10th Grade Literature &
What is Nonfiction?
Written works intended to give facts, or
true accounts of real things and events.
Forms of Nonfiction
What is Rhetoric?
The art or study of using language
effectively and persuasively
Ethos- appeal to credibility, beliefs
Logos- appeal to logic
Pathos- appeal to emotions
Reason (logos) - support your general claims with
concrete, specific data.
Reason which begins with specifics and moves toward a
generalization is inductive. Example: Several clubs
have reported difficulty completing their business during
lunch period. This proves that lunch periods should be
Reason which starts with a general observation and
moves to specifics is deductive. Example: When
people hurry, inefficiency and poor communication are
the results. Under current conditions clubs must hurry at
lunch time meetings. Therefore, lunch period should be
lengthened to allow for better club meetings.
Use two or three different strong reasons to
support your argument.
Support your reasons with evidence.
– Facts - can be proven.
– Expert opinions or quotations
– Definitions - statement of meaning of word or phrase
– Statistics - offer scientific support
– Examples - powerful illustrations
– Anecdote - incident, often based on writer's personal
– Present opposition - and give reasons and evidence to
prove the opposition wrong
– Conclude with call to action - urge the reader to do
Logos in Advertising
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Ethics (ethos) - convince your readers
that the speaker (you) is fair, honest, and
well informed. They will then trust your
values and intentions.
In other words, make it clear that the
speaker (you) has the experience to know
what he or she is talking about.
Ethos in Advertising
Emotion (pathos) - a carefully reasoned
argument will be strengthened by an emotional
Use description or narrate an example, often
from your own experience.
Your point of view is demonstrated in an
emotional appeal, and is important to the
Use careful word choice.
Pathos in Advertising
How to Build a Strong Argument
Introduction - establish your argument, and clarify the
importance of the issue.
Statement of the Case - tell story behind the
argument, offering background information
Proposition Statement - carefully state central
proposition, as a thesis statement would be given
Refutation - refute opposition arguments, exposing
Confirmation - develop your case, using examples,
facts, statistics (logos)
Digression - appealing anecdote or description, offering
ethos or pathos
Conclusion - finish with strong conviction; review main
points, or suggest call to action
“The New Frontier”
~John F. Kennedy
“I Have a Dream”
~Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.