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									DHI bathing water project references

      Bathing Water Forecasting
      DHI’s Bathing Water Forecasting System predicts the bathing water quality
      to day and up to 5 days ahead. The systems assimilate information on
      weather, sources and contamination into a dynamic modelling of the bathing
      water and publish the results using modern technologies as internet and
      SMS. The systems are tailor-made and adapted to local traditions and
      languages and may cater information to water managers as well as the
      DHI Bathing Water forecasts systems have been established for a number of
      bathing areas, as:

  •   The Harbour of Copenhagen, Denmark. Municipality of Copenhagen
      A Bathing Water Forecast has been established for the City of Copenhagen.
      The forecast consists of a combined 2D data assimilated hydrodynamic and
      ECO Lab model for the description of bacteria in the receiving waters.
      Measurements in the sewer system (discharge, water level) are used as
      input data for calculation of bacterial loads. The forecasts are used by the
      bathing water managers in their daily administration. In addition, the public
      has access to the water forecast through the internet (see
  •   Århus Bay, Denmark. Municipality of Århus (2005-ongoing)
      DHI has since 2005 operated a Bathing Water Forecast for the municipality
      of Århus. The forecast system consists of a MOUSE model forced with radar
      data for the description of the bacteria loads and a combined 3D
      hydrodynamic - ECO Lab model for the description of bacteria in the
      recipient waters. The forecast system is used by the water managers as
      decision support for management of bathing waters (e.g. closing/opening).
  •   Beaches at Gentofte, Denmark. Municipality of Gentofte (2003-
      The Bathing Water Forecast of the Municipality of Gentofte consists of a
      combined 2D hydrodynamic - ECO Lab model for the description of bacteria
      in the receiving waters. forecast system is used by the water managers as
      decision support for management of bathing waters (e.g. closing/opening).
  •   Brøndby Strand, Denmark. Municipality of Brøndby (2003)
      DHI has established a Bathing water forecast for the Municipality of Brøndby.
      The forecast consists of a combined 2D hydrodynamic - ECO Lab model for
      the description of bacteria in the receiving waters. It is used by the bathing
      water managers to assess present and coming water quality.

DHI bathing water project references

      Safe bathing water
  •   Risk Analysis and guidance on management of Vibrio vulnificus in
      Bathing Water, Denmark (2005)
      The potential hazard to human health of occurrence of Vibrio vulnificus in
      bathing water is assessed by DHI. To support the local water manager a
      guidance document is developed with description of health risks, critical
      concentrations and proper actions to take to reduce the risk of human
      illnesses. The latter included recommendations on how and where to
      disseminate the results of monitoring and assessment risk. Client: The
      Danish Ministry of Environment.
  •   The water quality at a proposed bathing water site in Mariestad,
      The water quality at a proposed bathing water site in the municipality
      Mariestad at the lake Vänern was studied using a combined MIKE 3 - ECO
      Lab model. Some contamination with the indicator organism E. coli was
      observed and various scenarios of measure were tested to find the optimal
      solution to reduce the bacterial loading.
  •   Modelling sources and development of E. coli at Halmstad Badplatts,
      Sweden (2004-2005)
      For unknown reasons the pollution at a beach area near Halmstad had
      increased during the previous years. To define appropriate measures to
      reduce bacterial the sources were assessed and the impact modelled taking
      the local conditions into consideration. Client: Municipality of Halmstad.
  •   Guidance on bathing water forecast systems complying with the
      coming new bathing water directive (2004) –part I
      A range of different options for bathing water early warning/forecast
      systems fulfilling the expected new bathing water directive are described
      and guidelines for potential establishment of such systems are given. The
      forecast system guidance includes a variety of systems from simple to
      advantages and advantages/disadvantages are discussed. Client: Danish
  •   Description of bathing water profiles (2004) –part II
      In connection with the new EU bathing water directive the introduction of
      bathing water profiles allows for minimisation of the number of monitoring
      stations. This description suggests guidelines for this minimisation. Client:
      Danish Environmental Protection Agency.
  •   Phenotypic Microbial source tracking (2004)
      The Proposal for Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council
      concerning the quality of bathing water (COM/2002/0581 final) puts more
      focus on the improvement of the hygienic bathing water quality than
      previously. To improve the hygienic water quality on non-complying
      locations, it is necessary to know the source of the contamination. Therefore
      there is a need to test and apply methods to track the origin of the hygienic
      indicators. This work aimed at testing the applicability a specific method,

DHI bathing water project references
      PhPlate, to track microbial contaminations by phenotyping. Client: Danish
  •   Modelling of E. coli at beaches in Øresund, Denmark (2003)
      The bathing water quality at the beaches just north and south of the
      Vedbæk Harbour was modelled by DHI. Different remediation scenarios were
      analysed for the impact on the bathing water quality to assess the most
      appropriate approaches. Client: Municipality of Søllerød.

