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					  Ancient Greece
Beginning glimpse of the future of
      Western Civilization
            Minoan Influence
Advanced Culture
     Centralized government
     Monumental building
     Bronze metallurgy
     Writing and record keeping
     Success based on trade


Why did the Minoan civilization disappear?

     Historians unsure
     Natural disaster and invaders (The Mycenaens)
          Minoan Mythology
   Greek legend says that King Minos ruled a
    vast naval empire (including southern
    Greece) and kept Minotaur underneath his
    palace.

   Theseus
killed the Minotaur
          Mycenaean Greece
   Mycenaeans conquer Greek mainland
   Blend their civilization with the indigenous
    population
   Indo-European language
   Skilled sea traders
   The first “Greeks”
Mycenaean Greece
                 Mycenae
   First excavated site of Ancient Greece

                       Thought to have believed that
                       the walls were constructed by
                       Cyclopes.
        Geography of Greece
   1,000+ islands separated by Aegean Sea
   Mainland areas separated by mountainous
    terrain
   LANDSCAPE DEFINES POLITICS!
   Independent city-states developed
    because of geographic isolation
   Reliance on sea travel for trade and
    communication
Ancient Greece
             City-States Develop
                Independently
   City-States develop distinct political
    systems-each with their own governments
       Enduring Influence: Greece
   Individual rulers begin to battle each other
    for power
       Trojan War (1200b.c)
          Greek Mycenae vs. Troy (Turkey)
          Myth vs. Fact
    Development of City-States
   Various sizes
   Hilltop Acropolis: offered a place of refuge
      Akros- top   Polis- city
   Agora: open area where citizens would
    gather for political and military purposes




                          Acropolis of Athens
       Sparta/Athens Comparison
   Sparta                            Athens




Use your book pages 120-121 to fill in the T-Chart on Sparta and Athens
          Distinct City-States
SPARTA                        ATHENS
  *Military state               *Rule by the people-free,
                                adult males
  *Conquered lands
                                *Women stayed “in”
  *Rule by free adult males
                                *Debate policies in an
  *Service to Sparta            assembly
  *Military training and        *Introduced laws
  service for ALL boys          *Citizens could submit
  *Girls played sports and      laws
  took care of all              *Freedom of the mind
  *No individual expression     and expression
                 Directions:
    As a group, look at notes, book (120-121) and
     packet of information. Answer the following
     questions as a member of your group.
1.   What are advantages and disadvantages of
     being a Spartan?
2.   What are advantages and disadvantages of
     being a Athenian?
3.   Which of the two does your group wish to be?
   Fill in Chart as Groups Present!
              Soldier   Non-citizen   Citizen   Non-citizen   Citizen
                        Male          Male      Female        Female

Sparta   A

         D

Athens   A

         D

Choice/Why?
                              Sparta
   Military camp in permanent
    state of preparedness

   Helots worked the land and
    turned over portions to Spartan
    masters who were then freed
    from food production to train
    for the military
                                       Segment_Four__Spartan_Warriors.asf

   Coinage and precious metals
    banned to create equality

   In some ways similar to
    socialism/communism
                   Athens
   Social and political mobility
   Unusually large and populous territory
                      Slaves were used to free up men to
                      participate in political events

                      Marriages were arranged by families
    City-States Come Together
   Outside invasion causes city-states to
    align
   490 b.c the Persian armies invade, but did
    not succeed
       30 years of peace
                Persian Threat
A.   Battle of Marathon (490 B.C.)
     1. Darius
          - King of Persia
          - invaded Greek mainland
     2. Plain of Marathon
         - north of Athens
     3. Phiedippides
        - messenger, first marathon
     4. Symbolism
         a. Civilization over Barbarians
         b. Wit/Intelligence over Strength
        c. Democracy over Tyranny
     Next Persian Threat (480 B.C.)
1.   Xerxes
     - overran much of northern Greece
2.   Thermopylae
     - Spartan leadership (Leonidas)
     - annihilated by Xerxes’ troops
3.   Athens
     - sacked, but Athenian people withdrew, thus survived
4.   Island of Salamis
     - inhabitants escaped to
5.   Saronic Gulf
     - drew Persian navy into narrows
     - Greek vessels smaller/swifter
     - Persian navy could not maneuver
     - destroyed Persian fleet
Persian Threat
    Results of the Persian Wars
   Athens becomes the leader of the Delian
    League of Greece (voluntary alliance of
    Greek states)

   Peloponnesian League
    -Corinth
    -Sparta
      Pericles-Athenian Leader
General-in-Chief (461 B.C.)
     - remained in command to 429 B.C.
Goals
     a. Protect/Defend
         1. Wall Built
         2. Navy
             - increased size/strength
     b. Rebuild/Beautify
         - used govt. money
         - created public space for political use
     c. Spread government power
         - more evenly among social classes
         - encourage more participation
         - established social policies
     The Golden Age of Greece
   Greek Art takes over-Foundation being laid
       Tragedy, Comedy, Sculpture
       Drama, Philosophy, History


   Athens becomes a strong Democracy
       Pericles’ 3 goals
            Strengthen Democracy
            Hold and strengthen the empire
            Glorify Athens
          Athens vs. Sparta
   Athens and Sparta begin a 27 year war-
    Peloponnesian Wars
 Peloponnesian Wars (431-404 B.C.)

    -Sparta was inland-Athens could
not use Navy to attack
    -Sparta invaded Athens
    -Overcrowded city led to disaster
      Plague
      Pericles killed along with 1/3 of pop.
      Sparta captured Athens
    -End of Athenian Greatness and Greek Power
Athens Remains Cultural Hub
   Tragic Drama
       Human relationships
       Moral and social dilemma
   Comedy
       Criticize politicians
       mock people
   Literature
       Record of History
   Results of the Peloponnesian
                Wars

Greek power and vitality weakened with
 battles amongst themselves

                        Eventually allowing
                        them to be
                        conquered by
                        Macedonia
                        (Alexander the Great)

				
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