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   Сочинение Иностранные языки

In Russian, education is
      split up into
   compulsory basic
 education, which lasts
 nine years, and higher
Education in Russia is provided
predominantly by the state and is
regulated by the federal Ministry of
Regional authorities regulate
education within their jurisdictions
within the prevailing framework of
federal laws.
Private institutions account for 1%
of pre-school enrollment, 0.5% of
elementary school enrollment and
 17% of university-level students.
     In September 2007 Russia
upgraded its compulsory education
standard from nine to eleven years.
      Education in state-owned
   secondary schools is free; first
tertiary (university level) education
     is free with reservations: a
  substantial share of students is
         enrolled for full pay.
The literacy rate in Russia, according to
       the 2002 census, is 99.4%.
 16.0% of population over 15 years of
 age have tertiary (undergradute level
   or higher) education; 47.7% have
completed secondary education (10 or
   11 years); 26.5% have completed
 middle school (8 or 9 years) and 8.1%
      have elementary education.
According to the 2002 census, 68% of
children (78% urban and 47% rural)
aged 5 are enrolled in kindergartens.

According to UNESCO data, enrollment
in any kind of pre-school program
increased from 67% in 1999 to 84% in
    The stages of compulsory schooling in
 Russia are: primary education for ages 6-7
   to 9-10 inclusive; and senior school for
  ages 10-11 to 12-13 inclusive, and senior
 school for ages 13-14 to 14-15 inclusive. If
a pupil of secondary school wishes to go on
in higher education, he or she must stay at
   school for two more years. Primary and
   secondary school together comprise 11
                years of study.
Eleven-year secondary education in
Russian is compulsory since
September 1, 2007.
The eleven-year school term is split
into elementary (grades 1-4),
middle (grades 5-9) and senior
(grades 10-11) classes.
  Children are
accepted to first
grade at the age
    of 6 or 7,
 depending on
development of
   each child.
    Children of elementary classes are
normally separated from other classes
     within their own floor of a school
   They are taught, ideally, by a single
  teacher through all four elementary
   grades (except for physical training
  and, if available, foreign languages);
 98.5% of elementary school teachers
                            are women.
Pupil-to-teacher ratio (11:1) is on par
with developed European countries.

The school year extends from
September 1 to end of May and is
divided into four terms. Study
program in schools is fixed; unlike in
some Western countries,
schoolchildren or their parents have
no choice of study subjects.
     Vocational training option
  Upon completion of a nine-year
 program the student has a choice
of either completing the remaining
two years at normal school, or of a
      transfer to a specialized
   professional training school.
All certificates of secondary education
regardless of issuing institution,
conform to the same state standard
and are considered, at least by law, to
be fully equivalent.

After finishing the 11th form of a
secondary school, a lyceum or a
gymnasium one can go into higher
Traditionally, the universities and
 institutes conducted their own
admissions tests regardless of the
applicants' school record. In 2003
    the Ministry of Education
   launched the Unified state
   examination (USE) program
 The set of standardized tests for
   high school graduates, issued
uniformly throughout the country
  and rated independent of the
 student's schoolmasters, akin to
     North American SAT, was
  supposed to replace entrance
    exams to state universities.
The first nation-wide USE session
covering all regions of Russia was
  held in the summer of 2008.
    Tertiary (university level)
Russia, as of 2007–2008 academic
  year, has 8.1 million students
 enrolled in all forms of tertiary
education (including military and
      police institutions and
      postgraduate studies).
  Higher education institution, that is
   institutes or universities, offer a 5-
years programme of academic subjects
    for undergraduates in a variety of
fields, as well as a graduate course and
  writes a thesis, he or she receives a
     candidates degree or a doctoral
The trend for consolidation began in 2006 when
state universities and colleges of Rostov-on-Don,
     Taganrog and other southern towns were
 merged into Southern Federal University, based
  in Rostov-on-Don; a similar conglomerate was
     formed in Krasnoyarsk as Siberian Federal
  University; the third one is likely to emerge in
      Vladivostok as Pacific Federal University.
 Moscow State University and Saint Petersburg
 State University acquired the federal university
   status in 2007 without further organizational
Post-graduate levels

The system makes a distinction
between scientific degrees, evidencing
personal postgraduate achievement in
scientific research, and related but
separate academic titles, evidencing
personal achievement in university-
level education.

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