According to the text_ psychology is defined as the a. study of

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					1.     According to the text, psychology is defined as the:
       a. study of people’s subjective mental lives.
       b. examination of unconscious factors.
       c. scientific study of behavior and the mind.
       d. study of personality.
       Answer: c

2.     The field of psychology is concerned with the scientific study of:
       a. directly observable behaviors but not internal states and processes.
       b. internal states and processes but not directly observable behaviors.
       c. personality and abnormal behavior.
       d. directly observable behaviors and internal states and processes.
       Answer: d

3.     Which of the following activities best represents basic research?
       a. studying methods for reducing depression after the death of a loved one.
       b. studying changes in brain chemistry that are associated with depression.
       c. studying how to help AIDS victims effectively cope with their disease.
       d. studying the effects of a reading program designed to assist disadvantaged children.
Answer: b

4.     The four central goals of psychology are:
       a. description, explanation, control, application.
       b. description, understanding, reduction, influence.
       c. rationalize, understanding, prediction, application.
       d. simplify, analyze, influence, rationalize.
       Answer: a

5.     The approach known as _____________ attempted to analyze the mind in terms of its basic elements.
       a. functionalism
       b. structuralism
       c. Gestalt psychology
       d. insight psychology
       Answer: b

6.     A psychologist who assumes that people’s thought processes function almost like detailed computer
       programs would most likely be associated with which psychological perspective?
       a. psychodynamic
       b. biological
       c. behavioral
       d. cognitive
       Answer: d

7.     A researcher who is always willing to consider criticisms of his theory and to make theoretical revisions
       and adjustments when the evidence supports it is demonstrating behavior most consistent with which key
       scientific attitude?
       a. skepticism
       b. curiosity
      c. rationality
      d. open-mindedness
      Answer: d

8.    The first step in the scientific process is to:
      a. create a hypothesis.
      b. form a question about something interesting.
      c. create a prediction.
      d. test a hypothesis.
      Answer: b

9.    A hypothesis is best considered as a(n):
      a. tentative explanation or prediction about some phenomenon.
      b. attempt to explain something after it has already occurred.
      c. set of formal statements that explain how certain events are related to one another.
      d. particular type of experimenter expectancy.
      Answer: a

10.   A theory is best defined as:
      a. a tentative explanation or prediction about some phenomenon.
      b. a specific prediction, often in the form of an “if-then” statement.
      c. conducting research to test a prediction.
      d. a set of statements that explains the relationship between various events.
      Answer: d

11.   Scientists typically test their understanding through:
      a. prediction and control.
      b. hindsight understanding.
      c. after-the-fact understanding.
      d. the use of survey research.
      Answer: a

12.   The specific genetic makeup of an individual is referred to as the:
      a. genotype.
      b. phenotype.
      c. antigen.
      d. heritability coefficient.
      Answer: a
13.   _____________ refers to the observable characteristics produced by a particular genetic constitution.
      a. Concordance
      b. Genotype
      c. Phenotype
      d. The heritability coefficient
      Answer: c

14.   What is the first stage in the sensory processing of information?
      a. Specialized neurons break down and analyze the features of nerve impulses.
      b. A neural representation is compared with previously stored information.
       c. Sensory stimuli activate specialized receptors.
       d. Several stimulus “pieces” are organized into a neural representation.
       Answer: c

15.    According to psychologists, the term ______________ refers to the stimulus-detection process in which
       sensory receptors translate external stimuli into nerve impulses.
       a. perception
       b. sensation
       c. top-down processing
       d. kinesthesis
       Answer: b

16.    The psychological term perception specifically refers to the process in which:
       a. the sense organs respond to external stimuli.
       b. organization and meaning are given to incoming stimuli.
       c. transduction takes place.
       d. the sense organs translate stimuli into nerve impulses.
       Answer: b

17.    Psychologists define ____________ as the moment-to-moment awareness of our environment and
       a. controlled processing
       b. automatic processing
       c. consciousness
       d. dissociation
       Answer: c
18.    Which of the following lists Freud’s three levels of consciousness?
       a. ego, id, and superego
       b. automatic, controlled, and compensatory
       c. conscious, preconscious, and unconscious
       d. preconscious, unconscious, and nonconscious
       Answer: c
19.    Alcohol is classified as a(n):
       a. stimulant.
       b. opiate.
       c. hallucinogen.
       d. depressant.
Answer: d

20.    Which of the following drugs is classified as a stimulant?
       a. barbiturates
       b. alcohol
       c. amphetamines
       d. marijuana
       Answer: c

21.    The active ingredient in the marijuana plant is:
       a. THC.
       b. opium.
       c. gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
      d. psilocybin.
      Answer: a

