires for protein engineering
A nanoscale mechanism for protein engineering
Role of nanoparticles in self-assembly of proteins
Role of nanotechnology in peptide engineering
Manipulating redox systems for nanotechnology.
Self-assembling peptide scaffold technology for 3-D cell culture
Nanobiotechnology and ion channels
AFM for characterization of ion channels
Aquaporin water channels
Remote control of ion channels through magnetic-field heating of nanoparticles
Role of nanobiotechnology in engineering ion channels
Application of nanobiotechnology in molecular electronics
Nanotechnology and bioinformatics
3D nano-map of synapse
Companies providing nanotechnology for life sciences research

4. Nanomolecular Diagnostics

Rationale of nanotechnology for molecular diagnostics
Nanoarrays for molecular diagnostics
NanoPro™ System
Nanofluidic/nanoarray devices to detect a single molecule of DNA
Self-assembling protein nanoarrays
Fullerene photodetectors for chemiluminescence detection on microfluidic chip
Protein microarray for detection of molecules with nanoparticles
Protein nanobiochip
AFM for molecular diagnostics
Nanofountain AFM probe
AFM for immobilization of biomolecules in high-density microarrays
AFM for nanodissection of chromosomes
Nanoparticles for molecular diagnostics
Gold nanoparticles
Quantum dots for molecular diagnostics
Quantum dots for detection of pathogenic microorganisms
Bioconjugated QDs for multiplexed profiling of biomarkers
Imaging of living tissue with QDs
Use of nanocrystals in immunohistochemistry
Magnetic nanoparticles
Magnetic nanoparticles for bioscreening
Monitoring of implanted NSCs labeled with nanoparticles
Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles to track therapeutic cells in vivo
Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for cell tracking
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for calcium sensing
Magnetic nanoparticles for labeling molecules
Super conducting quantum interference device
Study of living cells by superparamagnetic nanoparticles
Imaging applications of nanoparticles
Dendritic nanoprobes for imaging of angiogenesis
Gadolinium-loaded dendrimer nanoparticles for tumor-specific MRI
Gadonanotubes for MRI
Gold nanorods and nanoparticles as imaging agents
In vivo imaging using nanoparticles
Manganese oxide nanoparticles as contrast agent for brain MRI
Nanoparticles vs microparticles for cellular imaging
Nanoparticles as contrast agent for MRI
Optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes
QDs for biological imaging
Superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles combined with MRI
Concluding remarks and future prospects of nanoparticles for imaging
Applications of nanopore technology for molecular diagnostics
Nanopore technology for detection of single DNA molecules
Simultaneous detection of DNA and proteins
DNA-protein and -nanoparticle conjugates
Resonance Light Scattering technology
DNA nanomachines for molecular diagnostics
Nanobarcodes technology
Nanobarcode particle technology for SNP genotyping
Qdot nanobarcode for multiplexed gene expression profiling
Biobarcode assay for proteins
Single-molecule barcoding system for DNA analysis
Nanoparticle-based colorimetric DNA detection method
SNP genotyping with gold nanoparticle probes
Nanoparticle-based Up-converting Phosphor Technology
Surface-Enhanced Resonant Raman Spectroscopy
Near-infrared (NIR)-emissive polymersomes
Nanobiotechnology for detection of proteins
Captamers with proximity extension assay for proteins
Cantilevers as biosensors for molecular diagnostics
Advantages of cantilever technology for molecular recognition
Antibody-coated nanocantilevers for detection of microorganisms
Cantilevers for direct detection of active genes
Portable nanocantilever system for diagnosis
Carbon nanotube biosensors
Carbon nanotube sensors coated with ssDNA and electronic readout
Carbon nanotubes sensors wrapped with DNA and optical detection
FRET-based DNA nanosensor
Ion Channel Switch biosensor technology
Electronic nanobiosensors
Electrochemical nanobiosensor
Metallic nanobiosensors
Quartz nanobalance biosensor
Viral nanosensor
PEBBLE nanosensors
Detection of cocaine molecules by nanoparticle-labeled aptasensors
Nanosensors for glucose monitoring
Microneedle-mounted biosensor
Optical biosensors
Laser nanosensors
Nanoshell biosensors
Plasmonics and SERS nanoprobes
Novel optical mRNA biosensor
Optonanogen biosensor
Surface plasmon resonance technology
Surface Enhanced Micro-optical Fluidic Systems
Nanoparticle-enhanced sensitivity of fluorescence-based biosensors
Nanowire biosensors
Nanowire biosensors for detection of single viruses
Nanowires for detection of genetic disorders
Nanowires biosensor for detecting biowarfare agents
Concluding remarks and future prospects of nanowire biosensors
Nanoscale erasable biodetectors
Future issues in the development of nanobiosensors
Applications of nanodiagnostics
Nanotechnology for detection of biomarkers
Nanotechnology for genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms
Nanoparticles for detecting SNPs
Nanopores for detecting SNPs
Nanobiotechnologies for single molecule detection
Protease-activated quantum dot probes
Labeling of MSCs with QDs
Nanotechnology for detection of cancer
Dendrimers for sensing cancer cell apoptosis
Detection of circulating cancer cells
Differentiation between normal and cancer cells by nanosensors
Gold nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis
Gold nanorods for detection of metastatic tumor cells
Implanted magnetic sensing for cancer
Nanoatomic tubes for detection of cancer proteins
Nanobiochip sensor technique for analysis of oral cancer biomarkers
Nanodots for tracking apoptosis in cancer
Nanolaser spectroscopy for detection of cancer in single cells
Nanoparticles designed for dual-mode imaging of cancer
Nanotechnology-based single molecule assays for cancer
QDs for detection of tumors
QD-based test for DNA methylation
Nanotechnology for point-of-care diagnostics
Nanotechnology-based biochips for POC diagnosis
Nanoprobes for POC diagnosis
Carbon nanotube transistors for genetic screening
POC monitoring of vital signs with nanobiosensors
Detection of viruses
Cantilever beams for detection of single virus particles
Carbon nanotubes as biosensors for viruses
Electric fields for accelerating detection of viruses
QD fluorescent probes for detection of respiratory viral infections
Verigene SP Respiratory Virus Assay
Surface enhanced Raman scattering for detection of viruses
Detection of bacteria
QDs for detection of bacterial infections
SEnsing of Phage-Triggered Ion Cascade for detection of bacteria
Detection of fungi
Nanodiagnostics for the battle field and biodefense
An integrated nanobiosensor
Nanodiagnostics for integrating diagnostics with therapeutics
Companies involved in nanomolecular diagnostics
Concluding remarks about nanodiagnostics
Future prospects of nanodiagnostics

