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The Beginning of World War II Chapter 28 objectives By the end of this chapter, you will be able to Name the causes of World War II Tell how Hitler became the dictator of Germany Tell what happened to Europe in the early years of World War II Explain why the United States joined the War World War II World War II began in Europe in 1939. By the time the war ended in 1945, about 17 million soldiers from all over the world had been killed. More Americans died in World War II than any other war in the twentieth century. World War II This war is called a “world” war because so many countries fought in it. The war was fought all over the world. The following are just some of the countries that joined the war: Allies Axis ► The United Kingdom ► Germany Canada ► Bulgaria India ► Romania Australia ► Italy England ► Japan ► The United States ► China ► The Soviet Union ► France ► Vietnam The Causes of World War II ► The Treaty of Versailles ► Dictators ► Nationalism & Imperialism ► Militarism The Causes of World War II The Treaty of Versailles was the treaty that ended World War I. Although this treaty ended the first war, it created many problems that led to the second world war. Germany was not happy with it because it blamed them for WWI. Germany was punished. They had to pay billions of dollars in reparations. Germany also lost most of its land and was not allowed to have a military. This treaty left Germany angry after the war. Many German people wanted to get their country back. Some even wanted revenge. The Causes of World War II Another cause of Word War II was the rise of dictators. During the 1930s, dictators came to power in many nations around the world because of the economic problems in their countries. Many people didn’t have any jobs or food. They chose dictators because they wanted strong leaders that could solve their countries’ problems. These dictators had total power. A government with total power is called Totalitarianism. The Causes of World War II Nationalism and imperialism also caused WWII. During the 1930s, nationalism and imperialism grew in Germany, Italy, and Japan. These countries wanted to become more important. They wanted to control other countries so they could get more raw materials and markets to sell products in. The Causes of World War II Militarism was another cause. During the 1930s, militarism became very common. People believed that war could help their countries. They believed that a big military was good to have. Italy, Germany, and Japan built bigger militaries. They made bigger ships, better planes, and better tanks. Each country wanted to have the best military to show that they were the best. Memory check ► Name the four causes of World War II. ► Define or describe each cause. ► Explain how each led to the war. The Rise of Dictators Benito Mussolini became the dictator of Italy in 1922. He promised to bring order, prosperity, and jobs to the people of Italy. He was the leader of the Fascist Party. Fascists wanted a strong government. They wanted to make Italy into an empire like Rome was. They believed the government should control everything, but they hated communism. The Rise of Dictators Joseph Stalin became the dictator of the Soviet Union in 1929. The Russians had finished their communist revolution and a long civil war. They didn’t want any more revolutions or civil war. They wanted a strong government that could make communism successful. Stalin promised the people that he would make communism succeed. Stalin controlled everything. Stalin killed anyone who criticized him. He killed millions of people. The Rise of Dictators Adolf Hitler became the dictator of Germany in the 1930s. He was the leader of the NAZI Party. Germans originally chose him to lead their country because he promised to stop crime, make the economy better, stand up for Germany, and protect then from communism. The Rise of Dictators Hitler became dictator by tricking the German people. When he was Chancellor, a fire burned down the Reichstag building. This was the building for the German government. Hitler was the only government Germany had left. So, he declared a “State of Emergency” and promised to protect Germany from the “terrorists”, “foreigners”, “Jews”, and “communists” that he claimed had burned down the Reichstag. He made a strong police force called the SS. They arrested many people to “protect” Germany. Many Germans like Hitler. He told them they were the best The Rise of people on earth. He said they Dictators were the “master race”. He said that the other races such as Eastern Europeans, Jews, and Gypsies were inferior. Hitler blamed Germany’s problems on those other races. He said that Germans lost World War I only because of the Jews. He also blamed the Jews for the bad economy. He said that they made “real” Germans weak. He didn’t want Germans to mix with them. He said that the whole world would be better if only Germans lived in it. The Rise of Dictators Hitler spread anti- Semitism, hatred of Jews, in Germany. Hitler’s supporters attacked Jews and destroyed their property. Hitler and his police sent many people to The Rise of concentration camps. They claimed they were Dictators trying to protect Germany from bad people. They sent Jews, communists, homosexuals, gypsies, and anyone who disagreed with Hitler to those camps. In some concentration camps, people were forced to work but not given any food. Other camps were more like murder factories designed to kill people Six million Jews died in these efficiently. camps. The Rise of Dictators In Japan, military leaders became more influential as the nation became more imperialistic. The country was quickly becoming one of the world’s greatest industrial nations, but needed natural resources and markets. Japan wanted to get Europeans and Americans out of Asia. They wanted to control all of Asia for themselves. Japanese military leaders chose Hideki Tojo to be their Dictator. Tojo was very aggressive and brutal. Memory check ► Name the dictators of World War II. ► Explain how they came to power. ► Tell what each is famous for. Militarism built bigger militaries and bought ► Nations new weapons and technology. Stronger and