The Byzantine Empire by dffhrtcv3

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									The Byzantine Empire
         SOL WHI.7
    Ancient World History:
    Patterns of Interaction
         Chapter 11
The Byzantine Empire
    Why was Constantinople established as
      the capital of the Eastern Roman
                   Empire?
   Constantinople was built on the Bosporous strait
    for protection and trade purposes:
        Protection of the eastern frontier
        Located far away from the invading Germanic tribes
        The city was easily fortified by strong walls
        Built on a peninsula which was protected by a natural
         harbor
        Trade was prosperous because Constantinople was
         located at a CROSSROADS between Europe and
         Asia; the city was very wealthy
    What was Justinian’s influence on the
      expansion of the Byzantine Empire
               and its economy?
   Reconquered the former
    Roman territories
       In 553 A.D. the general
        Belisarius regained North
        Africa
       In 555 A.D. he regained
        Rome
       Eventually he regained
        most of the former Roman
        Empire
   Expanded trade in
    Europe and Asia
    What was Justinian’s most important
    contribution to Western civilization?
   The law code he produced which is called Justinian’s
    Code.
       It was created by ten legal experts who reviewed and compiled
        old Roman laws
       It established one uniform rule of law for all of “New Rome”
       It served the empire for 900 years
       It influenced many European legal codes
    How did Christianity influence Byzantine
             art and architecture?
   What is Hagia
    Sophia?
       Justinian built numerous
        churches to show the close
        relationship between the
        church and state.
       Hagia Sophia means “Holy
        Wisdom” and is the most
        famous domed Byzantine
        church built by Justinian to
        be the most splendid
        church in the world
How did Christianity influence Byzantine
         art and architecture?
   What is a mosaic
    and where were they
    placed?
       A mosaic is a form of
        Roman art in which
        stone/tile/glass pieces are
        used to make a picture or
        design; in the Byzantine
        empire mosaics were
        placed in churches and in
        public places
How did Christianity influence Byzantine
         art and architecture?
   What is an icon?
       An icon is a religious image
        used by early eastern
        Christians to aid in their
        worship; some people
        however believed this was
        a form of idol worship and
        was wrong. These people
        destroyed the images and
        they were called
        iconoclasts
         How did Greek and Roman culture
        survive within the Byzantine Empire?
   The Byzantine Empire
    preserved Greco-Roman
    culture and traditions.
       They spoke Greek
       They practiced Greek
        Orthodox Christianity
       Greek and Roman
        knowledge was preserved
        in Byzantine libraries
       The Byzantines highly
        valued education and
        studied grammar, literature
        (like Homer), medicine,
        philosophy, and history
        (these subjects are called
        the humanities)
    When did the Christian Church
           split and why?
   The split in the Christian church is
    called the schism and it took place
    in 1054 A.D. when the Pope (who
    is the head of the western church)
    and the Patriarch (who is the head
    of the eastern church) declared
    each other outcasts of the church
    which is called excommunication.
       Excommunication means you can’t
        receive the sacraments which means
        you can’t earn salvation
   The two leaders split over church
    doctrine, particularly concerning
    the power of the Pope
    The Western Church
     (Roman Catholic)
            VS
    the Eastern Church
        (Orthodox)
   The Western Church (Roman                   The Eastern Church (Eastern
    Catholic)                                    Orthodox)
       Services conducted in Latin                 Services conducted in Greek and
       The Pope had authority over all              local languages
        other bishops                               The Patriarch and other bishops
       The Pope claims authority over all           share power over the church
        kings and emperors                          The emperors claim authority over
       Priests may not marry; this is               the patriarch and the bishops
        called celibacy                             Priests may be married
       Divorce is not permitted                    Divorce is allowed under certain
       Church is centered in Rome; it is            circumstances
        far from the capital of                     Church is centered in
        Constantinople                               Constantinople; its close to the
                                                     seat of power
Who helped spread Orthodox Christianity
       and where did it spread?
 Orthodox missionaries
  like Saint Methodius and
  Saint Cyril helped
  spread orthodox
  Christianity north to the
  Slavs (Slavic peoples).
 Orthodox Christianity
  (Greek Orthodox)
  became the main
  religion of Russia and
  Eastern Europe.
What is the Cyrillic alphabet and
   where did it come from?
 The Cyrillic
  alphabet was
  created by Saint
  Cyril and was used
  by many Slavic
  languages (like
  Russian).
  Who are the Slavs and how did they
begin to absorb Greek Byzantine ideas?
 The Slavs are the
  people from the
  forests north of the
  Black Sea.
 They began
  absorbing Greek
  Byzantine ideas
  through their trade
  with Constantinople.
What is Russia’s first important city and where is Kiev
      and why is its location important for trade?
 Russia’s first important city was Novgorod.
 Kiev is another important city located south of Novgorod
  on the Dnieper River and it’s important for trade because
  they could sail by river and sea to Constantinople
     When did Kiev become Orthodox
    and how did this influence the city?
 Kiev became Orthodox
  in 989 A.D. when they
  held a baptism in the
  Dnieper River of all of
  the citizens.
 After its conversion Kiev
  looked to
  Constantinople for
  religious guidance.
       The beliefs and traditions
        of Greek Orthodox
        Christianity flourished
       The idea of the emperor
        as the supreme ruler of
        the church took root
 How did Vladimir expand Kiev’s power?
 What did Yaroslav the Wise do?
 Why did Kiev decline?
 Vladimir extended Kiev west
  into Poland and north almost
  to the Baltic Sea.
 Yoroslav the Wise created
  trade alliances in Western
  Europe and a legal code which
  encouraged trade; he also built
  Kiev’s first library and 400
  churches.
 Kiev declined because the
  territory was divided and
  weakened and eventually fell
  to the Mongols.
What nomadic group from central Asia invaded
      Russia and who was their leader?

