Chapter 1 - Part 4

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Chapter 1 - Part 4 Powered By Docstoc
					Chapter 1 – Part 4
 Section   – Cut
  • A section can be made
   through a body wall or organ
 Plane   – Imaginary line
  • A section (cut) is made along a
    plane or an imaginary line.
  • Sectioning a body or organ
    along different planes often
    results in very different views.
 There are three types
 of planes or sections:
  1. Sagittal
  2. Frontal
  3. Transverse
 Each plane or section
 lies at right angles to
 one another
1.   Sagittal Section – Cut made
     along a lengthwise, or
     longitudinal, plane; divides
     the body into right and left
     parts.
        Midsagittal or Median
         Section - If the cut is made
         down the median plane of
         the body and the right and
         left parts are equal in size.
2.   Frontal Section – Cut made
     along a lengthwise plane
     that divides the body or an
     organ into anterior or
     posterior parts.
        Also called a coronal
         section
3.   Transverse Section –
     Cut made along a
     horizontal plane,
     dividing the body or
     organ into superior and
     inferior parts.
        Also called a cross
      section.
 The body has two
 sets of internal
 cavities that provide
 different degrees of
 protection to the
 organs within them.
  1. Dorsal Body Cavity
  2. Ventral Body Cavity
 Thedorsal body cavity has
 two subdivisions, which are
 continuous with each other.
1.   Cranial Cavity – Space
     inside the bony skull
      The brain is well protected
       in the cranial cavity
2.   Spinal Cavity – Extends from
     the cranial cavity nearly to the
     end of the vertebral column.
      The spinal cord is protected by the vertebrae, which
       surround the spinal cavity.
 Much larger than the dorsal
  cavity.
 It contains all the structures
  within the chest and abdomen.
 Consists of two main cavities:
    1. Thoracic Cavity –Cavity
       superior to the diaphragm
       (dome shaped muscle used for
       breathing).
        Includes the lung and heart.
        Protected by the rib cage.
    2. Abdominopelvic Cavity –
       Cavity inferior to the
       diaphragm.
 Theabdominopelvic cavity can be
 subdivided two cavities:
  1. Abdominal Cavity – Superior cavity
     Includes: Stomach, liver, intestines, and other organs
     Most vulnerable organs to physical trauma since the
      cavity walls are only formed by muscle and no bone
  2. Pelvic Cavity – Inferior cavity
     Includes: Reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum
     Not continuous with the abdominal cavity in a straight
      plane, it tips away from it in the posterior direction.
     Organs receive some protection from the bony pelvis
      in which they reside
 Because   this cavity is quite large and
  contains many organs, it is helpful to
  divide it into smaller areas for study.
 There are two ways to divide this cavity:
  1. Quadrants
  2. Nine separate regions
 Divides  the abdomino-
  pelvic cavity into four
  regions called quadrants.
 The quadrants are simply
  named according to their
  relative position:
  1. Right upper quadrant
  2. Right Lower Quadrant
  3. Left Upper Quadrant
  4. Left Lower Quadrant
 Dividesthe abdomino-
 pelvic cavity into nine
 separate regions by
 four planes:
  1: Umbilical Region – Centermost region, deep to
    and surrounding the umbilicus (navel)
  2: Epigastric Region – Located superior to the
    umbilical region
  3: Hypogastric (Pubic) Region – Inferior to the
    umbilical region.
 Nineseparate
 regions (continued):
  4 and 5: Right and Left
    Iliac (Inguinal Regions) –
    Lateral to the hypo-
    gastric region
  6 and 7: Right and Left Lumbar Regions – Lie lateral
    to the umbilical region
  8 and 9: Right and Left Hypochondriac Regions –
    Flank the epigastric region and contain the lower
    ribs.

				
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