5. Nanobiotechnology in Drug Discovery & Development

Nanobiotechnology for drug discovery
Nanofluidic devices for drug discovery
Gold nanoparticles for drug discovery
Tracking drug molecules in cells
SPR with colloidal gold particles
Use of quantum dots for drug discovery
Advantages of the use of QDs for drug discovery
Drawbacks of the use of QDs for drug discovery
Quantum dots for imaging drug receptors in the brain
Lipoparticles for drug discovery
Biosensor for drug discovery with Lipoparticles
Magnetic nanoparticles assays
Micelles for drug discovery
Nanolasers for drug discovery
Analysis of small molecule-protein interactions by nanowire biosensors
Cells targeting by nanoparticles with attached small molecules
Role of AFM for study of biomolecular interactions for drug discovery
Nanoscale devices for drug discovery
Nanotechnology enables drug design at cellular level
Nanobiotechnology-based drug development
Dendrimers as drugs
Fullerenes as drug candidates
Role of nanobiotechnology in the future of drug discovery
Companies using nanobiotechnology for drug discovery

6. Nanobiotechnology in Drug Delivery

Ideal properties of material for drug delivery
Improved absorption of drugs in nanoparticulate form
Interaction of nanoparticles with human blood
Micronization versus nanonization for drug delivery
Nanoscale devices delivery of therapeutics
Nanobiotechnology solutions to the problems of drug delivery
Nanosuspension formulations
Nanotechnology for solubilization of water-insoluble drugs
Self-assembled nanostructures with hydrogels for drug delivery
Nanomaterials and nanobiotechnologies used for drug delivery
Viruses as nanomaterials for drug delivery
Bacteria-mediated delivery of nanoparticles and drugs into cells
Cell-penetrating peptides
Nanoparticle-based drug delivery
Calcium phosphate nanoparticles
Cationic nanoparticles
Ceramic nanoparticles
Cyclodextrin nanoparticles for drug delivery
Dendrimers for drug delivery
DNA-assembled dendrimers for drug delivery
Fulleres for drug delivery
Amphiphilic fullerene derivatives
Fullerene conjugate for intracellular delivery of peptides
Gold nanoparticles as drug carriers
Layered double hydroxide nanoparticles
Nanocomposite membranes for magnetically triggered drug delivery
Nanocrystalline silver
Elan's NanoCrystal technology
Eurand's Biorise system
Polymer nanoparticles
Biodegradable PEG nanoparticles for penetrating the mucus barrier
PLGA-based nanodelivery technologies
Polymeric micelles
Chitosan nanoparticles
QDs for drug delivery
Special procedures in nanoparticle-based drug delivery
Coated nanoparticles for penetrating cell membranes without damage
Combinatorial synthesis of nanoparticles for intracellular delivery
Drug delivery using “Particle Replication in Nonwetting Templates”
Encapsulating water-insoluble drugs in nanoparticles
Filomicelles vs spherical nanoparticles for drug delivery
Flash NanoPrecipitation
Magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery
Nanoparticles bound together in spherical shapes
Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles for imaging and targeted drug-delivery
Prolonging circulation of nanoparticles by attachment to RBCs
Self-assembling nanoparticles for intracellular drug delivery
Trojan nanoparticles
Therapeutic protein delivery from nanoparticle-protein complexes
Triggered release of drugs from nanoparticles
Basics of liposomes
Stabilization of phospholipid liposomes using nanoparticles
Lipid nanoparticles
Applications of lipid nanoparticles
Polymerized Liposomal Nanoparticle
Solid lipid nanoparticles
Lipid nanocapsules
Lipid emulsions with nanoparticles
Nanostructured organogels
Limitations of liposomes for drug delivery
Liposomes incorporating fullerenes
Liposome-nanoparticle hybrids
Nanogel-liposome combination
Nanosphere protein cages
Nanovesicle technology for delivery of peptides
Carbon nanotubes for drug delivery
Lipid-protein nanotubes for drug delivery
Halloysite nanotubes for drug delivery
Nanobiotechnology and drug delivery devices
Coating of implants by ultrafine layers of polymers
Polymer nanocontainers
Nanotechnology-based device for insulin delivery
Mirocontainer delivery systems for cell therapy
Nanoporous materials for drug delivery devices
Nanopore membrane in implantable titanium drug delivery device
Measuring the permeability of nanomembranes
