Glory_ol4

Document Sample
Glory_ol4 Powered By Docstoc
					                                                   The Glory That Was Greece
                                                         Lecture Outlines
                                             Part 4: Hellenistic to Byzantine Greece

                                         1. Alexander and the Spread of Greek Culture

Ancient Macedon
before the 4th century BCE
   relationship with other Greeks
Madeconian society
   distinctive culture
   monarchy
   warrior aristocracy

Philip II of Macedon (ca. 382-336 BCE)
family & early years [Dillon 14.25-26]
reforms [Dillon 14.37-42]
    Macedonian phalanx
    changing the warrior aristocracy
takeover of Greece [Dillon 14.27-31]
    3rd Sacred War (356-346) [Dillon 14.32-36]
    relationship with Athens
        Olynthos (348 BCE)
        Demosthenes of Athens (384-322) [Dillon 14.43-47]
            (distinguish from Athenian general in Peloponnesian War)
    4th Sacred War
        Battle of Chaironeia (338): Athens & Thebes [Dillon 14.48-49]
after Chaironeia
    Corinthian League [Dillon 14.50-55]
        promises vs. reality
    assassination (336) [Dillon 14.53]

Alexander III (The Great) of Macedon (356-323)
early years [Dillon 15.1]
consolidation of power (336-334) [Dillon 15.2-5]
invasion of Asia [Dillon 15.6-10]
   Battle of Granikos (334) [Dillon 15.7]
   Battle of Issos (333) [Dillon 15.11-13]
conquest of eastern Mediterranean (332-1)
   Tyre & Gaza [Dillon 15.14-15]
   Alexander in Egypt [Dillon 15.16-17]
conquest of Asia (331-30)
   Battle of Gaugamela (331) [Dillon 15.18-19]
   Destruction of Persepolis and Death of Dareios III (330) [Dillon 15.20-22]
conquest of Asia [Dillon 15.23-28]
   Baktria and Sogdiana (330-27)
       Macedonians becoming dissatisified with Alexander
       Roxane
       behavior problems [Dillon 15.22, 25, 42]
   India
       Battle of Hydaspes (326)
       end and consequences of Indian campaign [Dillon 15.29-30]

Alexander’s policies
administration of Empire
    Persian model
relations between Greeks and non-Greeks
    cultural fusion (syncretism) [Dillon 15.31-32]
    Hellenization
death of Alexander (323) [Dillon 15.43-44]
                                                 2. Hellenistic Greece
the Successors of Alexander
Hellenistic Greece (period from 336-331 BCE)
the satrapies
the Successors (Diadochoi)
   Perdiccas: regent for Alexander IV (323-21)
   Seleukos
   Antipater
       Lamian War (323-22): consequences for Athens; Demosthenes
   Lysimachos
   Antigonos Monophthalmos
   Ptolemy
       death of Perdiccas
reapportionment of 321
   Antipater & Cassander
   Ptolemy, Seleukos, Antigonos & Lysimachos
Antigonos vs. Seleukos
   role of Ptolemy
Olympias vs. Cassander
Peace of 311
   Antigonos
   freedom of Greek cities (propaganda)
   security of satraps
   fates of Roxane & Alexander IV

the Hellenistic kingdoms
transitional kingdoms
    Antigonids (Antigonos Monophthalmos & Demetrios Poliorketes)
    other satraps
Battle of Ipsus (301): Seleukos & Lysimachos vs. Antigonids
    outcome
Battle of Corupedium (281)
    Seleukos bs. Antigonos
Seleukos (Seleucus) and the Seleucid Empire
    fusion of institutions
    fate of the Empire
Ptolemy and Ptolemaic Egypt
    fusion of institutions
    Ptolemy the propagandist
the Bactrian Kingdom
    location
    fusion of institutions

the Hellenistic poleis
old Greece [Dillon 15.33-41]
   Athens
   Sparta
   Corinthian League
   Aetolian League
Magna Graecia
   Hiero II of Syracuse & the 1st Punic War
colonies founded by Alexander
   Panhellenism
   syncretism
   (partial) Hellenization of Asia

