How do psychologists define
Review of how anthropologists
define humanness (so far)
• From australopithecus afarensis to homo
habilis and homo ergaster, how have we
seen our ancestors “becoming human”?
Thinking like a pig?
• Watch a quick excerpt from “the three little
– Jot down the characteristics that make the
What makes us eat?
First way psychologists define
• Humans have complex motivations for
– Motivation = something (a need or a desire)
that causes a person to engage in a
Each individual has
• Animals’ behaviour may be driven largely
– Instinct = natural or inherited impulse
The lion does not say to himself, “hmm, I
think I will go out and kill someone today.”
• Have you ever tried to solve a puzzle?
– IQ test
– Try the two problems on the bottom of page 50 in the
• How did you go about trying to solve the
problem? What process did you use? What went
through your mind?
Second way psychologists define
• Humans have the ability to reason at a
– See page 48 in text
• Focus on cerebral cortex
– See “Problem Solving” handout
Third way psychologists define
• For homework, read “Polly Wanna
Ph.D?” and answer these questions:
1. What can Alex do that is special?
2. What safeguards has Pepperberg put into
her experiments to make sure Alex isn’t
responding to cues or being generously
interpreted by humans?
3. Is intelligence needed for communication?