Nanovalves for drug delivery
Nanochips for drug delivery
Nanobiotechnology for vaccine delivery
Bacterial spores for delivery of vaccines
Nanoparticles for DNA vaccines
Nanoparticle-based adjuvants for vaccines
Nanospheres for controlled release of viral antigens
Proteosomes™ as vaccine delivery vehicles
Targeted Synthetic Vaccine Particle (tSVP™) technology
Nanobiotechnology for gene therapy
Nanoparticle-mediated gene therapy
Calcium phosphate nanoparticles as nonviral vectors
Carbonate apatite nanoparticles for gene delivery
Gelatin nanoparticles for gene delivery
Immunolipoplex for delivery of p53 gene
Lipid nanoparticles for targeted delivery of nucleic acids
Nanoparticles for imaging and intracellular delivery of nucleic acids
Nanoparticles linked to viral vectors for photothermal therapy
Nanoparticles for p53 gene therapy of cancer
Nanoparticles with virus-like function as gene therapy vectors
Nanobiolistics for nucleic acid delivery
Silica nanoparticles for gene delivery
Targeted nanoparticle-DNA delivery to the cardiovascular system
Dendrimers for gene transfer
DNA-PEG complexes as nanoparticles
Compacted DNA nanoparticles
Cochleate-mediated DNA delivery
Nanorod gene therapy
Nanodel? gene vector
Nanomagnets for targeted cell-based cancer gene therapy
NanoNeedles for delivery of genetic material into cells
Nanomachines for gene delivery
Application of pulsed magnetic field and superparamagnetic nanoparticles
Nanocomposites for gene therapy
Nonionic polymeric micelles for oral gene delivery
Nanocarriers for simultaneous delivery of anticancer drugs and DNA
Nanobiotechnology for antisense drug delivery
Antisense nanoparticles
Dendrimers for antisense drug delivery
Polymer nanoparticles for antisense delivery system
Nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery
Chitosan-coated nanoparticles for siRNA delivery
Delivery of gold nanorod-siRNA nanoplex to dopaminergic neurons
Polymer-based nanoparticles for siRNA delivery
Polyethylenimine nanoparticles for siRNA delivery
siRNA-PEG nanoparticle-based delivery
Polycation-based nanoparticles for siRNA delivery
Calando's technology for targeted delivery of anticancer siRNA
Delivery of siRNA by nanosize liposomes
Quantum dots to monitor RNAi delivery
Nanobiotechnology-based drug delivery in cancer
Nanoparticle formulations for drug delivery in cancer
Anticancer drug particles incorporated in liposomes
Encapsulating drugs in hydrogel nanoparticles
Folate-linked nanoparticles
Iron oxide nanoparticles
Lipid based nanocarriers
Micelles for drug delivery in cancer
Minicells for targeted delivery of nanoscale anticancer therapeutics
Nanoconjugates for subcutaneous delivery of anticancer drugs
Nanomaterials for delivery of poorly soluble anticancer drugs
Nanoparticle formulation for enhancing anticancer efficacy of cisplatin
Nanoparticle formulations of paclitaxel
Nanoparticles containing albumin and antisense oligonucleotides
Non-aggregating nanoparticles
Pegylated nanoliposomal formulation
Peptide-linked nanoparticle delivery
Poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate nanoparticles
Polypeptide-doxorubicin conjugated nanoparticles
Protosphere nanoparticle technology
Zinc oxide nanoparticles for drug delivery in cancer
Nanoparticles for targeted delivery of anticancer therapeutics
Canine parvovirus as a nanocontainer for targeted drug delivery
Carbon magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer
Carbon nanotubes for targeted drug delivery to cancer cells
Cyclosert system for targeted delivery of anticancer therapeutics
DNA aptamer-micelle for targeted drug delivery in cancer
DNA aptamer-micelle for targeted drug delivery in cancer
Fullerenes for enhancing tumor targeting by antibodies
Gold nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer
Lipoprotein nanoparticles targeted to cancer-associated receptors
Magnetic nanoparticles for remote-controlled drug delivery to tumors
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles
Nanobees for targeted delivery of cytolytic peptide melittin
Nanovehicles for targeted delivery of paclitaxel
Nanocell for targeted drug delivery to tumor
Nanodiamonds for local delivery of chemotherapy at site of cancer
Nanoimmunoliposome-based system for targeted delivery of siRNA
Nanoparticle-mediated targeting of MAPK signaling pathway
