The Byzantine Empire SOL WHI.7 Ancient World History: Patterns of Interaction Chapter 11 The Byzantine Empire Why was Constantinople established as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire? Constantinople was built on the Bosporous strait for protection and trade purposes: Protection of the eastern frontier Located far away from the invading Germanic tribes The city was easily fortified by strong walls Built on a peninsula which was protected by a natural harbor Trade was prosperous because Constantinople was located at a CROSSROADS between Europe and Asia; the city was very wealthy What was Justinian’s influence on the expansion of the Byzantine Empire and its economy? Reconquered the former Roman territories In 553 A.D. the general Belisarius regained North Africa In 555 A.D. he regained Rome Eventually he regained most of the former Roman Empire Expanded trade in Europe and Asia What was Justinian’s most important contribution to Western civilization? The law code he produced which is called Justinian’s Code. It was created by ten legal experts who reviewed and compiled old Roman laws It established one uniform rule of law for all of “New Rome” It served the empire for 900 years It influenced many European legal codes How did Christianity influence Byzantine art and architecture? What is Hagia Sophia? Justinian built numerous churches to show the close relationship between the church and state. Hagia Sophia means “Holy Wisdom” and is the most famous domed Byzantine church built by Justinian to be the most splendid church in the world How did Christianity influence Byzantine art and architecture? What is a mosaic and where were they placed? A mosaic is a form of Roman art in which stone/tile/glass pieces are used to make a picture or design; in the Byzantine empire mosaics were placed in churches and in public places How did Christianity influence Byzantine art and architecture? What is an icon? An icon is a religious image used by early eastern Christians to aid in their worship; some people however believed this was a form of idol worship and was wrong. These people destroyed the images and they were called iconoclasts How did Greek and Roman culture survive within the Byzantine Empire? The Byzantine Empire preserved Greco-Roman culture and traditions. They spoke Greek They practiced Greek Orthodox Christianity Greek and Roman knowledge was preserved in Byzantine libraries The Byzantines highly valued education and studied grammar, literature (like Homer), medicine, philosophy, and history (these subjects are called the humanities) When did the Christian Church split and why? The split in the Christian church is called the schism and it took place in 1054 A.D. when the Pope (who is the head of the western church) and the Patriarch (who is the head of the eastern church) declared each other outcasts of the church which is called excommunication. Excommunication means you can’t receive the sacraments which means you can’t earn salvation The two leaders split over church doctrine, particularly concerning the power of the Pope The Western Church (Roman Catholic) VS the Eastern Church (Orthodox) The Western Church (Roman The Eastern Church (Eastern Catholic) Orthodox) Services conducted in Latin Services conducted in Greek and The Pope had authority over all local languages other bishops The Patriarch and other bishops The Pope claims authority over all share power over the church kings and emperors The emperors claim authority over Priests may not marry; this is the patriarch and the bishops called celibacy Priests may be married Divorce is not permitted Divorce is allowed under certain Church is centered in Rome; it is circumstances far from the capital of Church is centered in Constantinople Constantinople; its close to the seat of power Who helped spread Orthodox Christianity and where did it spread? Orthodox missionaries like Saint Methodius and Saint Cyril helped spread orthodox Christianity north to the Slavs (Slavic peoples). Orthodox Christianity (Greek Orthodox) became the main religion of Russia and Eastern Europe. What is the Cyrillic alphabet and where did it come from? The Cyrillic alphabet was created by Saint Cyril and was used by many Slavic languages (like Russian). Who are the Slavs and how did they begin to absorb Greek Byzantine ideas? The Slavs are the people from the forests north of the Black Sea. They began absorbing Greek Byzantine ideas through their trade with Constantinople. What is Russia’s first important city and where is Kiev and why is its location important for trade? Russia’s first important city was Novgorod. Kiev is another important city located south of Novgorod on the Dnieper River and it’s important for trade because they could sail by river and sea to Constantinople When did Kiev become Orthodox and how did this influence the city? Kiev became Orthodox in 989 A.D. when they held a baptism in the Dnieper River of all of the citizens. After its conversion Kiev looked to Constantinople for religious guidance. The beliefs and traditions of Greek Orthodox Christianity flourished The idea of the emperor as the supreme ruler of the church took root How did Vladimir expand Kiev’s power? What did Yaroslav the Wise do? Why did Kiev decline? Vladimir extended Kiev west into Poland and north almost to the Baltic Sea. Yoroslav the Wise created trade alliances in Western Europe and a legal code which encouraged trade; he also built Kiev’s first library and 400 churches. Kiev declined because the territory was divided and weakened and eventually fell to the Mongols. What nomadic group from central Asia invaded Russia and who was their leader? The Mongols were the central Asian nomadic group which invaded Russia. The leader of the Mongols was Genghis Khan. Mongol Rule The Mongols allowed Russians to follow their usual customs as long as they didn’t rebel and they paid taxes. They tolerated all religions They allowed Russian nobles to keep their titles as long as they collected the taxes for them Mongol rule kept Russia isolated from the rest of Europe. Who is Ivan I and how did he make Moscow the leading city of Russia? The Mongols gave Ivan I the title of “Great Prince” because he put down a Slavic rebellion and because of collecting taxes for the Mongols he became very wealthy. Ivan convinced the bishop of Kiev to move to Moscow which gave the city prestige. Through trade, land purchases, and trickery Ivan extended the size and power of Moscow. When was Russia “liberated” from Mongol rule? Russia was “liberated” from Mongol rule in 1480 A.D. when Ivan refused to pay Mongol tribute and he and his army faced off with Mongol armies. The Mongol army turned around and Russia was free. Where did the Turks originate? What group enslaved the Turks? The Turks are nomadic horse-riders from west of China’s borders. In the 10th century the Turks migrated into the Abbasid Empire and converted to Islam. The Turks were enslaved by the Abbasids. Who are the Seljuks and how did they gain power? The Seljuks are a group of Turks who migrated into the Abbasid Empire around 970 A.D. The Seljuks gained power by waging war on other Muslim groups. In 1055 A.D. they attacked and took Baghdad from the Persians. At what battle did the Turks crush the Byzantines? The Turks crushed the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 A.D and weakened the empire. Who were the Seljuks greatest friends/influences? The Persians were the greatest friends and influences of the Seljuks (Turks). The Turks spoke Persian The Turks supported Persian art and architecture The Turks built many mosques (Muslim places of worship) What are the crusades? The Crusades are the military conquests of the Christians in the west to take back the “Holy Land” of Judea from the Muslims. During the Fourth Crusade, western European crusaders sacked and weakened Constantinople while on their way to the Holy Land What did Genghis Khan do to the Turks? Genghis Khan and his descendents took Baghdad from the Turks and killed thousands of people. What Turkish group arose after the fall of the Mongol Empire, and eventually took over the Byzantine Empire? The Turkish group which arose after the fall of the Mongol Empire and which eventually took over the Byzantine Empire in the 1400s was the Ottoman Empire.
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