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									    Review from yesterday
   What was the spark that set off World War 1?

   In order, who declared war on who?

   What were the four common factors/”isms” that
    helped lead to World War I?
              Mr. Rudy
     American History II
Germany starts the offensive
   World War I officially
    began with the German
    army storming through
    Belgium, into France.
   At the First Battle of the
    Marne, the German
    runs into French forces
   A stalemate occurs
Trench Warfare sets in
   Trench Warfare is
    battle in which both
    sides have dug
    trenches to stand their
   Artillery fire (cannon)
    was used to keep the
    enemy off-guard
What were the trenches?
   Trenches were
    generally holes, dug
    about six feet deep
       Why?
   Trenches were a lot like
    a maze on both sides,
    with bunkers used for
    communications and
    storing ammunition
Conditions in the
Death, on a daily basis
   In the busier front-line
       constant machine gun
        and artillery fire
       Don’t peer over the edge
        of the trench
   Estimated 1/3rd of the
    deaths for the Allied
    Powers were in the
Shell fire
   Germans used mortar
    fire (large shells that
    explode on impact)
    against the allies
   These shell attacks
    were more deadly than
       Why do you think that is?
   Rats, which numbered
    in the millions infested
    the trenches
       Two kinds: Brown &
   These rats gorged
    themselves on human
       As a result, some were
        as big as cats.
Rats continued…
   A single rat could
    produce 900 offspring,
    so it was impossible to
    get rid of them
   What do you think rats
    contributed to the
Lice & Trench Fever
   Lice, another problem
    with the trenches
       Caused never-ending
       Clothes that were “de-
        loused” almost always
        still had lice eggs on
   Condition called Trench
       Caused by lice
       Horrible fever/severe
Trench Foot
   Trench foot, a fungal
    infection caused by
    standing in water for
    long periods of time
   Especially bad at the
    beginning of the war
       Conditions improved in
Poison Gas
   In 1915, the Germans
    began to use
    poisonous chlorine gas
    in some shell attacks
   The poisonous gas
    caused violent choking
Mustard Gas
   Created by the Germans, mustard gas
    caused painful blisters inside and outside the
   Remained in the soil for weeks, making its
    effectiveness questionable
   While deaths from gas attacks were not large
    scale, they caused those attacked to live the
    rest of their lives scarred/useless.
The stench
   Chlorine gas from the gas attacks still
    lingered in many places
   Rotting carcasses lay around in their
       For example, approximately 200,000 men were
        killed on the Somme battlefields, many of which
        lay in shallow graves
   Lice and wind-up came into my life about the same time. At
    stand-to one morning a flight of whizz-bangs skimmed the top
    of the trench. The man next to me went down with a scream
    and half his face gone. The sand-bag in front of me was
    ripped open and I was blinded and half-choked with its
   This was in the summer of 1916. In the plain on our right the
    flash and rumble of guns was unceasing. It was the
    beginning of the Somme offensive we learnt afterwards, but
    even if we had known one of the big battles of the War was in
    progress at our elbows I doubt if we should have been deeply
    stirred. To every private in the line the War was confined to
    his own immediate front.
   My first spell in the line lasted three weeks. Water was
    scarce, and even the tea ration was so short there was none
    left over for shaving. I had a nine days' growth of beard when
    we went down to rest. Some of us looked like Crimean
    veterans and we all began to feel like it. My socks were
    embedded in my feet with caked mud and filth and had to be
    removed with a knife.
Now it’s your turn
   Write a narrative as if you were an soldier in
    the trenches of World War I. Talk about the
    different thinks you sense:

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