Nanoparticles for targeted antisense therapy of cancer
Nanoparticles for delivery of suicide DNA to prostate tumors
Nanoparticles for targeted delivery of concurrent chemoradiation
Nanoparticle-based therapy targeted to cancer metastases
Nanostructured hyaluronic acid for targeted drug delivery in cancer
Polymer nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer
Polymersomes for targeted cancer drug delivery
Quantum dots and quantum rods for targeted drug delivery in cancer
Remote controlled drug delivery from magnetic nanocrystals
Targeted delivery of nanoparticulate drugs into lymphatic system
Targeted drug delivery with nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugates
Dendrimers for anticancer drug delivery
Application of dendrimers in boron neutron capture therapy
Application of dendrimers in photodynamic therapy
Dendrimer-based synthetic vector for targeted cancer gene therapy
Poly-L-lysine dendrimer as antiangiogenetic agent
Devices for nanotechnology-based cancer therapy
Convection-enhanced delivery with nanoliposomal CPT-11
Nanocomposite devices
Nanoengineered silicon for brachytherapy
Nanoparticles combined with physical agents for tumor ablation
Boron neutron capture therapy using nanoparticles
Laser-induced cancer destruction using nanoparticles
Thermal ablation using nanoparticles
Thermosensitive affibody-conjugated liposomes
Ultrasound radiation of tumors combined with nanoparticles
RNA nanotechnology for delivery of cancer therapeutics
Delivery of siRNAs for cancer
Nanocarriers for simultaneous delivery of multiple anticancer agents
Nanotechnology-based drug delivery to the CNS
Nanoencapsulation for delivery of vitamin E for CNS disorders
Nanoparticle technology for drug delivery across BBB
Delivery across BBB using NanoDel? technology
NanoMed technology to mask BBB-limiting characteristics of drugs
Nanovesicles for transport across BBB
Nanotechnology-based drug delivery to brain tumors
Multifunctional nanoparticles for treating brain tumors
Nanoparticles for delivery of drugs to brain tumors across BBB
Nanoparticle delivery across the BBB for imaging and therapy of brain tumors
Intravenous gene delivery with nanoparticles into brain tumors
PLA nanoparticles for controlled delivery of BCNU to brain tumors
Nanoparticles as nonviral vectors for CNS gene therapy
Silica nanoparticles for CNS gene therapy
Cationic lipids for CNS gene therapy
Polyethylenimine-based nanoparticles for CNS gene therapy
Dendrimers for CNS gene therapy
Carbon nanotubes for CNS gene therapy
Nanotechnology-based devices and implants for CNS
Nanoparticle-based drug delivery to the inner ear
Nanobiotechnology in cardiovascular drug delivery
Liposomal nanodevices for targeted cardiovascular drug delivery
Drugs encapsulated in biodegradable nanoparticles
Controlled delivery of nanoparticles to injured vasculature
Nanotechnology-based drug-eluting stents
Drugs encapsulated in biodegradable nanoparticles
Magnetic nanoparticle-coated DES
Nanopores to enhance compatibility of drug-eluting stents
Paclitaxel-encapsulated targeted lipid-polymeric nanoparticles
Low molecular weight heparin-loaded polymeric nanoparticles
Injectable peptide nanofibers for myocardial ischemia
Nanotechnology approach to the vulnerable plaque as cause of cardiac arrest
Nanobiotechnology-based transdermal drug delivery
Delivery of nanostructured drugs from transdermal patches
Ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery
NanoCyte transdermal drug delivery system
Nanoparticles for targeted therapeutic delivery to the liver
Nanoparticles for pulmonary drug delivery
Systemic drug delivery via pulmonary route
Nanoparticle drug delivery for effects on the respiratory system
Fate and toxicology of nanoparticles delivered to the lungs
Nanoparticle drug formulations for spray inhalation
Inhalation of glucose-sensitive nanoparticle for regulated release of insulin
Pulmonary drug delivery by surface acoustic wave technology
In vivo lung gene transfer using compacted DNA nanoparticles
Nasal drug delivery using nanoparticles
Mucosal drug delivery with nanoparticles
Companies involved in nanobiotechnology-based drug delivery
Future prospects of nanotechnology-based drug delivery
Nanomolecular valves for controlled drug release
Nanosponge for drug delivery
Nanomotors for drug delivery

