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Unit 10 Reports on Britain Under the Bombs I.Objectives 1.Skills 1) reading: understand figurative language 2) Writing: time and space sequence, deduction, conpare and contrast, practise analyzing how to solve a problem 3) Listening: listen for the main idea and important details, understand addition, subtraction, multiplication and division 4) Speaking: talking about the English people, practise making a news report on the air 2.Vocabulary development 1)Words: slight, endure, cast, boast, historic, spit, bump, rage, handful, flock, smash, rescue, wreck, decent, dot, innocent, explode, weed, stagger, expose, luxury, sector, flavour, flesh, limpse, sway, heal, 2)Expressions: night after night, in broad daylight, bring…under control, on the air, watch for, mark sth. down, provide for, break off, sink into, want in, make for, take in, be seized with, give way to, 3.Grammar 1) no matter what/ who/ when/ where… 2) It seemed impossible for sth to do sth. 3) as though… 4) whatever/ whichever/whoever… 5) Mark it down that …, that…, that…, and that II. Teaching arrangements 1.Total class time for this unit: 8 periods 2. Suggested arrangement: 1) pre-reading activities: 15' 2)understanding the structure of text A: 25' 3) detailed study of the language: 30' 4) grammar: 20' 5) exercises: 35' 6) reading skills: 15' 7) detailed study of the language of text B: 30' 8) writing skills: 10' 9) comprehensive exercises: 45' 10) supplementary reading and vocabulary exercises: 45' 11) listening : 90’ III. Pre-reading activities 1. Background information 1)World War II 2)Columbia Broadcasting System(CBS) 3)Home Guard 4)Marshal Goering 5)Royal Air Force 6)The Allied Nations 2. Questions and answers 1) Why was the Nazi air force repeatedly bombing London? 2) Discuss some ways the people of England coped with the suffereing of this time. 3) Do you think the English people considered giving up? Why didn’t they? IV. Main idea and devices to develop it 1. Main idea: Edward R. Murrow’s projection of eventual victory for the English in spite of the heavy bombing of the Germans turned out to be accurate. 2. Devices to develop it 1)time sequence The raids began in the middle of August→The hardships of London really started in the first week of september 2) Compare and contrast A. a contrast between the Germans and the English: The Germans: sure of their ultimate triumph, believe that England would surrender, bombed London The English: had English Channel and the Royal Air Force and the brave people, so the city survived B. a contrast between the horrible destruction in London and the tenacious survival of the people there 3)deduction(from general to specific) A general statement: The hardships of London really started in the first week of september, when Hitler was at last convinced that the English did not intend to give in. Details of hardships for London: a. September 7, …four hundred German bombers hammered the city with bombs… b. Marshal Goering boasted,… c. Fires burned, houses fell,…. d. Men, women, and children felt the effect of the bombs. e. Radar sirens…. 3.Main idea of each part and devices to develop it Part 1(Para.1―2) Main idea: On the air, Edward R. Murrow expressed a feeling of belief that London would survive the bombing of the Germans. Devices to develop it: definition Part 2(Para. 3-13)The English fought against the Germans’ bombing bravely. Devices to develop it: comparison and contrast, time and space sequence,deduction Part 3(Para. 14-15) Murrow’s projection of eventual victory for the English turned out to be accurate. Device to develop it: cause and effect V. Words,expressions and patterns A. Words 1.slight: a. small, not considerable; not serious or important a slight problem, a slight difference/ a serious problem, a big difference 2. endure: bear(pain, suffering, etc) patiently o for a long time; remain alive or in existence, esp. in spite of difficulties ; last, continue to exist endure noice/ sharp pain 同义词辨析 bear, stand,tolerate, put up with 3. cast: put, cause or direct(a look, thought, feeling or opinion);throw with force cast light on sth 对…提供了线索, cast doubt on sth.对…产生疑问 cast aside one’s doubts 打消疑虑, cast aside one’s former friends 抛弃朋友 4. boast: talk proudly 吹嘘 boast of/ about sth, boast that …自夸 5. historic: important in history; of the times whose history has been recorded a historic event/speech/ place 历史上著名的事件/演说/地方 cf historical: belonging to history(contrasted with stories or tales), having to do with history a historical event/person 历史事件/历史人物(真实的、非虚构的) a historical novel/play 历史小说/历史剧（内容与历史上的人物或事件有关） historical studies 历史研究 6． bump:travel, usu. in a vehicle, in an uncomfortable way because the surface one is moving over is rough 颠簸而行; hit (sth) with force, esp. accidentally bump into a tree 撞在树上, bump into a friend 偶然遇见 7．