22.   Which of the following is a typical myth associated with marijuana?
      a. Chronic use does not cause the occurrence of the condition called “amotivational syndrome.”
      b. There are no significant dangers associated with using marijuana.
      c. Because marijuana does not produce tolerance, you cannot become physiologically addicted to it.
      d. Marijuana use causes people to be more likely to use other, more dangerous drugs.
      Answer: b

23.   Psychologists define ____________ as the general process by which experience produces a relatively
      enduring change in behavior or capabilities.
      a. habituation
      b. adaptive significance
      c. learning
      d. extinction
      Answer: c

24.   Within the field of psychology, _______________ focus on how organisms learn and assume that there are
      general laws of learning that apply to virtually all organisms.
      a. ethologists
      b. behaviorists
      c. neurobiologists
      d. Freudian psychologists
      Answer: b

25.   You have just settled down to begin studying for your exam in this course when your roommate decides to
      turn on some music. At first, the music distracts you from your studying, but after a short time, the music
      no longer bothers you even though it continues to play. This example most clearly demonstrates the process
      a. extinction.
      b. negative reinforcement.
      c. classical conditioning.
      d. habituation.
      Answer: d

26.   Stimulus generalization refers to the process where stimuli that are similar to the initial ______________
      also elicit a conditioned response.
      a. CS
      b. UCS
      c. CR
      d. UCR
      Answer: a

27.   During ______________, a neutral stimulus becomes a CS after being paired with an already established
      a. latent learning
      b. extinction
      c. higher-order conditioning
      d. shaping
      Answer: c

28.   In order to cure himself of smoking, a man regularly places his package of cigarettes next to a particularly
      disturbing picture of two lungs that are black from a lifetime of smoking. After a week of this, the man
      can’t pick up his cigarettes without thinking of this intense image, and as a result he smokes less. In this
      example, because the picture naturally inspires negative feelings for the man, the picture would be
      considered a(n):
      a. UCS.
      b. CS.
      c. UCR.
      d. CR.
      Answer: a

29.   _______________ schedules of reinforcement are more resistant to extinction because if reinforcement has
      been unpredictable in the past, it takes longer to learn that it has stopped altogether.
      a. Fixed
      b. Primary
      c. Variable
      d. Continuous
      Answer: c

30.   The processes of recording, storing, and retrieving experiences are most relevant to which of the following?
      a. consciousness
      b. memory
      c. sensation
      d. motivation
      Answer: b

31.   ____________ specifically refers to the memory process in which information is retained over time.
      a. Storage
      b. Retrieval
      c. Encoding
      d. Priming
      Answer: a

32.   Another name for short-term memory is:
      a. procedural memory.
      b. working memory.
      c. declarative memory.
      d. iconic memory.
      Answer: b

33.   Individual items are grouped into larger units of meaning in a process called:
      a. grouping.
      b. chunking.
      c. elaborating.
      d. encoding.
      Answer: b

34.   A ____________ is an organized pattern of thought about some aspect of the world, such as people, events,
      situations, or objects.
      a. memory trace
      b. schema
      c. retrieval cue
      d. procedural memory
      Answer: b

35.   Which of the following was mentioned as a suggestion for improving memory?
      a. Use maintenance rehearsal to process information deeply.
      b. Massed practice is more effective than distributed practice.
      c. Maximize interference to ensure mastery.
      d. Link new information to examples and concepts already in memory.
      Answer: d

36.   All of the following were mentioned as suggestions to improve memory, EXCEPT:
      a. use maintenance rehearsal to process information deeply.
      b. organize your information.
      c. link new information to examples and concepts already in memory.
      d. distribute your learning over time.
      Answer: a

37.   The largest individual psychological association in the world is:
      a. the International Union of Psychological Science.
      b. the American Psychological Society.
      c. the American Psychological Union.
      d. the American Psychological Association.
      Answer: d

38.   Understanding what brain regions are involved in the experiencing of emotions operates at the
      ____________ level of analysis.
      a. biological
      b. psychological
      c. environmental
      d. sociocultural
      Answer: a

39.   The sociocultural and behavioral perspectives are similar in that both emphasize:
      a. the importance of internal mental factors.
      b. the role of the environment on the development of behavior.
      c. the effect of biological factors on behavior.
      d. the importance of innate human drives to actualize potential.
      Answer: b

40.   Imagine you are about to take a final exam. You have noticed yourself becoming increasingly worried
      about the exam as it approaches. Examination of your apparent amount of stress under these circumstances
      would entail which of the following level of analysis?
      a. biological
      b. environmental
      c. psychological
      d. genetic
      Answer: c

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