7. Clinical Applications of Nanobiotechnology

Clinical nanodiagnostics
Application of nanotechnology in radiology
High-resolution ultrasound imaging using nanoparticles
Nanobiotechnology in tissue engineering
Nanoscale surfaces for stem cell culture
3D nanofilament-based scaffolds
Electrospinning technology for bionanofabrication
Nanomaterials for tissue engineering
Carbon nanotubes for artificial muscles
Nanofibers for tissue engineering of skeletal muscle
Nanobiotechnology combined with stem cell-based therapies
Nanomaterials for combining tissue engineering and drug delivery
Nanobiotechnology for organ replacement and assisted function
Exosomes for drug-free organ transplants
Nanobiotechnology and organ-assisting devices
Nanotechnology-based human nephron filter for renal failure
Blood-compatible membranes for renal dialysis
Miniaturization in surgery
Nanotechnology for hemostasis during surgery
Minimally invasive surgery using catheters
Nanoscale laser surgery
Nanobiotechnology for early detection of cancer to improve treatment
Impact of nanotechnology-based imaging in management of cancer
Cornell dots for cancer imaging
Nanoparticle-MRI for tracking dendritic cells in cancer therapy
Nanoparticle-CT scan
QDs aid lymph node mapping in cancer
Nanosensor device as an aid to cancer surgery
Role of nanoparticle-based imaging in oncology clinical trials
Nanoparticle-based anticancer drug delivery to overcome MDR
Anticancer effect of nanoparticles
Antiangiogenic therapy using nanoparticles
Cytotoxic effects of cancer nanoparticles
Nanoshell-based cancer therapy
Nanoshells for thermal ablation of cancer
Nanobody-based cancer therapy
Nanoparticles for targeting tumors
Nanocarriers with TGF-? inhibitors for targeting cancer
Nanobombs for cancer
Combination of diagnostics and therapeutics for cancer
Aptamer conjugated magnetic nanoparticles
Biomimetic nanoparticles targeted to tumors
Dendrimer nanoparticles for targeting and imaging tumors
Gold nanoparticle plus bombesin for imaging and therapy of cancer
Gold nanorods for diagnosis plus photothermal therapy of cancer
Magnetic nanoparticles for imaging as well as therapy of cancer
Nanobialys for combining MRI with delivery of anticancer agents
Nanoparticles, MRI and thermal ablation of tumors
pHLIP nanotechnology for detection and targeted therapy of cancer
QD conjugates combine cancer imaging, therapy and sensing
Squalene-based nanocomposites for tumor imaging and therapy
Radiolabeled carbon nanotubes for tumor imaging and targeting
Ultrasonic tumor imaging and targeted chemotherapy by nanobubbles
A cancer killing device based on nanotechnology
Bacterial nanorobots for targeting cancer
Nanoparticles for protection against adverse effects of radiation therapy
Fullerenes for protection against chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity
Role of nanobiotechnology in personalized management of cancer
Concluding remarks and future prospects of nanooncology
Nanobiotechnology for study of the nervous system
Nanowires for monitoring brain activity
Gold nanoparticles for in vivo study of neural function
Nanoparticles and MRI for macrophage tracking in the CNS
Nanoparticles for tracking stem cells for therapy of CNS disorders
Nanobiotechnology for neurotherapeutics
Nanowire neuroprosthetics with functional membrane proteins
Nanoparticles for neuroprotection
Nanotube-neuron electronic interface
Nanofibers as an aid to CNS regeneration by neural progenitor cells
Nanoparticles for repair of spinal cord injury
Peptide nanostructures for repair of the CNS
Repair of SCI by nanoscale micelles
Nanobiotechnology-based devices for restoration of neural function
Nanobiotechnology-based artificial retina
Femtolaser neurosurgery
Nanofiber brain implants
Nanoparticles as an aid to neurosurgery
Nanoscaffold for CNS repair
Electrospun nanofiber tubes for regeneration of peripheral nerves
PEBBLEs for brain tumor therapy
Bucky balls for brain cancer
Application of nanotechnology to pain therapeutics
Nanotechnology-based management of diabetes
Nanotechnology-based diagnosis and treatment
Cardiac monitoring in sleep apnea
Use of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles in cardiovascular disorders
Nanolipoblockers for atherosclerotic arterial plaques