faster tanks Bigger bombers Faster fighter planes Aircraft carriers Battleships Radar new weapons and technology Stronger and faster tanks new weapons and technology Bigger bombers new weapons and technology Faster fighter planes new weapons and technology Aircraft carriers new weapons and technology Battleships Before the war, leaders thought that battleships were the most important weapon of all. America however, won the war without any battleships proving that they were no longer so important. new weapons and technology Radar At first, people didn’t think that radar was very useful. They thought it was only good at seeing when a storm was coming. They soon found that it could also see planes coming. Radar gave defenders some advanced warning before attacks. Steps toward World War II In 1931, Japan invaded China. It needed natural resources and markets for its growing economy. Steps toward World War II The world was shocked by the Japanese brutality in China. Steps toward World War II The Japanese invasion of China. Steps toward World War II Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles when he started building a German military in the 1930s. Other countries did nothing to stop him. Steps toward World War II In 1935, Italy attacked Ethiopia. He wanted to make it a colony. They used bombers and other new weapons. The King of Ethiopia, Hailie Salassie, asked for help. He said, “Today it is Ethiopia. Tomorrow it will be Europe.” The League of Nations did nothing to stop Italy. Steps toward World War II In 1936, Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles by sending German troops into the Rhineland, a western part of Germany. The League of Nations did nothing. Steps toward World War II In 1936, the Spanish people elected a communist to be their leader. General Franco, a Spanish general, tried to take over Spain to stop the communism. The people of Spain fought to stop General Franco from taking over their country. They quickly forced Franco out of Spain. Steps toward World War II Hitler (Germany) and Mussolini (Italy) made an alliance to help Franco. This alliance was called the Axis. The League of Nations did nothing to protect the Spanish people from this invasion. Hitler and Mussolini practiced using all the new weapons against the Spanish. Steps toward World War II Steps toward World War II In 1938, Hitler marched his military into other nations that used to be part of Germany or had been German allies such as Austria. He said that all German speaking people should be one nation. Most of those people welcomed him. The League of Nations had no power to stop him. England and France did nothing. Letting Hitler take these nations so Europe could have “peace” was called appeasement. Steps toward World War II In 1939, Germany invaded Poland. The invasion was fast because it used new weapons such as tanks and airplanes. Hitler called this kind of war “blitzkrieg” or lightning war. World War II Began Hitler argued that he had the right to invade Poland because this land had been taken from Germany during the Treaty of Versailles. Britain and France were allies of Poland, so they declared war on Germany. World War II had begun. Memory check ► What events before World War II showed the world the aggressive nature of the Axis? ► What event finally started World War II? Blitzkrieg Once the war began, Germany quickly took many other countries. Then, Germany captured France quickly, too! Allied troops had to go to England, because Hitler had captured all of Europe. The Battle of Britain Germany started attacking England. They sent bombers to destroy English cities. British airplanes had to fight the Germans. This was called the Battle of Britain. It was the first battle The British stopped the fought completely in Germans from destroying the air. England. British pilots were very successful. The Battle of Britain German bombers bombed English cities. The Battle of Britain The Germans had more airplanes, but the English had newer, faster airplanes. English radar could see the German bombers coming, so the English planes could take off and intercept them. Hitler Invaded the Soviet Union In 1939, Hitler had made a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union. This was embarrassing to him because he had promised to fight communism. So, in 1941, he broke his pact with the Soviet Union and invaded. At first, it went very well. Hitler started losing in the Soviet Union. Russian troops started fighting better, so the German invasion was stopped. Winter came and the Germans were too far away from home. They could not get the supplies they needed. The Germans froze to death. Memory check ► What happened in Europe in the early stages of World War II? The United States Started Helping the Allies Most Americans favored isolationism. They didn’t want to join the war. American companies were allowed to sell weapons or supplies to both sides. President Roosevelt wanted to help the Allies though. In 1940, the United States started “lending” supplies, ships, and weapons to the Allies. Roosevelt started preparing the country for war. The American military was improved. Japan attacked the United States Americans were angry at Japan for its aggression in Asia. America used an embargo to punish them. The U.S. stopped selling oil to Japan. Japan needed that oil. Without oil, Japan could not survive. Japan wanted to force the U.S. to sell them oil. On December 7th, 1941, Japan made a surprise attack on the U.S. Naval Base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. They hoped they could destroy the entire U.S. Navy in the beginning of the war, so they could win. Pear Harbor The Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor was very successful. Most of the U.S. Navy was destroyed. 2,400 Americans were killed. America Joined the War Even though the Japanese attack was very successful, it didn’t stop the Americans. The United States joined the war in 1941. The United States fought Japan without using battleships. America used mainly aircraft and aircraft carriers. Memory check ► Why did America finally join the war? ► What stages did the U.S. go through before it finally joined the war? The Axis Powers
"The Beginning of World War II"