  •   Early warning of Toxic Cyanobacteria in bathing water (2002)
      The applicability of marker pigments for early warning of blooms of
      Nodularia spumigena in the Baltic Sea was investigated. Relationships
      between microscopic observations, pigments and toxins were established.
      Client: Danish Counties.
  •   Approximation to a New EU Bathing Water Directive (2001)
      The aim of this project was to investigate the consequences of the
      microbiology quality standards and analytical methods in the proposed
      bathing water directive. During the project the water quality of ten bathing
      water locations was monitored during a bathing season. The influence of
      miniMPN methods, including Intestinal Enterococci, and lowering of the
      hygienic limits was studied. In addition the possibilities for forecasting of the
      bathing water quality were examined. Client: Client: Environmental
      Protection Agency.
  •   Assessment of bathing water data for EPA reporting (2001)
      DHI carried out the annual calculations of the bathing water quality in the
      Copenhagen County and made an assessment of all the primary data to
      check whether the data were collected according to the legislation and
      laboratory demands. Client: The Copenhagen County Council.
  •   Management of Noxious Phytoplankton in Bathing Water – a guidance
      document (2001)
      A guidance document on early warning, procedures and actions to take was
      developed to assist bathing water managers in case of cyanobacterial and
      other noxious blooms at public beaches. Client: Danish EPA.
  •   Examination of the hygienic status of the Harbour of Copenhagen
      A study was conducted to analyse the hygienic standard of the Copenhagen
      Harbour and identify the sources of contamination, with the aim to evaluate
      the possibilities to establish bathing water locations in the harbour, in
      particular evaluating the effect of reducing the effect of reduction of sewage
      overflow. Client: Municipality of Copenhagen

DHI bathing water project references

      Water & Health
  •   Pharmaceutical residues discharged from hospitals, Denmark (2006)
      The purpose of the project is to identify the most hazardous substances
      among pharmaceutical residues discharged from hospitals via wastewater.
      Another part of the project is identification and proposals for treatment
      technologies and BAT practices to decrease wastewater load. Client: The
      Danish EPA (53727).
  •   Strengthening the institutional and administrative capacity to
      implement the EU Directives on drinking water and bathing water in
      Romania (2004-2006)
      The aim of the project is to strengthen the institutional and administrative
      capacity to implement the EU-directives on drinking water and bathing
      water. The project includes the following: Updating of the drinking water and
      bathing water legislation, Analysis and evaluation the institutional setup,
      Updating of five regional laboratories to perform audit monitoring of drinking
      water, including 1 national reference laboratory, Strengthening of monitoring
      procedures including procedures in non-compliance situations, Improvement
      of procedures for sanitary inspection of drinking water, bottled water and
      water used for food, Development of decision support system. Client:
      Ministry of Health, Romania.
  •   Environmental Working Group 2005, Denmark (2001-2005)
      DHI acts as consultant, co-ordinator and secretary for the Environmental
      Working Group of Lynetten Partnership. The main purpose of the projects
      conducted by the working group is to reduce the load of pollution sources
      (heavy metals, hazardous substances related to environment and health)
      within the sewer catchment of Copenhagen. Client: Lynettefællesskabet I/S.
  •   Pilot-scale test of UV-treatment of wastewater from a hospital (2004)
      The aim of the study was to test the effect of UV-irradiation on resistant
      E.coli and Enterococci. A combination of pre-filtration and UV-irradiation
      could reduce the presence of resistant E.coli with 100% and the presence of
      resistant Enterococci with 90%. Client: Center of Industrial Water
      Technology and Lynettefællesskabet I/S.
  •   Pharmaceutical substances in wastewater, Denmark (2004)
      Pre-study concerning regulation of discharged medical products from
      hospitals. The load and concentration of selected medical products are
      calculated based on the consumed amount of products. Data is used for
      evaluation of the need for environmental risk assessment. Client:
      Lynettefællesskabet I/S (52716).