rage: continue with violence(usu. used to refer to sth powerful and unpleasant) It is said an epidemic disease is raging throught that country. The war raged and thousands of people were injured or killed. 8. handful: a small number a handful of guests/a handful of small change cf a host of 9. flock: a group (of animals, birds or people), emphasizing there are a great number of them a flock of travelers 一大批游客 flock to the cinema 蜂拥前往 10． rescue: save rescue sb from … 11. wreck : vt. destroy or ruin sth, n. vehicle or ship that has been destroyed or badly damaged 12. decent: socially acceptable; quite good decent behaviour, a decent meal , a decent job, decent trousers B. Expressions 1.night after night 一夜又一夜 cf hour after hour, year after year, day after day 2.in broad daylight 在光天化日之下 3. bring…under control 使控制住 be under control, be in control of, be out of control 4. on the air 广播 in the air 流传中, off the air 停播, up in the air 悬而未决 5. watch (out) for: 留神，等待 同义词组：be on guard against, guard against, be alert to, keep an eye on 6. mark sth down: write sth down 把……记下来 set sth down, get sth down 7. provide for: 保证 C. Patterns 1)no matter what/ who/ when/ where… 2)It seemed impossible for sth to do sth. 3)as though…(虚拟语气) 4)whatever/ whichever/whoever… 5）mark it down that …, that…, that…, and that 平行结构 Section B Forty-Three Seconds over Hiroshima I.Reading skills:Understanding figurative language The particular reading skill we reviewed in this unit is “understanding figurative language”. As we have already learned so far, to make language clearer, more interesting, and more vivid, we use expressions which are not literally true. We make comparisons in speaking and writing. Figurative language―language that compare---paints a picture for the reader. Figurative language can be confusing if it is understood literally. The ability to recognize and understand figurative language may help us fully understand an author’s point. 1.Similes: these are figurative expressions which directly compare one thing to another by using the words as or like. eg. The tobacco industry, coupled with Holleywood movies in which both male and female heroes smoked like chimneys… 2.Metaphors in which comparisons are only implied, without using as, like and the like. eg. 1) Newspapers appeared and people bought them, hurrying to work and reading reports of the battle raging over London.(The battle is compared to some animate being which might explode into anger, so the reader thinks that the battle was continuing with great violence.) 2) Much depended upon the handful of pilots who rose day after day and night after night to meet the flocks of Nazi bombers.(The English pilots are compared to something which can be easily held in the hand, emphasizing the small number of these pilots, whereas Nazi bombers are compared to huge numbers of large, firce birds. 3.Personification: figurative expressions which compare non-human things to humans. Take two more examples from reading Passage A: eg. 1)Radar sirens wailed, ambulances rushed from one place of agnony to another, and firemen faced the flames hour after hour. (radar sirens are compared to people who wailed.) 2)It seemed impossible for people of th city to do their daily jobs, to work and eat and sleep and carry on the business of life, with the crash of bombs all around the mand planes spitting fire in the skies above.(Planes are compared to people who spit.) II. Language points 1.dot:n. a small round mark vt. Place (things or people) here and there be dotted with , be dotted about 2.innocent: harmless; not guilty; suffering harm although not involved innocent substances, be innocent of, innocent victims 3. break off: come off or be removed by force; end (sth) suddenly cf. break down, break up, break through 4. sink into:come to(an unpleasant, undesirable mood, situation, state,etc) sink into a sound sleep, sink into disorder 5. stagger: vi. Walk or move unsteadily as if about to fall (from carrying sth. heavy, being weak, drunk or injured,etc) 6. expose: uncover or leave sb /sth uncovered or unprotected expose corruption, be exposed to dangers/ heat 7. luxury: (regular use and enjoyment of ) the best and most expensive food and drink, clothes, surroundings, etc.; a thing that is expensive and enjoyable but not necessary a luxurious/luxury house 豪宅, a life of luxury 奢华的生活 8. sector: an area that is separate from others; one of the areas into which the economic activity of a country is divided the chinese sector 华人区, the electronics sector 电子行业, employment in the public and private secotrs 国营和私营部门的就业情况, the banking sector 银行业 9. be wanting in (sth): lacking in (sth) 10. the sole heir to ………的唯一继承者 11.tower over 高踞于,耸立于 12. glimpse: a short look catch a glimpse of 13.sway: move slowly from side to side sway between two opinions 14. make for: move towards, head for 15. be seized with: be affected by a strong feeling, desire, etc. suddenly and intensely be seized with sudden chest pains 突然感到胸部疼痛, be seized with anger/ a desire to take revenge on sb. 