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The Beginning of World War II

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					The Beginning of World
        War II
        Chapter 28
                 objectives
By the end of this chapter, you will be able to

   Name the causes of World War II
   Tell how Hitler became the dictator of Germany
   Tell what happened to Europe in the early years
    of World War II
   Explain why the United States joined the War
              World War II
World War II began in Europe in 1939. By
 the time the war ended in 1945, about 17
 million soldiers from all over the world had
 been killed. More Americans died in World
 War II than any other war in the twentieth
 century.
                        World War II
This war is called a “world” war because so many
countries fought in it. The war was fought all over the
world. The following are just some of the countries that
joined the war:
Allies                         Axis
► The United Kingdom           ► Germany
       Canada                 ► Bulgaria
       India                  ► Romania
       Australia              ► Italy
       England
                               ► Japan
►   The United States
►   China
►   The Soviet Union
►   France
►   Vietnam
   The Causes of World War II
► The  Treaty of Versailles
► Dictators
► Nationalism & Imperialism
► Militarism
    The Causes of World War II
The Treaty of Versailles was the treaty that ended
  World War I. Although this treaty ended the first
  war, it created many problems that led to the
  second world war. Germany was not happy with it
  because it blamed them for WWI. Germany was
  punished. They had to pay billions of dollars in
  reparations. Germany also lost most of its land
  and was not allowed to have a military. This
  treaty left Germany angry after the war. Many
  German people wanted to get their country back.
  Some even wanted revenge.
   The Causes of World War II
Another cause of Word War II was the rise of
 dictators. During the 1930s, dictators came
 to power in many nations around the world
 because of the economic problems in their
 countries. Many people didn’t have any
 jobs or food. They chose dictators because
 they wanted strong leaders that could solve
 their countries’ problems. These dictators
 had total power. A government with total
 power is called Totalitarianism.
   The Causes of World War II
Nationalism and imperialism also caused
 WWII. During the 1930s, nationalism and
 imperialism grew in Germany, Italy, and
 Japan. These countries wanted to become
 more important. They wanted to control
 other countries so they could get more raw
 materials and markets to sell products in.
    The Causes of World War II
Militarism was another cause. During the
 1930s, militarism became very common.
 People believed that war could help their
 countries. They believed that a big military
 was good to have. Italy, Germany, and
 Japan built bigger militaries. They made
 bigger ships, better planes, and better
 tanks. Each country wanted to have the
 best military to show that they were the
 best.
             Memory check
► Name  the four causes of World War II.
► Define or describe each cause.
► Explain how each led to the war.
           The Rise of Dictators
Benito Mussolini became the
  dictator of Italy in 1922. He
  promised to bring order,
  prosperity, and jobs to the
  people of Italy. He was the
  leader of the Fascist Party.
  Fascists wanted a strong
  government. They wanted to
  make Italy into an empire like
  Rome was. They believed the
  government should control
  everything, but they hated
  communism.
            The Rise of Dictators
Joseph Stalin became the dictator
  of the Soviet Union in 1929.
  The Russians had finished their
  communist revolution and a
  long civil war. They didn’t want
  any more revolutions or civil
  war. They wanted a strong
  government that could make
  communism successful. Stalin
  promised the people that he
  would make communism
  succeed. Stalin controlled
  everything. Stalin killed anyone
  who criticized him. He killed
  millions of people.
           The Rise of Dictators
Adolf Hitler became the
  dictator of Germany in the
  1930s. He was the leader
  of the NAZI Party.
  Germans originally chose
  him to lead their country
  because he promised to
  stop crime, make the
  economy better, stand up
  for Germany, and protect
  then from communism.
            The Rise of Dictators
Hitler became dictator by tricking the
   German people. When he was
   Chancellor, a fire burned down the
   Reichstag building. This was the
   building for the German
   government. Hitler was the only
   government Germany had left. So,
   he declared a “State of Emergency”
   and promised to protect Germany
   from the “terrorists”, “foreigners”,
   “Jews”, and “communists” that he
   claimed had burned down the
   Reichstag. He made a strong
   police force called the SS. They
   arrested many people to “protect”
   Germany.
Many Germans like Hitler. He
  told them they were the best
                                   The Rise of
  people on earth. He said they     Dictators
  were the “master race”. He
  said that the other races such
  as Eastern Europeans, Jews,
  and Gypsies were inferior.
  Hitler blamed Germany’s
  problems on those other races.
  He said that Germans lost
  World War I only because of
  the Jews. He also blamed the
  Jews for the bad economy. He
  said that they made “real”
  Germans weak. He didn’t want
  Germans to mix with them. He
  said that the whole world
  would be better if only
  Germans lived in it.
         The Rise of Dictators
Hitler spread anti-
  Semitism, hatred of
  Jews, in Germany.
  Hitler’s supporters
  attacked Jews and
  destroyed their
  property.
Hitler and his police sent
   many people to
                                     The Rise of
   concentration camps.
   They claimed they were
                                      Dictators
   trying to protect Germany
   from bad people. They
   sent Jews, communists,
   homosexuals, gypsies, and