DHI bathing water project references

  •   Analysis of trends and challenges for Water and Sanitation in the
      UNECE region (2003-2004).
      An analysis of progress since 1992 in protection of water resources, water
      quality, aquatic ecosystems, structural and non-structural measures related
      to drinking water supply and sanitation including health aspects,
      transboundary water cooperation, legal and institutional aspects, monitoring
      and water resources assessment, water and sustainable urban development
      and means of implementation in the UNECE region was under taken. The
      report was presented and discussed at the Regional Implementation Forum
      for the meeting of the Commission for Sustainable Development in
      Geneva January 2004. Client: UNECE.
  •   Monitoring of antibiotic resistant bacteria in wastewater from a
      residential area, a hospital and the inlet of wastewater treatment
      plant, Denmark (2002-2004)
      The aim of the present study was to see if there is a connections between
      the estimated concentrations of ampicillin, gentamicin and vancomycin in
      wastewater and the presence of gentamicin resistant E. coli (GREC) and
      ampicillin resistant E. coli (AREC), and vancomycin resistant enterococci
      (VRE), in wastewater samples from a hospital, a residential area and the
      related wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Client: Lynettefællesskabet
  •   Drinking water quality and supply strategy in Georgia. 2001-2003.
      Under the project Implementation of the UNECE/WHO Protocol on Water and
      health in Georgia, the Georgian ministries of Environment and Health have
      engaged in a process of preparing a national Drinking water Quality and
      Supply management strategy. DHI has supported Georgia in the
      implementation of the Protocol by developing a national strategy with
      realistic short, medium and long term targets including recommendations for
      water quality standards and enforcement, a new laboratory plan, and a
      programme for improved water health information and education. The role
      of institutions in drinking water legislation, monitoring, standards, water
      related diseases surveillance and information management were thorough
      investigated. In a pilot area outbreaks of intestinal infections was analysed,
      comprising conditions and procedures at laboratory, examination of
      chlorination procedures, training of staff in the use of environmental health
      indicators, training of staff in the use and function of analytical methods,
      provision of equipment and materials necessary to perform each of the
      analyses selected establishment of correct use of equipment and materials
      providing, reporting procedures. Client: Ministry of Health and Ministry of
      Environment, Georgia.
  •   Monitoring of carcinogenic substances in wastewater in sewer
      systems, Denmark (2003)
      A monitoring programme was set up on volatile organic carcinogenic
      substances in the sewer system connected to Damhusaaen WWTP. A survey
      was made of the industries and repair shops in sections of the catchment
      area to identify the sources of volatile organic substances. Client:
      Københavns Energi A/S.

DHI bathing water project references

  •   Quick test methods of water quality in water supplies (2002)
      A number of Danish water supply companies have asked DHI – Water &
      Environment (DHI) in co-operation with Eurofins Denmark A/S to examine
      the test contingency in case of suspected acute contamination of drinking
      water. Client: Danish Water supply companies.

      DHI – a WHO Collaborating Centre for Water and Health
      DHI Water and Environment has been a WHO Collaborating Centre for Water
      Quality Assessment and Control from 1993-2003 Through this work support
      has been given to the rolling revision of the Drinking Water Quality
      Guidelines and to the methodology development of the Global Water Quality
      Monitoring programme (GEMS/Water). Further support has been given to
      develop methodologies in Rapid Risk Assessment; the links between water
      supply and terrorism and in developing health indicators. Through this work,
      a number of ministries of health and ministries of environment have been
      supported in establishing national water quality standards setting and
      enforcement, in establishing surveillance and monitoring systems for
      drinking water and bathing water and in training of staff and support to
      laboratories. Regional seminars on implementation of drinking water quality
      guidelines have been given in a number of eastern European countries.

      From 2004 DHI has been designated as WHO Collaborating Centre on Water
      and Health with the over all aim to work with the World Health Organisation
      and other collaborators to identify and highlight priority water and health
      issues. We have two priority Programme Areas : Integration of health
      aspects into Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) by supporting
      WHO in the further implementation of the Protocol on Water and Health, and
      Urban water quality management by supporting the work of WHO in
      development of tools (concepts, decision support, and models) to support
      the application of the WHO guidelines on drinking water, irrigation water and
      recreational waters and ad hoc assistance to Water, Sanitation and Health
      unit at WHO HQ, and the Water and Sanitation Unit of the WHO Regional
      Office for Europe. Clients: Ministries of Health and Ministries of Environment.


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