IGF-1 delivery by nanofibers to improve cell therapy for myocardial infarction
Tissue engineering and regeneration of the cardiovascular system
Restenosis after percutaneous coronary angioplasty
Nanotechnology-based personalized medicine for cardiovascular disorders
Monitoring for disorders of blood coagulation
Application of nanotechnology for bone research
Reducing reaction to orthopedic implants
Enhancing the activity of bone cells on the surface of orthopedic implants
Nanobone implants
Synthetic nanomaterials as bone implants
Carbon nanotubes as scaffolds for bone growth
Aligning nanotubes to improve artificial joints
Cartilage disorders of knee joint
Role of nanotechnology in engineering of a replacement for cartilage
Nanotechnology as an aid to arthroscopy
Scanning force arthroscope
Bonding materials
Dental caries
Nanospheres for dental hypersensitivity
Nanomaterials for dental filling
Nanomaterials for dental implants
Nanocarriers for ocular drug delivery
Nanoparticle-based topical drug application to the eye
Chitosan nanoparticles for topical drug application to the eye
Polylactide nanoparticles for topical drug application to the eye
Ophthalmic drug delivery through nanoparticles in contact lenses
Nanoparticles for intraocular drug delivery
DNA nanoparticles for nonviral gene transfer to the eye
Nanotechnology for treatment for age-related macular degeneration
Nanotechnology-based therapeutics for eye disorders
Nano-engineered cornea
Use of dendrimers in ophthalmology
Nanotechnology for prevention of neovascularization
Regeneration of the optic nerve
DNA nanoparticles for gene therapy of retinal degenerative disorders
Nanobiotechnology for treatment of glaucoma
Nanobiotechnology and virology
Study of interaction of nanoparticles with viruses
Study of pathomechanism of viral diseases
Transdermal nanoparticles for immune enhancement in HIV
Nanofiltration to remove viruses from plasma transfusion products
Role of nanobacteria in human diseases
Nature of nanobacteria
Nanobacteria and kidney stone formation
Nanobacteria in cardiovascular disease
Nanotechnology-based microbicidal agents
Nanoscale bactericidal powders
Nanotubes for detection and destruction of bacteria
Carbon nanotubes as antimicrobial agents
Nanoemulsions as microbicidal agents
Silver nanoparticle coating as prophylaxis against infection
Nanotechnology-based antiviral agents
Silver nanoparticles as antiviral agents
Fullerenes as antiviral agents
Gold nanorod-based delivery of RNA antiviral therapeutics
Nanocoating for antiviral effect
Companies developing antiinfective agents
Nanotechnology for wound healing
Nanotechnology-based products for skin disorders
Cubosomes for treating skin disorders of premature infants.
Nanoparticles for improving targeted topical therapy of skin
Nanoparticle-based sun screens
Nanoengineered bionic skin
Topical nanocreams for inflammatory disorders of the skin
Nanobiotechnology for disorders of aging
Personal care products based on nanotechnology
Nanotechnology for hair care
Nanomedical aspects of oxidative stress
Nanoparticle antioxidants
Fullerene-based antioxidants
Ceria nanoparticles as neuroprotective antioxidants
Antioxidant nanoparticles for treating diseases due to oxidative stress
Nanoparticles as antidotes for poisons
Nanoparticles for chemo-radioprotection
Role of nanobiotechnology in biodefense
Nanoparticles to combat microbial warfare agents
Removal of toxins from blood
Blood substitutes
Artificial red cells
Companies using nanotechnology for healthcare
Nanobiotechnology for public health
Nanotechnology for water purification
Nanofiltration to remove viruses from water
Nanostructured membranes for water purification
Nanotechnologies for water remediation
Nanotechnology-based photochemical water purification
Nanobiotechnology and nutrition
Nanobiotechnology and food industry
Role of nanobiotechnology in personalized nutrition
Nanobiotechnology research in the academic centers
Future potential of nanomedicine
US Federal funding for nanobiotechnology
Nanomedicine initiative of NIH
NIH Nanomedicine Center for Nucleoprotein Machines
NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer
Research in cancer nanotechnology sponsored by the NCI
Global Enterprise for Micro-Mechanics and Molecular Medicine