   anyone who disagreed
   with Hitler to those camps.
   In some concentration
   camps, people were forced
   to work but not given any
   food. Other camps were
   more like murder factories
   designed to kill people
                                 Six million Jews died in these
   efficiently.                  camps.
           The Rise of Dictators
In Japan, military leaders
  became more influential as
  the nation became more
  imperialistic. The country
  was quickly becoming one of
  the world’s greatest
  industrial nations, but
  needed natural resources
  and markets. Japan wanted
  to get Europeans and
  Americans out of Asia. They
  wanted to control all of Asia
  for themselves. Japanese
  military leaders chose Hideki
  Tojo to be their Dictator.
  Tojo was very aggressive
  and brutal.
             Memory check
► Name  the dictators of World War II.
► Explain how they came to power.
► Tell what each is famous for.
                    Militarism
       built bigger militaries and bought
► Nations
 new weapons and technology.
     Stronger and faster tanks
     Bigger bombers
     Faster fighter planes
     Aircraft carriers
     Battleships
     Radar
new weapons and technology
     Stronger and faster tanks
new weapons and technology
        Bigger bombers
new weapons and technology
      Faster fighter planes
new weapons and technology
        Aircraft carriers
   new weapons and technology
Battleships
  Before the war, leaders
    thought that
    battleships were the
    most important
    weapon of all.
    America however,
    won the war without
    any battleships
    proving that they
    were no longer so
    important.
  new weapons and technology
Radar
  At first, people didn’t
    think that radar was
    very useful. They
    thought it was only
    good at seeing when
    a storm was coming.
    They soon found
    that it could also see
    planes coming.
    Radar gave
    defenders some
    advanced warning
    before attacks.
     Steps toward World War II
In 1931, Japan invaded China. It needed natural
  resources and markets for its growing economy.
    Steps toward World War II
The world was shocked
  by the Japanese
  brutality in China.
Steps toward World War II
   The Japanese invasion of China.
   Steps toward World War II
Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles when he started
          building a German military in the 1930s.
        Other countries did nothing to stop him.
      Steps toward World War II
In 1935, Italy attacked
   Ethiopia. He wanted to
   make it a colony. They
   used bombers and other
   new weapons. The King
   of Ethiopia, Hailie Salassie,
   asked for help. He said,
   “Today it is Ethiopia.
   Tomorrow it will be
   Europe.” The League of
   Nations did nothing to stop
   Italy.
     Steps toward World War II
In 1936, Hitler violated
  the Treaty of Versailles
  by sending German
  troops into the
  Rhineland, a western
  part of Germany. The
  League of Nations did
  nothing.
      Steps toward World War II
In 1936, the Spanish people
   elected a communist to be
   their leader. General
   Franco, a Spanish general,
   tried to take over Spain to
   stop the communism. The
   people of Spain fought to
   stop General Franco from
   taking over their country.
   They quickly forced Franco
   out of Spain.
      Steps toward World War II
Hitler (Germany) and
   Mussolini (Italy) made an
   alliance to help Franco.
   This alliance was called the
   Axis. The League of
   Nations did nothing to
   protect the Spanish people
   from this invasion. Hitler
   and Mussolini practiced
   using all the new weapons
   against the Spanish.
Steps toward World War II
     Steps toward World War II
In 1938, Hitler marched his military into other
  nations that used to be part of Germany or had
  been German allies such as Austria. He said that
  all German speaking people should be one
  nation. Most of those people welcomed him.
  The League of Nations had no power to stop
  him. England and France did nothing. Letting
  Hitler take these nations so Europe could have
  “peace” was called appeasement.
     Steps toward World War II
In 1939, Germany
  invaded Poland. The
  invasion was fast
  because it used new
  weapons such as tanks
  and airplanes. Hitler
  called this kind of war
  “blitzkrieg” or lightning
  war.
          World War II Began
Hitler argued that he had the right to invade
  Poland because this land had been taken from
  Germany during the Treaty of Versailles. Britain
  and France were allies of Poland, so they
  declared war on Germany. World War II had
  begun.
             Memory check
► What events before World War II showed
  the world the aggressive nature of the Axis?
► What event finally started World War II?
                  Blitzkrieg
Once the war began, Germany quickly took many
 other countries. Then, Germany captured
 France quickly, too! Allied troops had to go to
 England, because Hitler had captured all of
 Europe.
           The Battle of Britain
Germany started
  attacking England.
  They sent bombers to
  destroy English cities.
  British airplanes had to
  fight the Germans.
  This was called the
  Battle of Britain. It
  was the first battle
                             The British stopped the
  fought completely in
                             Germans from destroying
  the air.                   England. British pilots were
                             very successful.
    The Battle of Britain
German bombers bombed English cities.
          The Battle of Britain
The Germans had more airplanes, but the English
  had newer, faster airplanes. English radar could
  see the German bombers coming, so the English
  planes could take off and intercept them.
 Hitler Invaded the Soviet Union
In 1939, Hitler had made a non-aggression
  pact with the Soviet Union. This was
  embarrassing to him because he had
  promised to fight communism. So, in 1941,
  he broke his pact with the Soviet Union and
  invaded. At first, it went very well.
 Hitler started losing in the Soviet Union.