心中充满怒火/复仇的愿望 16. heal: (cause to) become healthy and normal again heal one’s sorrows, heal sb of his wound cf. treat, cure 17.give way to: be replaced by 让位给 give way to many high buildings, give way to anger 搭配: in no way, in the/sb’s way, lead the way, make way for, make one’s way to/towards, under way III. Writing: 解决方法题型 1.写作模式 1)问题现状 2)怎样解决 Nowadays, A has become a problem we have to face. Though it' s easier said than done ,with the help of modern technology, we now have many means to solve it. People have figured out many ways to solve this problem. Firstly, 解决办法一.Though this method has its good sides like it can 带来的好处. One of its bad sides it brings about is that it can 带来的坏处. Secondly, 解决办法之二 is another means. But it also has its advantages and disadvantages. On the one hand, 好处 . On the other hand , 坏处. All in all, the solutions may not bring the perfect result, but as long as we do it with our brains and hands, we will one day resolve the problem. 2.Writing assignment: How to Solve the Traffic Problem? III. Supplementary exercises A.Vocabulary 1.The student has been ________ to English for four years. a. used b. exposed c. learned d. acquired 2. It is difficult to break down the _________ which separates different classes. a. barrier b. badge c. bar d. bandage 3.Visitors came in ________ to see the new bridge. a. schools b. swarms c. herds d. flocks 4. By moving the radar beam around slowly in circles, we can ______ the surroundings. a. explore b. expose c. exploit d. explode 5.Mr. Thompson gave all the _______ papers of his grandfather to the public library according to his grandfather’s will. a. history b. historian c. historic d.historical 6. The child is unhappy with the limitations ________ on him by his parents. a. imposed b. composed c. exposed d. opposed 7.All our attempts to _____ the child from drowning were in vain. a. regain b. recover c. reserve d. rescue 8. His plan was ______ by the committee. a. projected b. objected c. rejected d. subjected 9. The strong storm did a lot of damage to the coastal villages: several fishing boats were _______ and many houses collapsed. a. wrecked b. spoiled c. torn d. ruined 10. Please be careful when you are drinking coffee in case you _______ the new carpet. a. crash b. pollute c. spot d. stain 11.I shall have a companion in the house after all these ________ years. a. single b. sole c. alone d. lonely 12. I caught a _______ of the car before it disappeared around the corner. a. glance b. glimpse c. look d. view 13.The teacher _____ the faults of my pronunciation in three days. a. cured b. healed c. treated d. remedied 14. The sports meet, originally due to be held last Friday, was finally _______ because of the bad weather. a. set off b. broken off c. worn off d. called off 15. The store had to _______ a number of clerks because sales were down. a. lay out b. lay off c. lay aside d. lay down 16.The terrorists might have planted a bomb on a plane in Athens, set to ______ when it arrived in New York. a. get off b. carry off c. go off d. come off 17.If you _______ any bug in these pages, please do not hesitate to contact with us. a. bump into b. bump up c. bump back d. bump out 18. He likes to ______ his knowledge of modern art, and never misses an art show. a. show in b. show out c. show off d. show up 19. When he realized the police had spotted him, the man _______ the exit as quickly as possible. a. made off b. made for c. made out d. made up 20.Let us have a class meeting before we _____ for the vacation. a. break up b. break down c. break off d.break away 21. It is inevitable that certain traditional forces will get ________ while we are starting the unprecedented economic reform in China. a. in the way b. on the way c. out of the way d. by the way 22. He hoped the firm would ______ him to the Paris branch. a. exchange b. transmit c. transfer d. remove 23. There was a ______ when two electric wires touched each other. a. light b. flame c. beam d. spark 24.Before my