8. Ethical, Safety and Regulatory issues

Ethical and social implications of nanobiotechnology
Nanotechnology patents
Quantum dot patents relevant to healthcare applications
Challenges and future prospects of nanobiotechnology patents
Legal aspects of nanobiotechnology
Nanotechnology standards
Preclinical testing of nanometerials for biological applications
Safety concerns about nanobiotechnology
Environmental safety of aerosols released from nanoparticle manufacture
Toxicity of nanoparticles
Testing for toxicity of nanoparticles
In vitro testing of nanoparticle toxicity
Variations in safety issues of different nanoparticles
Carbon nanotube safety
Fullerene toxicity
Gold nanoparticle toxicity
Quantum dot safety issues
Fate of nanoparticles in the human body
Pulmonary effects of nanoparticles
Effect of nanoparticles on the heart
Blood compatibility of nanoparticles
Carbon nanoparticle-induced platelet aggregation
Compatibility of lipid-based nanoparticles with blood and blood cells
Transfer of nanoparticles from mother to fetus
Cytotoxicity of nanoparticles
Indirect DNA damage caused by nanoparticles across cellular barriers
Nanoparticle deposits in the brain
Nanoparticles and neurodegeneration
Measures to reduce toxicity of nanoparticles
Reducing toxicity of carbon nanotubes
A screening strategy for the hazard identification of nanomaterials
Concluding remarks on safety issues of nanoparticles
Research into environmental effects of nanoparticles
Role of US government agencies in research on safety of nanoparticles
Work at NanoSafety Laboratories Inc UCLA
Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology
European NEST project for risk assessment of exposure to nanoparticles
Efforts by nanotechnology companies to establish safety of nanoparticles
Public perceptions of the safety of nanotechnology
Evaluation of consumer exposure to nanoscale materials
Safety of nanoparticle-based cosmetics
Regulations in the European Union
Nanotechnology-based sunscreens
Cosmetic industry’s white paper on nanoparticles in personal care
Skin penetration of nanoparticles used in sunscreens
EPA safety requirements for silver nanoparticles
FDA regulation of nanobiotechnology products
FDA and nanotechnology-based medical devices
FDA’s Nanotechnology Task Force
FDA collaboration with agencies/organizations relevant to nanotechnology
Regulation of nanotechnology in the European Union
UK government policy on safety of nanoparticles
Safety recommendations of the Royal Society of UK
European Commission and safety of nanocosmetics

9. Nanobiotechnology Markets

Markets according to areas of applications
Markets for nanomedicine
Markets for nanodiagnostics
Imaging agents
Role of nanobiotechnology in drug delivery market
Nanobiotechnology in life sciences research market
Markets according to technologies
Markets for nanomaterials
Markets for biomedical nanodevices
Markets for nanosensors
Markets for nanotools
Geographical distribution of markets
Nanobiotechnology in the US
Nanobiotechnology in the European Union
European Technology Platform on NanoMedicine
Nanobiotechnology in Australia
Nanobiotechnology in Asia
South Korea
Nanobiotechnology in Russia
Nanobiotechnology in the developing world
Venture capital investment in nanotechnology
Big pharma and nanotechnology
Impact of nanobiotechnology on markets for current pharmaceuticals
Unmet needs in nanobiotechnology
Drivers for the development of nanobiotechnology markets
Strategies for developing markets for nanobiotechnology
Collaborations of industry with academic research centers
Collaborations of pharmaceutical and nanotechnology companies
Collaboration of chemical industry and the government
Cost-benefit of nanotechnology-based drug delivery
Education of healthcare professionals
Education of the public

