Chapter 5 Respiratary system by gegeshandong


   Composition:
       Alimentary system 消化系统
       Respiratory system 呼吸系统
       Urinary system 泌尿系统
       Reproductive system 生殖系统
   Characters of viscera
       Most of viscera organs lies in the thoracic,
        abdominal and pelvic cavities
       All of them communicate with external
        environment through some orifices or channels
Reference lines of thorax

   Anterior median line
   Sternal line
   Midclavicular line
   Parasternal line
   Anterior axillary line
   Post axillary line
   Midaxillary line
   Scapular line
   Posterior median line
The abdominal regions
Nine regions
  Left and right
   hypochondriac region,
   epigastric region
  L . and R. lateral
   regions of abdomen,
   umbilical region
  L. and R. inguinal
   region, pubic region
Four quadrants

   Left and right upper
   Left and right lower
The Respiratory System
   Respiratory tract
     Nose

     Pharynx      upper respiratory tract
     Larynx

       Catch a cold
     Trachea

                   lower respiratory tract
     Bronchi

   Lungs-paired organs of respiration
    Function: supply the body with oxygen
    and to get rid of excess carbon dioxide
    resulting from cell metabolism
Nose 鼻

External nose:
 Root of nose

 Back of nose

 Apex of nose

 Alae nasi (nosewing)

 Nasal cavity –divided
  into two halves by nasal
paranasal sinuses
Two parts:
   Nasal vestibule
   Proper nasal cavity
   Roof-cribriform plate of
   Floor-hard palate
   Medial wall-nasal septum
   Lateral wall
     Nasal conchae: superior,

       middle and inferior
     Nasal meatus: superior,

       middle and inferior
Mucous membrane of nose
   Olfactory( sense of smell) region嗅区: superior nasal conchae
    and the mucosa of septum opposite it. contains olfactory cells
   Respiratory region 呼吸区: its function is to warm, moisten, and
    clean the inspired air
 The paranasal sinuses and their site of
 drainage into the nose
Name of sinus       Site of drainage

Frontal sinus       Middle meatus via infundibulum

Maxillary sinus     Middle meatus through semilunar hiatus
Sphenoid sinus      Sphenoethmoidal recess

Ethmoidal sinuses
                    Middle meatus
                    Middle meatus
                    Superior nasal meatus
                  Frontal sinus

        Ethmoidal sinuses
                                  Sphenoid sinus

Maxillary sinus
Larynx 喉
Tubular organ
Position-situated in the
  anterior middle part of
  the neck (below the
  hyoid bone), and
  extends from the
  vertebral level of C4 to
   Composition:
    encircled by:
    Laryngeal cartilages
    Laryngeal muscles
    Laryngeal fibroelastic membrane
Laryngeal cartilages 喉软骨
Thyroid cartilage 甲状软骨
 Shield-shaped cartilage
 Laryngeal prominence
 (adam’s apple) at the
  base of thyroid notch
Cricoid cartilage 环状软骨
 Complete ring of cartilage
  (shaped like a signet (seal)
 at the level of C6
Arytenoid 杓状软骨 (ladle)
 Paired, pyramid -shaped,
  articulate with lamina of
  cricoid cartilage
 Vocal process anteriorly, site
  of posterior attachment of
  vocal cords
Epiglottic cartilage 会厌软
  骨 leaf-shaped elastic
  cartilage situated behind
  the root of the tongue
  prevent food from
  entering the windpipe
Muscles of larynx
   Increasing tension on the vocal ligament-cricothyroid
   Decreasing tension on the vocal ligament-thyroarytenoid
   Opening the glottis-posterior cricoarytenoid
   Closing the glottis- cricoarytenoid
Laryngeal cavity
Aperture of larynx 喉口-bounded by upper border epiglottic
  cartilage, aryepiglottic folds and interarytenoid notch
Structure features
 Two pairs of shelf- like folds :
       Vestibular folds 前庭襞
       Vocal folds 声襞
       Vocal cords
   Two fissures
       rima vestibuli 前庭裂
       rima glottidis 声门裂
       The narrowest part of
        laryngeal cavity
Three parts
   Laryngeal vestibule 喉前庭
      Extends from the aperture of
       larynx to the rima vestibuli
     Tubercle of epiglottis 会厌结节

