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					Early German Psychologists




                             1
        Early Anticipation of Wundt

   Johann Kruger – 1756
       An Attempt at an Experimental Psychology
       An anticipation because it was lost or ignored
        until 1950’s
       Appears to be more similar to modern
        psychology that Wundt’s psychology




                                                         2
                    Psychophysics
   An attempt to understand the relationship between the
    physical world and the psychological world

   Measured mental events and compared them to the
    measurement of physical events – show that they covary

   Changing the value of a physical event in some way will
    systematically change the value of the psychological
    event
   Two important contributors to psychology
       Ernst Weber
       Gustav Fechner

                                                              3
                 Ernst Weber
   Two-point threshold

   Weight discrimination – just noticeable
    difference (JND)

   Weber’s Law – 1st quantitative law in psychology
    and 1st statement of a systematic relationship
    between physical stimulus and psychological
    experience

                                                   4
                Gustav Fechner

   Built upon the ideas of Weber

   Developed 3 important research methods
       Method of limits
       Method of constant stimuli
       Method of adjustment



                                             5
                 Fechner (cont.)
   Developed the term psychophysics

   Monism – the mental and physical are simply 2
    aspects of the same reality; not separate entities

   Elementes (1860) – identified as the beginning
    of experimental psychology by some historians
       Mental processes could be quantified (measured)
       Mental events could be examined using the precision
        of scientific methods


                                                              6
           Hermann Ebbinghaus
   Philosopher who spent time teaching and
    traveling

   Read Fechner’s Elemente and converted to the
    study of psychology

   His goal was to study higher mental processes
    using methods similar to psychophysics

   1st person to systematically study memory

                                                    7
         Ebbinghaus’ Methods

   Highly original – he had no one to learn
    from

   Best known for his use and invention of
    nonsense syllables to study memory
    unaffected by previous learning


                                               8
                 Areas of Research
   1. What is the relationship between amount of material
    to be remembered and time needed to learn it
       Measured increases in number of repetitions to master list of
        nonsense syllables of different lengths

   2. What is the relationship to the amount of learning
    and the amount remembered?
       Used a relearning paradigm
       Formed 7 lists of 16 nonsense syllables, repeated them 0, 8 ,16 .
        . . 64 times. 24 hours later measured # of repetitions to relearn
        each list discovered over learning



                                                                        9
           Other Areas of Interest
   What is the relationship between the passage of
    time and loss from memory?
       Relearned lists 0, 20, 60 minutes . . . 31 days after
        learning. Amount of savings measured – comparison
        of repetitions to learn and to relearn lists
   Less known but verified by much later research
       Distributed learning better than mass learning
       Active learning better than passive learning
       Meaningful material easier to learn that meaningless
       Information learned before sleeping better
        remembered than material learned at other times

                                                               10
    Later Criticisms of Ebbinghaus
   Experiments lacked ecological validity –
    use of nonsense syllables instead of real
    words

   Use of a single subject; himself

   However, most of his findings are still
    accurate today
                                                11
    Ebbinghaus as a Foundation for
                Binet
   He developed analogy tests and completion tests
    to test children
   Analogy example
       July is to May as Saturday is to       .
   Completion example
       Big things are heavier than        .
   Child’s answer timed and evaluated for
    appropriateness
   Similar items used by Binet in his intelligence
    tests

                                                      12
              Franz Brentano

   Important but not well known

   Dominican priest who left the church
    because of his inability to accept the
    infallibility of the pope




                                             13
     Franz Brentano’s Psychology
   1. Placed more importance on logic than
    experimentation
   2. Believed that once important observation
    were completed psychology would change very
    little
   3. Psychology should be the study of mental
    acts – not the products of mental processes
   4. He rejected introspection – proposed the use
    of imagination

                                                  14
           Brentano’s Legacy

   Not very well know primarily due to a lack
    of writing

   Greatest contribution was his impact on
    his students such as Carl Stumpf and
    Christian von Ehrenfels


                                              15
                  Carl Stumpf
   Greatest contributions were to the study of
    auditory perception

   Most famous for his role in the case of “Clever
    Hans”

   Founded the psychology laboratory at the
    University of Berlin that competed with Wundt’s
    for prestige

                                                      16
            Influences on Stumpf
   Ernst Mache – studies showing that a perception
    is more than the individual elements or
    sensations
       Mache bands
   Christian von Ehrenfels – coined the term
    “Gestalt” to describe the organization of an
    experience
       Musician and composer who showed that melody
        played on a piano in one key, and then played in a
        second key or on a trumpet sounded different but
        were perceived as the same melody


                                                             17
              Stumpf’s Psychology
   Mental phenomena not consciousness should be studied
    by psychology – study the whole not the parts

   Studied tha combination of pure tones into complex
    tones
       Two pure tones presented together produce an experience
        distinctively different from the separate tones
   Attacked by Wundt who said as Titchner would have said
    “these findings occurred as the result of using
    “improperly trained” observers”


                                                                  18
              Oswald Kulpe

   Oswald Kuple, a student of Wundt
    founded the Wurzburg School of
    psychology

   He gradually moved away from a
    Wundtian perspective to one more similar
    to Stumpf

                                               19
              Kulpe’s Psychology
   Refuted much of Wundt’s psychology, but
    without the vicious attacks
   Important findings
       Imageless thought – some thoughts required no
        images or sensations – doubting, searching, etc.
       Complex mental processes can be studied
       Phenomena of mental sets
       Stressed the importance of motivation in problem
        solving

                                                           20
Decline of the Wurzburg School

   The clash of scientific ideas between
    Wurzburg – Stumpf and wundt – Titchner
    eventually led to the decline of both

   The Wurzburg school died when Kulpe
    died in 1915; as structuralism died when
    Titchner died

                                               21
    Obscurity of Many Early German
             Psychologists
   WWI – many went into the armed forces or their
    students left for the war

   Loss of students meant their was no one to
    continue their work

   American focus on functionalism and
    behaviorism gave less importance to these
    German’s cognitive perspectives

                                                 22

				
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