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How do psychologists define humanness? HSP3M Ms. Gluskin Review of how anthropologists define humanness (so far) • From australopithecus afarensis to homo habilis and homo ergaster, how have we seen our ancestors “becoming human”? – Physically – Behaviourally Thinking like a pig? • Watch a quick excerpt from “the three little pigs” – Jot down the characteristics that make the pigs human-like. What makes us eat? Animals Humans First way psychologists define humanness • Humans have complex motivations for their behaviour – Motivation = something (a need or a desire) that causes a person to engage in a behaviour Each individual has motivation Animal instincts • Animals’ behaviour may be driven largely by instinct – Instinct = natural or inherited impulse The lion does not say to himself, “hmm, I think I will go out and kill someone today.” Puzzles • Have you ever tried to solve a puzzle? – Crossword – Sudoku – IQ test – Try the two problems on the bottom of page 50 in the textbook • How did you go about trying to solve the problem? What process did you use? What went through your mind? Second way psychologists define humanness • Humans have the ability to reason at a high level – See page 48 in text • Focus on cerebral cortex – See “Problem Solving” handout Third way psychologists define humanness • For homework, read “Polly Wanna Ph.D?” and answer these questions: 1. What can Alex do that is special? 2. What safeguards has Pepperberg put into her experiments to make sure Alex isn’t responding to cues or being generously interpreted by humans? 3. Is intelligence needed for communication?
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