   Intermedial cavity of larynx喉
     Extends from the level of the
       rima vestibuli to the level of the
       fissure of glottis
     Ventricle of larynx 喉室
       -a small recess between
       vestibular and vocal folds on
       each side
   Infraglottic cavity 声门下腔
     extends from the level of the
       vocal folds to the lower border
       of the cricoid cartilage
    Trachea 气管
   Position: extends from the lower
    border of cricoid cartilage to the
    level of sternal angle (between
    T4-T5 vertebrae) where it
    divides into right and left principal
   Structure features
       Consists of about 16-20
        C-shaped incomplete
        tracheal cartilages for
        patency (being open)
        connected by smooth
        muscle and elastic fibers
Bronchi 支气管
Right principal bronchus 右主支
 Shorter, wider, and more vertical
  than the left , is about 2.5cm
  long, Foreign bodies are
  therefore more likely to lodge in
  this bronchus or one of its
Left principal bronchus 左主支气
 Narrower, longer, and more
  horizontal than the right ,is
  about 5cm long,
Lungs 肺
Position: located in the thoracic
  cavity on both sides of
General features
 Cone-shaped, the right lung is
  shorter and broader, the left one
  is longer and narrower
 Apex of lung-rises 2 ~3 cm
  above the medial third of clavicle
  into neck
 Base-concave, related to
  diaphragm, also called
  diaphragmatic surface
 Costal surface-large, convex,
  related to thoracic wall
   Medial surface-concave, related to
    mediastinum and vertebrae
       Hilum of lung 肺门:area on medial
        surface where structures in root
        enter or leave lung
       Root of lung 肺根
           Contents
             Principal bronchus

             Pulmonary artery and vein

             Nerves and lymphatics

           Surrounded by connective
Three borders
       Posterior-blunt
       Inferior- sharp
       Anterior-sharp

Lobes and Fissure
 Right lung

       Two fissures : horizontal
       Three lobes : superior, middle,
   Left lung
       One fissure : oblique
       Two lobes : superior and
Bronchial tree支气管树
Each principal bronchus
divides into lobar bronchi
(two on the left, three on
the right), each of which
supplies a lobe of lung.
Each lobar bronchus then
divided into segmental
bronchi, which supply
specific segments of the
Bronchopulmonary segments支气管肺段
   Wedge shaped, with the base lying peripherally and the
    apex lying towards the root of lungs, ten in each lung
   Each with a segmental bronchus and branches of
    pulmonary artery
   The veins lie both in and between segments
The Pleura 胸膜
General features
   Serous membranes
    forming closed sacs
   Two layers
       Visceral pleura-adheres
        to the lungs, continuous
        with parietal pleura at the
        root of lung
       Parietal pleura-lines the
        thoracic cavity
Two pleural layers continue
with each other at the root
of the lung forming closed
potential space-pleural
cavity 胸膜腔
   Contains a small amount of
    pleural fluid
   Subatmospheric pressure in it
Named parts of parietal pleura
   Cupula of pleura 胸膜顶
    -extends up into the neck, over
    the apex of lung, 2~3cm above
    the medial third of clavicle
   Costal pleura 肋胸膜
    -lines the inner surface of the
    wall of the chest
   Mediastinal pleura 纵隔胸膜
     Lines mediastinum

     Pulmonary ligament 肺韧带
       -redundant pleura at root of
       lung, which extends
       downward, allows movement
       of structures forming root of
   Diaphragmatic pleura 膈胸膜-
    Lines diaphragm
Pleura recesses 胸膜隐窝-
    potential spaces of pleural cavity
    which lungs are not occupied in
    quiet respiration
   Costodiaphragmatic recess肋
    膈隐窝-are the slit-like intervals
    between costal and
    diaphragmatic pleurae on each
    side, the lowest point of pleural
   Costomediastinal recess
    肋纵隔隐窝-on the left side
    between the mediastinal pleural
    and costal pleura
The surface projection of lower border
of lung and pleurae

Lower    Midclavicular   Midaxillary   Sides of the
border   lines           lines         vertebral

Lungs    6th rib         8th rib       10th rib

Pleura   8th rib         10th rib      12th rib

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