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Enlightenment Ideas Spread Ch.1 Sec.2 Bell Work #2 We is having a party saturday at my house you coming. Achieving a just society As Enlightenment ideas spread, people began to challenge the old ways. More and more, they saw the need for reform to achieve a just society. During the middle Ages, most Europeans had accepted without question a society based on divine-right rule, a strict class system, and a belief in heavenly reward for earthly suffering. Censorship Government and Church authorities felt they had a sacred duty to defend the old order. They believed the old order had been set up by God. To protect against the attacks of the Enlightenment, they waged a war of censorship, banning and burning books and imprisoning writers. Writers like Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau sometimes disguised their ideas in works of fiction. Salons Salons- were informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophers, and others exchanged ideas. The salon originated in the 1600s, when a group of noblewomen in Paris began inviting a few friends to their homes for poetry readings. Only the most witty, intelligent, and well- read people were invited to the salons. Madame Geoffrin This young woman heard the polished conversation of learned men and women. This opened a door to a new world. By 1750, Madame Geoffrin was a leading saloniere. In her home, she brought together the brightest and most talented people of her day. Why do you think she did this? Frederick the Great Enlightened despots- absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change. Frederick exerted extremely tight control over his subjects. His reforms were directed mainly at making the Prussian governments more efficient. He reorganized the civil service and simplified laws. But rationalized bureaucracy also meant a stronger monarchy and more power for himself. Catherine the Great Catherine II of Russia read the works of the philosophes and exchanged letter with Voltaire and Diderot. She became empress in 1762, and experimented with Enlightenment ideas. In the end of her reign she expanded the her empire by using certain ideas. Joseph II The most radical enlightened despot was the Hapsburg emperor Joseph II, son and successor of Maria Theressa. An eager student of the Enlightenment, Joseph traveled in disguise among his subjects to learn of their problems. His efforts to improve their lives won him the nickname the peasant emperor. He ended censorship and attempted to bring the Catholic Church under royal control. The Arts and Literature In the 1600s and 1700s, the arts evolved to meet changing tastes Baroque- complex type of painting Baroque were huge, colorful, and full of excitement. They glorified historic battles or the lives of saints. Rococo- art was personal, refined, elegant, and charming. Trends in Music Johann Sebastian Bach. Was a devout German Lutheran, Bach wrote complex and beautiful religious works for organ and choirs. In 1762, a six year old prodigy, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, burst onto the European scene to gain instant celebrity as a composer and performer. In his brief life, the young man form Salzburg composed an amazing variety of music with remarkable speed. His brilliant operas, graceful symphonies, and moving religious music helped define the new style of classical composition. At age 35, Mozart died in poverty, leaving a musical legacy that thrives today. By the 1800s, war and political upheaval as well as changing economic conditions would transform peasant life in Europe.
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