10. References


Table   1-1:   Dimensions of various objects in nanoscale
Table   1-2:   Classification of basic nanobiotechnologies
Table   1-3:   Historical landmarks in the evolution of nanotechnology
Table   2-1:   Companies with nanoarray and nanofluidic technologies
Table   2-2:   Applications of cantilever technology
Table   2-3:   Applications of optical nanoscopy
Table   2-4:   Companies that provide microscopes for nanobiotechnology
Table   2-5:   Nanobiotechnological applications of S-layers
Table   2-6:   Potential applications of dendrimers in nanobiotechnology
Table   2-7:   Nanomaterials for biolabeling
Table   2-8:   Companies providing services and products for nanobiotechnology industry
Table   3-1:   Nanomaterials for the study of mitochondria
Table   3-2:   Companies that provide nanotechnologies for life sciences research
Table   4-1:   Nanotechnologies with potential applications in molecular diagnostics
Table   4-2:   Nanobiotechnologies for single molecule detection
Table   4-3:   Companies developing nanomolecular diagnostics
Table   5-1:   Basic nanobiotechnologies relevant to drug discovery
Table   5-2:   Companies involved in nanobiotechnology-based drug discovery and development
Table   6-1:   Comparison of features of drug delivery by micronization vs nanonization
Table   6-2:   Nanomaterials used for drug delivery
Table   6-3:   Liposome-nanoparticle hybrid systems
Table   6-4:   Examples of application of nanoparticles for gene therapy
Table   6-5:   Classification of nanobiotechnology approaches to drug delivery in cancer
Table   6-6:   Approved anticancer drugs using nanocarriers
Table   6-7:   Clinical trials of anticancer drugs using nanocarriers
Table   6-8:   Companies involved in nanobiotechnology-based drug delivery
Table   7-1:   Nanomedicine in the 21st century
Table   7-2:   Applications of nanobiotechnology for neurological disorders
Table   7-3:   Nanoparticles used for drug delivery in ophthalmology
Table   7-4:   Companies using nanotechnology-based antiinfective agents
Table   7-5:   Companies using nanotechnology for healthcare and therapeutics
Table   7-6:   Applications of nanotechnologies in food and nutrition sciences
Table   7-7:   Non-commercial institutes/laboratories involved in nanobiotechnology
Table   8-1:   FDA-approved nanotechnology based drugs
Table   9-1:   Nanobiotechnology markets according to areas of application 2011-2021
Table   9-2:   Markets for nanobiotechnology according to technologies 2011-2021
Table   9-3:   Geographical distribution of nanobiotechnology markets 2011-2021
Table   9-4:   Drivers for the development of nanobiotechnology markets
Table   9-5:   Strategies for developing markets for nanobiotechnology
Table   9-6:   Cost-benefit of nanotechnology-based drug delivery


Figure   1-1:   Top-down and bottom-up approaches
Figure   1-2:   Relationship of nanobiotechnology to healthcare and related technologies
Figure   2-1:   Schematic representation of Dip Pen Nanolithography (DPN)
Figure   2-2:   The core, branching and surface molecules of dendrimers
Figure   4-1:   Scheme of bio-barcode assay
Figure   4-2:   Scheme of a novel optical mRNA biosensor
Figure   4-3:   Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology
Figure   4-4:   Concept of nanopore-based sequencing
            Figure   5-1:   Application of nanobiotechnology at various stages of drug discovery
            Figure   6-1:   Bacteria plus nanoparticles for drug delivery into cells
            Figure   6-2:   A lipid nanoparticle
            Figure   6-3:   Lipid-protein nanotubes for drug delivery
            Figure   6-4:   Nanocochleate-mediated drug delivery
            Figure   6-5:   Nanodel? gene vector
            Figure   6-6:   Use of micelles for drug delivery
            Figure   7-1:   Role of nanobiotechnology in personalized management of cancer
            Figure   9-1:   Components of the $1 trillion market for nanotechnologies in the year 2015
            Figure   9-2:   Nanobiotechnology markets according to applications 2011-2021
            Figure   9-3:   Geographical distribution of nanobiotechnology markets 2011-2021
            Figure   9-4:   Unmet needs in nanobiotechnology applications

            10. Nanobiotech Companies

            Classification of companies


            Table 10-1: Collaborations in nanobiotechnology

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