Bivariate relationships

					Crosstabs to Multivariate Regression


Missouri Death Penalty Charges by
Race of Defendant and Race of
Victim, 1978-1996
Research Question
   What causes a capital defendant to get
    the death sentence?
Theory
   Death sentence is caused by race of
    defendant
   Death sentence is caused by race of
    victim
  Frequencies

                     Frequency   Percent
           0 Not
  Death                9281       94.3
           death
 Penalty
           1 death      562        5.7
 Race of 1 white       3199       32.5
defendant 2 black      6644       67.5
 Race of   1 white     3544       36.0
 victim    2 black     6299       64.0
Model

   Race of
  Defendant
                 +

+                    Death sentence



Race of Victim   -
Correlation syntax
   corr death racedef racevic.
  Pearson r Correlation Table

                     Race of    Race of
            Death
                    defendant   victim
Death         1       -.097      -.146
Race of
            -.097      1         .810
defendant
Race of
            -.146     .810        1
victim
        Death by Race of Defendant
                          death * racedef Crosstabulation

                                                   racedef
                                          1.00 white         2.00 black    Total
death    .00 Not      Count                      2913               6368        9281
         death        % within
                                                91.1%             95.8%       94.3%
                      racedef
         1.00 death   Count                       286               276         562
                      % within
                                                 8.9%              4.2%        5.7%
                      racedef
Total                 Count                      3199              6644        9843
                      % within
                                               100.0%            100.0%     100.0%
                      racedef
Regression syntax
   regr vars = death racedef /depe =
    death/enter.
        Regression of Death Penalty
        on Race of Defendant

                                            Coefficients a

                                                       Standardized
                       Unstandardized Coefficients     Coefficients
Model                       B            Std. Error          Beta       t            Sig.
1        (Constan
                                  .137          .009                        15.878          .000
         t)
         racedef                -.048           .005            -.097       -9.629          .000
   a. Dependent Variable: death
Death By Victim Race
                         death * racevic Crosstabulation

                                                  racevic
                                         1.00 white         2.00 black    Total
death   .00 Not      Count                      3182               6099        9281
        death        % within
                                              89.8%              96.8%       94.3%
                     racevic
        1.00 death   Count                       362               200         562
                     % within
                                              10.2%               3.2%        5.7%
                     racevic
Total                Count                      3544              6299        9843
                     % within
                                             100.0%             100.0%     100.0%
                     racevic
        Death By Victim Race

                                            Coefficients a

                                                       Standardized
                       Unstandardized Coefficients     Coefficients
Model                       B            Std. Error          Beta       t            Sig.
1        (Constan
                                  .173          .008                        20.946          .000
         t)
         racevic                -.070           .005            -.146   -14.602             .000
   a. Dependent Variable: death
Death by Defendant Race by
Victim Race
                            death * racedef * racev ic Crosstabulation

                                                                  racedef
racevic                                                  1.00 white         2.00 black    Total
1.00      death   .00 Not          Count                        2671                511        3182
white             death            % within
                                                              90.7%              85.3%       89.8%
                                   racedef
                  1.00 death       Count                         274                88         362
                                   % within
                                                               9.3%              14.7%       10.2%
                                   racedef
          Total                    Count                        2945               599        3544
                                   % within
                                                             100.0%             100.0%     100.0%
                                   racedef
2.00      death   .00 Not          Count                         242              5857        6099
black             death            % within
                                                              95.3%              96.9%       96.8%
                                   racedef
                  1.00 death       Count                          12               188         200
                                   % within
                                                               4.7%               3.1%        3.2%
                                   racedef
          Total                    Count                         254              6045        6299
                                   % within
                                                             100.0%             100.0%     100.0%
                                   racedef
Previous Crosstab Simplifed:
Percent Receiving Death Penalty

                   Victim
                  White     Black
 Defendant White 8.4%       4.7%
          Black   14.7%     3.1%
          Pearson r between Defendant
          Race and Death by Victim Race

                                                       Symmetric Measures

                                                                                                      a           b
racevic                                                            Value          Asymp. Std. Error       Approx. T    Approx. Sig .
1.00        Interval by Interval   Pearson's R                          .067                   .019            3.977            .000c
white       Ordinal by Ordinal     Spearman                                                                                         c
                                                                           .067               .019             3.977           .000
                                   Correlation
            N of Valid Cases                                               3544
2.00        Interval by Interval   Pearson's R                         -.018                  .015            -1.438           .151c
black       Ordinal by Ordinal     Spearman                                                                                         c
                                                                       -.018                  .015            -1.438           .151
                                   Correlation
            N of Valid Cases                                               6299
    a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

    b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

    c. Based on normal approximation.
Histogram syntax
   sort cases by racevic.
   split file by racevic.
   GRAPH /BAR(GROUPED)=PCT BY
    death BY racedef .
      Histograms
       White Victim                        Black Victim
                                                                     Race Defendant
100                                100


                                                                          White
80                                 80                                     Black

60                                 60




40                                 40




20                                 20




 0                                  0
       Not death           death         Not death           death
                   death                             death
  Multivariate Death on Victim’s
  Race and Defendant’s Race

                                             Coefficients a

                                                        Standardized
                        Unstandardized Coefficients     Coefficients
Model                        B            Std. Error          Beta          t            Sig.
1         (Constan
                                   .161          .009                           18.222          .000
          t)
          racevic                -.095           .008            -.196      -11.530             .000
          racedef                  .031          .008                .062        3.662          .000
    a. Dependent Variable: death

				
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