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Enlightenment Ideas Spread Ch.1 Sec.2


									Enlightenment Ideas
     Ch.1 Sec.2
         Bell Work #2
We is having a party saturday at
    my house you coming.
       Achieving a just society

 As Enlightenment ideas spread, people
  began to challenge the old ways. More
  and more, they saw the need for reform to
  achieve a just society.
 During the middle Ages, most Europeans
  had accepted without question a society
  based on divine-right rule, a strict class
  system, and a belief in heavenly reward
  for earthly suffering.
 Government and Church authorities felt
  they had a sacred duty to defend the old
  order. They believed the old order had
  been set up by God. To protect against the
  attacks of the Enlightenment, they waged
  a war of censorship, banning and burning
  books and imprisoning writers.
 Writers like Montesquieu, Voltaire, and
  Rousseau sometimes disguised their
  ideas in works of fiction.
   Salons- were informal social gatherings at
    which writers, artists, philosophers, and
    others exchanged ideas. The salon
    originated in the 1600s, when a group of
    noblewomen in Paris began inviting a few
    friends to their homes for poetry readings.
    Only the most witty, intelligent, and well-
    read people were invited to the salons.
          Madame Geoffrin
 This young woman heard the polished
  conversation of learned men and women.
  This opened a door to a new world.
 By 1750, Madame Geoffrin was a leading
  saloniere. In her home, she brought
  together the brightest and most talented
  people of her day.
 Why do you think she did this?
             Frederick the Great

   Enlightened despots- absolute rulers who used
    their power to bring about political and social
   Frederick exerted extremely tight control over his
   His reforms were directed mainly at making the
    Prussian governments more efficient. He
    reorganized the civil service and simplified laws.
   But rationalized bureaucracy also meant a
    stronger monarchy and more power for himself.
         Catherine the Great

 Catherine II of Russia read the works of
  the philosophes and exchanged letter with
  Voltaire and Diderot.
 She became empress in 1762, and
  experimented with Enlightenment ideas.
 In the end of her reign she expanded the
  her empire by using certain ideas.
                   Joseph II

   The most radical enlightened despot was the
    Hapsburg emperor Joseph II, son and successor
    of Maria Theressa. An eager student of the
    Enlightenment, Joseph traveled in disguise
    among his subjects to learn of their problems.
    His efforts to improve their lives won him the
    nickname the peasant emperor.
   He ended censorship and attempted to bring the
    Catholic Church under royal control.
        The Arts and Literature

 In the 1600s and 1700s, the arts evolved
  to meet changing tastes
 Baroque- complex type of painting
 Baroque were huge, colorful, and full of
  excitement. They glorified historic battles
  or the lives of saints.
 Rococo- art was personal, refined,
  elegant, and charming.
                Trends in Music
   Johann Sebastian Bach. Was a devout German
    Lutheran, Bach wrote complex and beautiful
    religious works for organ and choirs.
   In 1762, a six year old prodigy, Wolfgang
    Amadeus Mozart, burst onto the European
    scene to gain instant celebrity as a composer
    and performer. In his brief life, the young man
    form Salzburg composed an amazing variety of
    music with remarkable speed. His brilliant
    operas, graceful symphonies, and moving
    religious music helped define the new style of
    classical composition. At age 35, Mozart died in
    poverty, leaving a musical legacy that thrives
   By the 1800s, war and political upheaval as well
    as changing economic conditions would
    transform peasant life in Europe.

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