Russian troops started
  fighting better, so the
  German invasion was
  stopped. Winter came
  and the Germans were
  too far away from
  home. They could not
  get the supplies they
  needed. The Germans
  froze to death.
            Memory check
► What happened in Europe in the early
 stages of World War II?
 The United States Started Helping the Allies

Most Americans favored isolationism. They didn’t
 want to join the war. American companies were
 allowed to sell weapons or supplies to both sides.

President Roosevelt wanted to help the Allies
  though. In 1940, the United States started
  “lending” supplies, ships, and weapons to the
  Allies. Roosevelt started preparing the country for
  war. The American military was improved.
Japan attacked the United States
Americans were angry at Japan for its aggression in
 Asia. America used an embargo to punish them.
 The U.S. stopped selling oil to Japan. Japan
 needed that oil. Without oil, Japan could not
 survive. Japan wanted to force the U.S. to sell
 them oil.

On December 7th, 1941, Japan made a surprise
 attack on the U.S. Naval Base at Pearl Harbor,
 Hawaii. They hoped they could destroy the entire
 U.S. Navy in the beginning of the war, so they
 could win.
                Pear Harbor
The Japanese
  attack at Pearl
  Harbor was very
  successful.
  Most of the U.S.
  Navy was
  destroyed.
  2,400
  Americans were
  killed.
      America Joined the War
Even though the Japanese attack was very
  successful, it didn’t stop the Americans.
  The United States joined the war in 1941.

The United States fought Japan without using
 battleships. America used mainly aircraft
 and aircraft carriers.
            Memory check
► Why    did America finally join the war?
► What stages did the U.S. go through before
  it finally joined the war?
The Axis Powers

				
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