Hellenistic society
new opportunities in a colonial world
   women
Greeks and non-Greeks
   Greek language
Hellenistic religion
   ecstatic cults
   revealed religion
Hellenistic economy


                                                 3. Hellenistic Literature and Culture
Ptolemaic Alexandria
foundation [Dillon 15.16]
population
monuments
the Library
   significance for surviving Greek literature
   organization and materials
   the Librarians

Alexandrian scholarship: reclaiming the past
collection of manuscripts
editing
standardization
translation: example of the Septuagint

Hellenistic literature
the Alexandrian aesthetic
Kallimachos (Callimachus) (3rd century)
    treatment of earlier genres
    work for Library
    praising Ptolemy II: Hymn to Apollo [download]
reinventing epic: the Argonautika of Apollonios Rhodios
    Apollonios
    similarities to traditional epic
    differences
    Jason as Hellenistic hero
scenes from daily life: the Mimes of Herondas (3rd century) [download]
    subjects
    portrayal of women
humor drawn from daily life: the New Comedy of Menander of Athens (344-292)
    contrast Old Comedy
    contemporary themes
    situational comedy
political history in the Thucydidean tradition: Polybios of Arkadia (ca. 200-120)
    bio
    purpose
    pragmatikê historiê
universal history in the Herodotean tradition: Timaios of Sicily (ca. 350-260)
    bio
    scope
    influence (Polybios’ opinion)

visual arts
comparison with Classical art
figurines
    scenes from daily life
sculpture
    portraiture
    narrative sculpture
       Laocoon (Pomeroy pp. 349-50)
       dying Gaul


                                                        4. Greece and Rome
long history of interactions
Bronze Age
Archaic period
   protocolonization
   Greek pottery
   early references in literature
Classical period
   Greek drama
   awareness of Rome
Greek influence on Roman religion
   lining up the gods
   iconography
   Sibylline oracle
   mystery religions

Roman expansion: Italy & Sicily
                 th rd
Italy & Sicily (4 -3 centuries BCE)
    common enemy: Phoenicians
Sicily: Hiero II of Syracuse (271-216)
      st
    1 Roman province
common enemy: Carthage (Phoenicians)
Pyrrhus of Epiros & the Pyrrhic Wars (280s BCE)

Roman expansion: conquest of Greece
Macedonian Wars (215-148)
  Philip V & the revival of Macedonian power
  1st: allied with Hannibal of Carthage
  2nd: Greeks seek Roman aid (Battle of Cynoscephalae, 197)
  3rd: Perseus
  4th: the Achaean League (destruction of Corinth, 146)
Roman policy toward Greece
  province of Achaea
     administration
     “free cities”
  Delos

Roman expansion: the Hellenistic kingdoms
Roman conquest of the Seleucid Empire
   province of Syria (64)
   Parthian Empire
Cleopatra VII, last monarch of Ptolemaic Egypt
   Julius Caesar
   Marcus Antonius
   province of Egypt (30 BCE)

Hellenization of Roman culture
attraction and repulsion
    philhelllenism: example of Scipio
    traditionalist reaction: example of Cato
Roman claim to Trojan descent (Aeneas)
    conquest as payback
    Aeneas & the Caesars
Greek influence on Latin literature
    Roman epic
        example: Aeneid of Virgil
    Roman philosophy and rhetoric
        examples: Cicero, Lucretius
    Roman drama
        examples: Terence, Plautus and Greek New Comedy
Greek influence on Roman architecture
    temples
    theaters

Greece under the pax Romana
general picture
Athens
Delphi, Eleusis
Olympia, Sparta


                                           5. Ancient Greek Science & Medicine
Ancient Greek Science
definition of science
up to Hellenistic period
   empirical (based on experience): calendar (agriculture, religion), mechanics, mathematics (building)
   philosophy: theories of knowledge, the universe
   Aristotle (4th century BCE)
        science as a field
        evidence
        preservation of knowledge

