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• Minoan Crete (2800 BCE) -earliest civilization
  in the Aegean region emerged on Crete
• Mycenaean civilization (1600-1100 BCE) -part
  of Indo-European family of people):
• Dark Age (1100-750 BCE)
• The Greek City States (polis in Greek) (750-500
• Classical Greece: (500-338 BCE)

Greece was very mountainous peninsula and had a small land area.
Most of Greece was made up of small planes and river valleys surrounded by
mountains which helped the societies in Greece stay away from each other and
time to develop their own way of life.
Over time the societies were
so attached to independence
they fought each other to gain
advantage. Their rivalry
among them led to warfare
that devastated Greek society.

Greece had a long seacoast
with bays which made
numerous harbors.

Greeks inhabited many islands
to the west south and mainly
east of central Greece.
           Political Structure
Minoan Crete:
•Crete was ruled by a monarch from the central
palace of Knossos. The monarchy, however, was
far from a totalitarian regime.
•Numerous administrative decisions were
shared a priesthood and an immense network of
bureaucrats and scribes.
The Greek City States (polis in Greek):
•As a community, the polis consisted of citizens
with political rights without political rights, and
noncitizens. All citizens of a polis possessed
fundamental rights, but these rights were
coupled with responsibilities
•The citizens not only belonged to themselves,
they also belonged to the states.
•This loyalty towards their city-states made each
city-state distrusted one another.
Tyrants (7th to 6th centuries BCE):
•Rulers who came to power in an
unconstitutional way; tyrant was not subject to
the law.
•Tyrants built new marketplaces, temples, and
walls to enhanced their own popularity and
glorified the city, they favours merchants and
•Largely extinguished by the end of the 6th
century BCE, Greek believed in the rule of law,
and tyranny made a mockery of that ideal
Classical Greece:
•Confrontation between the Greek states and
the mammoth Persian Empire
•Greek states formed a defensive league under
Spartan leadership, while the Athenians pursued
a new military policy by the navy.
•Athenians produced a fleet of about two
hundred vessels.
•Athens formed a defensive alliance against the
Persians called the Delian League.
Age of Pericles:
•Policy of expanding democracy.
•The sovereignty of the people was embodied in the
•Lower class citizens were eligible for public offices
formerly closed to them.
•Board of ten officials known as generals, were elected
by public vote.
•The general could be re-elected, enabling individual
leaders to play an important role
•Pericles, was elected to the generalship thirty times
between 461-429 BCE
                Class system
It was broken up between free people and
   slaves. Some slaves were prisoners of war or
   bought from slave traders. Few were skilled in
   crafts and even fewer were paid.
Gender issues, the social system only applied to
   the men. Women's social and legal status was
   taken from their husband. Women were not
   permitted to take part in social life.
               Greek Trade
In ancient Greece they traded refined goods
  such as olive oil, wine, jewelry, pottery,
  bronze, silver, gold and art work to Egypt,
  Palestine, Mesopotamia and Asia minor all the
  way to the Indus valley . They traded this for
  luxury items and exotic raw material that was
  worked by craftsmen.
Later craftsmen developed more techniques in
  stone work and ivory work. Also with
  emeralds and rubies.
          Art and Architecture

•Concerned with expressing eternally true ideals
•Based on the ideals of reason, moderation,
symmetry, balance, and harmony in all things,
was meant to civilize the emotions.
•The most important form of architecture was
the temple dedicated to a god or goddess.
•walled rooms that housed the statues of deities
and treasures
•open structures rather than closed ones
•The column were originally made of wood but
were changed to marble in the 5th century BCE
•shape and size of the columns in combination
with the features above and below the column.
       Science and Technology
• Highly developed compared to other places.
• Contributed a lot in the field of mathematics.
  Geometry was used to measure land as
  described by Herodotus.
• The strange property of amber was discovered
  by the Greeks.
• Greek experiments revealed the fact that
  lodestone attracted small bits of iron.
The gods controlled their destiny and they were
  obsessed with knowing what the gods
  wanted. Religion was connected to every part
  of daily life it was social and practical. Public
  festivals were originated from religious
  practices like boys into warriors and girls in to
  mothers. Temples dedicated to the god or
  goddess were major Greek buildings in the
  cities. There were twelve chief gods.
In the myth of creation there was Chaos who created
   the mass of earth and the heavens. Father heaven
   and mother earth. Gaea who is mother earth and
   Uranus father Heaven gave birth to the Titans,
   Cyclopes and Giants the first creatures. The Cyclopes
   helped Zeus defeat his brother to become the father
   god, they did this my forging his lighting bolt.
The Greeks believed in an oracle they went to her for
   advice on everything and the oracle could see into
   the future. The Greeks gave offering to the oracle to
   see into the future. Like going to war, asking to get
   higher in the social ranks.
The gods said to live on top of mount Olympus,
  highest mountain in Greece. Zeus the father of
  the gods, Athena Goddess of wisdom and
  craft, Apollo the god of sun and poetry,
  Aphrodite goddess of love, and Poseidon
  brother of Zeus god of the sea and
• “Philosophy” is a Greek word that originally
  meant “love of wisdom”
• Early Greek philosophers were concerned with
  the development of critical or rational thought
  about the nature of the universe and the place
  of divine forces and soul in it
Sophists (5th century BCE):
•argued that understanding the universe was
beyond the reach of the human mind
•stressed the importance of rhetoric (the art of
persuasive oratory) in winning debates and
swaying an audience
•there was no absolute right or wrong, true
wisdom consisted of being able to perceive and
pursue one’ own good.
Plato (429-347 BCE):
•Unlike his master Socrates, Plato wrote a great deal
•Plato’s ideas of government were set out in his
dialogue titled The Republic
•He was fascinated with the question of reality.
•A higher world of eternal, unchanging Ideas or
Forms has always existed. To know these Form is to
know truth.
•These Forms can only be apprehended by a trained
mind which is the goal of philosophy
Aristotle (384-322 BCE):
•studied at the Academy at Athens for 20 years
•became a tutor to Alexander the Great
•wished for an effective form of government
that would rationally direct human affairs
•did not seek and ideal state based on the
embodiment of an ideal Form of justice but tried
to find the best form of government by a
rational examination of existing government.
• World History Textbook

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