CONFLICT AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

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CONFLICT AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT Powered By Docstoc
					CONSENSUS BUILDING –
  FADAMA EXAMPLE



        BY

     S.S. AJUWON
  1.0 Introduction:
The use and management of Common Property
  Resources (CPR/NR by many stakeholders in
  fadama lands, is shrouded by lack of defined
  security and proper rights by users. There is
  also limited equal access and transparency in
  the use of Fadama lands. Conflict
  management mechanisms in the use of CPR
  is also not effectively implemented by the
  responsible organizations, and this has been
  a source of continuous conflict among
  stakeholders
Questions to be Addressed


 What are the causes of conflicts within the
 Fadama communities?
 What are the effects of conflicts on the
 Fadama Communities.?
 What are the conflict management
 mechanism currently in place and the
 NFDP-II strategy to improve on them.?
S What are the causes of conflicts within
the Fadama communities?
Causes of the Conflicts
Land tenure and land use practices
 Traditional collective use of land.
 Communal ownership rights and use rights.
 Decreased communal right.
 Enhancement of significance of individual
 ownership.
 Inherent differing perception of land.
Non-observation of rules and regulations
 Flouting of the dry season farming and
 grazing rules.
 Non-payment of traditional homage/tribute
 Lack of information on arrival.

Inadequacy of the existing grazing reserves
  Encroachment for farming activities.
  Land speculation for building
  Government development intervention
Poor State of the existing grazing reserves
  Poorly developed due to over-grazing and poor
  management.
  Characterized by unpalatable shrubs, and weeds.
  Lack of watering facilities, vet infrastructures, e.g.
  clinic, etc.
  Poor facilities, such as vaccination centres, cattle dips
  and feed stores.
Blockage and reduction in size of stock routes
  Encroachment due to fertility of the land.
  Blockage of stock routes
  Fadama water and ponds are converted to irrigation
  water
  Boundaries not clear.
Commercialization of Crop residue
  Treated as economic commodity .
Limited use of improved pasture and feeds
  Low management of fodder banks.
  Low use of supplementary feeds.
  High preference for traditional transhumance.
Poor land and soil conservation measures
  Desert encroachment.
  Degradation due to deforestation, erosion,
  desertification and excessive salinity.
Traditional beliefs and practices
  Deliberate destruction of crops and properties.
  What are the effects of conflicts on the
  Fadama Communities.?
Effects of the Conflict
  Death of farmers, pastoralists and other settlers.
  Destructions of crops, irrigation facilities, loss of
  properties and animals.
  Insecurity and fear among farmers and
  pastoralists.
  Inability to pay back fadama loans.
  Reduction in productivity
  Defected social relationship and mutual distrust
What are the conflict
management mechanism
currently in place and the NFDP-
II strategy to improve on them.?

Conflict Mechanism in Place
- Traditional Authorities
- Legal Authority (Police and Court)
- Local and State Governments
Traditional Authorities
  Village Elders, Ward Heads,Village Heads and
  District Heads.
  Depending on hierarchy, they settle from mild to
  severe
  Shortcomming:
 - interests in the matters vary from one village
      to another.
  - some respond immediately while some delay
  - court like procedures are set up with
      witnesses.
  - site inspections are carried out and cost
      assessed
  - but they are occasionally accused of corruption.
  - some village heads have formed hospitality committees
 Legal Authority - Police &Court
 - they are seldom used

Local and State Governments
 - they set up committees to settle
     disputes
 -   occasionally there are conflicts
     between Local Government
     officials and the Traditional Rulers
Examples of Strategies In Place
in some States
(1) BAUCHI STATE

Conflict resolution strategies
 Minor conflicts
 Settled through traditional arbitrators
 (ward/village heads, district heads. Emir or parties
 involved).
 Hospitality Committee (set up by village heads to
 meet with pastoralists coming into the community)
 Indigenous version of Resource Users Agreement
 discussed.
 Major conflicts
 Police /Courts
 State conflict resolution committee. (Rep.
 Of DLGC, SSS, Police, Farmers,
 Pastoralist, with DG (DLG) as Chairman
 Local government or district levels
 committees.
 Tool used - radio programmes (Hausa &
 fufulde)
Despite these mechanism, there are complains
 from the Stakeholders.
Complaints
 Farmers
 Police protects bandits and their god fathers
 Govt. is slow to respond to conflicts, lacks
 preventive measures and provides no relief to
 victims.
 Law enforcement agents favour pastoralists.
 Pastoralists
 Courts awards high compensation for destructions,
 Cattle routes and grazing reserves are not
 protected.
 They are maltreated and exploited.
Traditional rulers
Erosion of power and authority.

Observations of the Researchers
 Both farmers and pastoralists take laws into their
 hands.
 Out of 64 grazing reserves in the State only 10
 have been gazetted.
 21 grazing reserves are not surveyed and
 demarcated.
 Only 213,550ha grazing reserves are available.
 Grazing reserves and stock routes are encroached.
 Pasture and watering points are inadequate.
(2) KEBBI STATE
Conflict resolution strategies
  Minor conflicts
  Traditional Method
  Yauri community case :
  The Emir of Yauri has formed more than 30
  professional and tribal associations
• Each association elects its chairman and has
  representative on the Emirate Council
• There are 3 levels of conflict resolution
  committees that have been set up
i Low level Committee – members (village head,
  fulani and farmer leaders. They resolve issues by
  mediation or compensation.
ii.. Middle level committee: members – Districts
     Head, Sarkin Fulani and Branch Chair of the
     Farmers Association.
     Very few issues pass this level without being
     resolved. It can also withdraw cases from the
     court
iii. High level committee: member – Emir,
     Galadima and other members of Emirate
     Council. The verdict here is final.
With these mechanisms in place, the stakeholders
     and every member of the community have been
     living peacefully.
Major Conflicts
 Courts
 State Government Committees
 Committees on Re-demarcation of Grazing
 Reserves.
 Committee on Farmers/Cattle Rearers’ Despute
 The Agricultural Development Programme in the
 State also assists to settle disputes within the
 Fadama areas.
Apart from all these mechanisms women opinion
 leaders encourage women to pacify their
 husbands, reminding them that they and their
 children are the prime targets during conflicts.
Conclusions
 Most conflicts arise from competition for use of
 land, water and grazing resources.
 This has to do with a combination of factors
 principally resulting from a deficiency in the
 overall national agricultural development strategy.
 In all the strategies, it was observed that the
 traditional method of settling the conflict is the
 most effective of all the methods.
 The CDD to Project Implementation and all
 inclusive LDPs it is hoped that every conflict of
 Fadama Resource use will be reduced if not totally
 wiped out.

				
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posted:2/27/2012
language:English
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