 The Mongols were
  the central Asian
  nomadic group which
  invaded Russia.
 The leader of the
  Mongols was Genghis
  Khan.
                      Mongol Rule
   The Mongols allowed
    Russians to follow their
    usual customs as long as
    they didn’t rebel and they
    paid taxes.
       They tolerated all religions
       They allowed Russian
        nobles to keep their titles as
        long as they collected the
        taxes for them
   Mongol rule kept Russia
    isolated from the rest of
    Europe.
    Who is Ivan I and how did he make
    Moscow the leading city of Russia?
 The Mongols gave Ivan I the
  title of “Great Prince” because
  he put down a Slavic rebellion
  and because of collecting taxes
  for the Mongols he became
  very wealthy.
 Ivan convinced the bishop of
  Kiev to move to Moscow which
  gave the city prestige.
 Through trade, land purchases,
  and trickery Ivan extended the
  size and power of Moscow.
    When was Russia “liberated”
        from Mongol rule?
 Russia was
  “liberated” from
  Mongol rule in 1480
  A.D. when Ivan
  refused to pay
  Mongol tribute and he
  and his army faced off
  with Mongol armies.
 The Mongol army
  turned around and
  Russia was free.
Where did the Turks originate?
What group enslaved the Turks?
 The Turks are
  nomadic horse-riders
  from west of China’s
  borders.
 In the 10th century
  the Turks migrated
  into the Abbasid
  Empire and converted
  to Islam.
       The Turks were
        enslaved by the
        Abbasids.
    Who are the Seljuks and how did they
                gain power?
 The Seljuks are a group of Turks who migrated into the
  Abbasid Empire around 970 A.D.
 The Seljuks gained power by waging war on other
  Muslim groups.
 In 1055 A.D. they attacked and took Baghdad from the
  Persians.
    At what battle did the Turks crush
             the Byzantines?
   The Turks crushed the Byzantines at the Battle
    of Manzikert in 1071 A.D and weakened the
    empire.
    Who were the Seljuks greatest
        friends/influences?
   The Persians were the greatest friends and influences of the Seljuks
    (Turks).
        The Turks spoke Persian
        The Turks supported Persian art and architecture
        The Turks built many mosques (Muslim places of worship)
         What are the crusades?
   The Crusades are
    the military
    conquests of the
    Christians in the
    west to take back
    the “Holy Land” of
    Judea from the
    Muslims.
       During the Fourth
        Crusade, western
        European crusaders
        sacked and
        weakened
        Constantinople while
        on their way to the
        Holy Land
What did Genghis Khan do to the
            Turks?
   Genghis Khan and his descendents took Baghdad from
    the Turks and killed thousands of people.
What Turkish group arose after the fall of
the Mongol Empire, and eventually took
      over the Byzantine Empire?
   The Turkish group which arose after the fall of the
    Mongol Empire and which eventually took over the
    Byzantine Empire in the 1400s was the Ottoman Empire.

								
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