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The_Environmental_and_Consumer_Movements

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The_Environmental_and_Consumer_Movements Powered By Docstoc
					Environmental
and Consumer
Movements of
the Seventies
Rachel Carson, marine biologist
 Wrote Silent Spring, warning Americans that
  powerful pesticides like DDT were killing
  insects, birds, and wildlife
 Eventually DDT use in America was banned


 Unofficially credited with helping start the
  environmental movement
Earth Day – when is it this year?
 April 1970 – the unofficial beginning of the
  environmental movement

 A grassroots effort began to protect the
  environment

 Older environmental organizations – the
  Sierra Club, the Audubon Society, and the
  Wilderness Society gained popularity.
  Environmental Protection Agency
              (EPA)
 Created by Nixon in 1970


 Federal agency that enforced pollution
 standards, promoted research , and
 coordinated anti pollution activities with
 state and local governments
Other environmental laws from the 70’s

Clean Air Act
 Passed over Nixon’s veto
 Established emissions standards
 for factories and automobiles
Clean Water Act
 Restricted discharge of pesticides into
  water
Endangered Species Act
 Established procedures for saving
  threatened species
Nuclear Energy


Supporters – cleaner and less expensive
  alternative to coal, oil and natural gas
 Opponents – risk of accidental radiation
                 release into the air
Three Mile Island – a nuclear power
plant in Pennsylvania
 March 28,1979 – the cooling system failed , the
    nuclear facility overheated and low levels of radiation
    escaped into the reactor .
   Officials evacuated nearby residents
   The reactor was closed down
   People began to doubt safety of nuclear energy
   Since the accident at Three Mile Island, 60 % of
    nuclear power plants have been shut down or
    abandoned.
   No new nuclear power plant facilities have been built
    since 1973.
Love Canal, NY (suburb of Niagara
Falls)
 People in the community kept getting sick
  ( nerve damage, blood diseases, cancer,
  miscarriages and birth defects)

 The residents found out they were living right on
  top of a toxic waste dump – decades old

 Over time the toxic contents had leaked into the
  ground

 The residents demanded that the
  gov’t fix the problem
Love Canal, continued
 Finally, in 1978, the state permanently
  moved 200 families

 In 1980 President Carter declared Love
  Canal a federal disaster and moved the
  remaining 600 families .
 Love Canal residents sued the company
  that created the dump site and won $ 20
  million
 The site was cleaned up . The waste was
  sealed up. The homes on the site were
  burned.
    Consumer Protection started in the
    Progressive Era 1890-1920

 President Teddy Roosevelt
   signed the Meat Inspection Act
  (remember The Jungle?)

 And the Pure Food and
  Drug Act ?
1970’s – Auto Industry
 Unsafe at Any Speed by Ralph Nader,
   published in 1965
 Described unsafe cars; shocked
  the public with the # of car
  accidents
Result:
 National Traffic and Motor Vehicle
 Safety Act, 1966 – set mandatory
 safety standards, auto makers must
 notify owners of defects, etc
  OSHA
 Occupational Safety and Health Administration


Government regulates workplace
safety

                     “ 5,071 workers died on
                      the job in 2008”
                    - from the OSHA website

				
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