Hellenistic period
   building on Aristotle
       Alexander’s Empire
   Eukleides (Euclid) (3rd century BCE): mathematics
   Archimedes of Syracuse (3rd century BCE): applied science
       patronage
       inventions
   Eratosthenes of Kyrene (3rd century BCE): geography
       role in Hellenistic society
       circumference of the earth
   Hipparchos of Nikaia (2nd century BCE): practical astronomy
       planetary motion
       earth to moon
   Ptolemy of Alexandria (different person from the king) (ca. 146-70 CE)
       astronomy
       geography
   machines: the Antikythera Mechanism (1st century BCE)
       nature
       functions

Ancient Greek Medicine
proto-medicine
   folk cures
   god Asklepios
   balance of the 4 humors
Hippokrates of Kos: father of Greek medicine (5th-4th century BCE)
   Kos & Asklepios
   medicine & philosophy
   “Hippocratic Corpus”
   precepts (fundamental principles)
       nature of disease & doctor’s job
       empiricism
       health & the 4 humors
   Hippocratic Oath
       finances
       bedside manner
       confidentiality
   Hippocratic writings: examples
       Sacred Disease (epilepsy)
       Common Diseases: case studies
Galen of Pergamum (2nd century CE): most influential ancient physician
   career
   influences
   unifying medicine (doctor as philosopher)
   medical knowledge
      anatomy (dissection)
      experience
   achievements
      anatomy
      pharmacology
      writings

Ancient Greek Science & Medicine: Conclusions
origins in Classical Greek philosophy (Plato, Aristotle)
theory & practice
motivations
    practical
    for display
    science & technology
lasting contributions
    basic discoveries
    literary record
    tradition of training


                                                    6. The Byzantine Empire
The Roman Empire Divided
pax Romana
    citizenship
    Hellenization
crisis in 3rd century CE
    causes
    emperor Diocletian (rules 284-305)
        divided empire (Latin West / Greek East)

Constantine & Constantinople
Constantine (272-337 CE)
  inherits Diocletian’s system (312 CE)
  disparity between East & West
Constantinople (“Constantine’s polis”)
  Byzantium (Byzantion): gateway between Europe & Asia
     (re)founded as Constantinople (324 CE)
  eastern & main capital of Roman Empire
  administration (language)
  preservation of Greek culture
  Christian center

the Hellenic context of Christianity
early churches in Hellenized cities
koinê Greek
Constantine’s promotion of Christianity
Julian “the Apostate”: last non-Christian emperor (331-63)
    attempt to revive pre-Christian past
    outcome

Byzantine Empire
separation of East & West
“Byzantine” = modern term (self-described “Romans” or “Greeks”)
enperor Justinian: last ruler of unified Empire (482-565)
   4th-5th centuries: pressure from northern invaders splits Roman Empire
   mid 6th century: reunification of East & West
   consequences of Justinian’s policies
the Greek Orthodox Church
   separation from Catholic Church
   religious divide parallels cultural divide
   the Patriarchs
   Byzantine missionary activity (example of Cyrillic alphabet)
long losing battle against Islam
   spread of Islam after death of Mohammed (632)
   Byzantine Empire rallying point for eastern Christianity
       “Greek fire”
   the Crusades
        st
       1 (1095)
       4th Crusade (1204)
           shortlived Catholic kingdoms (Byzantines in exile)
   the end (1453 CE)
       effect of Catholic occupation
       Ottoman Empire & Mehmed II (1453)

after Ottoman Domination (1453-1821)
      War of Independence (1821-9)


                                             7. Ancient Greece & the Modern World

From the Ancient World to the Modern World
Middle Ages (800-1400 CE/AD): continuity & loss
   Byzantine Empire
   Europe
Renaissance (1400-1600)
   Byzantine scholars to Europe (1453)
   humanism
   recovery of Greek literature & art
      manuscripts
      travel
      Greek art as a model

Hellenic Influences
literature
     drama
         forms: tragedy & comedy; dramatic unity (influence of Aristotle)
         structure & staging
     poetry
         genres
         subject matter
     history
         sources & models
art & architecture
     sculpture & painting
     architecture
society
     government
         Athens & Sparta
         influence of Aristotle
     religion
         ancient Greek as the language of Christianity
             the Reformation
     the classical education
science & medicine
     philosophy: rationalism
     long-lasting influence: Ptolemy & Galen
     Greek as a language of science

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:1
posted:2/26/2012
language:
pages:7