Nonfiction Nonfiction Elizabeth

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Nonfiction Nonfiction Elizabeth Powered By Docstoc
  Elizabeth Lamb-Mauney
  10th Grade Literature &
           What is Nonfiction?
   Written works intended to give facts, or
    true accounts of real things and events.
        Forms of Nonfiction
 Speeches
 Memoir
 How-to manual
 Encyclopedia/Dictionary
 Biography
 Autobiography
 Technical Text
 Essay
            What is Rhetoric?
   The art or study of using language
    effectively and persuasively

 Ethos- appeal to credibility, beliefs
 Logos- appeal to logic
 Pathos- appeal to emotions
   Reason (logos) - support your general claims with
    concrete, specific data.
   Reason which begins with specifics and moves toward a
    generalization is inductive. Example: Several clubs
    have reported difficulty completing their business during
    lunch period. This proves that lunch periods should be
   Reason which starts with a general observation and
    moves to specifics is deductive. Example: When
    people hurry, inefficiency and poor communication are
    the results. Under current conditions clubs must hurry at
    lunch time meetings. Therefore, lunch period should be
    lengthened to allow for better club meetings.
                Logos, continued
 Use two or three different strong reasons to
  support your argument.
 Support your reasons with evidence.
    –   Facts - can be proven.
    –   Expert opinions or quotations
    –   Definitions - statement of meaning of word or phrase
    –   Statistics - offer scientific support
    –   Examples - powerful illustrations
    –   Anecdote - incident, often based on writer's personal
    – Present opposition - and give reasons and evidence to
      prove the opposition wrong
    – Conclude with call to action - urge the reader to do
                   Logos in Advertising
   Once your tooth enamel is gone, it can be gone for good. Shield against acid attack and help
    prevent irreversible tooth enamel loss with the Crest Pro-Health Enamel Shield Regimen.
   Crest Pro-Health Enamel Shield Toothpaste
   Crest Pro-Health Enamel Shield Toothpaste protects against tooth enamel loss in three ways: It
    binds to enamel to form a micro-thin shield, it kills acid-producing bacteria, and it remineralizes
    teeth to strengthen enamel. Crest Pro-Health is the only toothpaste that protects all these areas
    dentists check most:
   Fights cavities
   Fights tartar
   Whitens teeth
   Freshens breath
   Fights sensitivity
   Fights plaque
   Fights gingivitis
More Logos
 Ethics (ethos) - convince your readers
  that the speaker (you) is fair, honest, and
  well informed. They will then trust your
  values and intentions.
 In other words, make it clear that the
  speaker (you) has the experience to know
  what he or she is talking about.
Ethos in Advertising
More Ethos
 Emotion (pathos) - a carefully reasoned
  argument will be strengthened by an emotional
 Use description or narrate an example, often
  from your own experience.
 Your point of view is demonstrated in an
  emotional appeal, and is important to the
 Use careful word choice.
Pathos in Advertising
How to Build a Strong Argument
   Introduction - establish your argument, and clarify the
    importance of the issue.
   Statement of the Case - tell story behind the
    argument, offering background information
   Proposition Statement - carefully state central
    proposition, as a thesis statement would be given
   Refutation - refute opposition arguments, exposing
    faulty reasoning
   Confirmation - develop your case, using examples,
    facts, statistics (logos)
   Digression - appealing anecdote or description, offering
    ethos or pathos
   Conclusion - finish with strong conviction; review main
    points, or suggest call to action
 “The New Frontier”
              ~John F. Kennedy
 “I Have a Dream”
              ~Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

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