grandfather died, he made ________ for all his children in his will. a. protection b. disposition c. provision d. attachment 25. There's little chance that mankind would a nuclear war. A) retain B) endure C) maintain D) survive 26. Some old people don't like pop songs because they can't______so much noise. A) resist B) sustain C) tolerate D) undergo 27. Operations which left patients and in need of long periods of recovery time now leave them feeling relaxed and comfortable. A) exhausted B) abandoned C) injured D) deserted 28.If you are always sitting up late that night, I'm afraid you may ___ from overwork soon. a. fall b. descend c. sicken d. collapse 29. There is not the _____ doubt about that. a. weakest b. thinnest c. slightest d. smallest 30. The destruction of these treasures was a loss for mankind that no amount of money could ______. A) stand up to B) make up for C) come up with D) put up with B. Reading Comprehension Passage 1 In our society the unwritten rules of communication discourage the direct expression of most emotions. Count the number of genuine emotional expressions you hear over a two- or three-day period and you’ll discover that emotional expressions are rare. People are generally comfortable making statements of fact and often delight in expressing their opinions, but they rarely disclose （透露） how they feel. Not surprisingly, the emotions that people do share directly are usually positive. For example, one study of married couples revealed that the partners shared flattering feelings of face-saving ones. They also willingly disclosed both positive and negative feelings about absent third parties. On the other hand, the husbands and wives rarely expressed face-threatening feelings or hostility. Surprisingly, social rules even discourage too much expression of positive feelings. A hug and kiss for Mother is all right, though a young man should shake hands with Dad. Affection toward friends becomes less and less frequent as we grow older, so that even a simple statement such as “I like you” is seldom heard between adults. A review of research on emotional expression supports the cultural stereotype（典型） of the nonemotional male and the more emotional female. As a group, women are more likely than men to express their emotions. They are better at distinguishing between related feelings such as liking and loving, and they are more likely to have more affectionate relationships than men. Of course, these gender (性别) differences are of statistical average, and there are many men and women who do not fall into these types. 1.According to the passage, people rarely express their feelings because ___________. A.they would not feel comfortable doing so B.they like facts better C.they think personal feeling would distort facts D.they seldom have positive feelings 2.Which of the following utterances expresses a face-threatening feeling? A.You are not doing well this time, but you will be OK. B.Jane always phones her boyfriend at work. C.You seldom have time even talking to me. D.You look pretty today, where did you get that sweater? 3.It can be inferred from the passage that when people grow older, __________. A.they are better at expressing their feelings B.they express positive feelings only to their close relatives C.they often try to stay away from friends D.they hide their feelings better 4.The traditional view holds that _________. A.men are better at expressing their feelings than women B.women are better at expressing their feelings than men C.people become more silent when they grow old 5.which of the following statements is true according to the passage? A.All women are better at recognizing feelings than men. B.All men are better at recognizing feelings than women. C.The average men do not like women. D.Some men are better at expressing themselves than women. Passage 2 The agricultural revolution in the nineteenth century involved two things: the invention of laborsaving machinery and the development of scientific agriculture. Laborsaving machinery naturally appeared first where labor was scarce. “In Europe,” said Thomas Jefferson, “ the object is to make the most of their land, labor being abundant; here it is to make the most of our labor, land being abundant.” It was in America, therefore, that the great advances in nineteenth-century agricultural machinery first came. At the opening of the century, with the exception of a crude plow, farmers could have carried practically all of the existing agricultural implements on their backs; by 1860, most of the machinery in use today had been designed in an early form. The most important of the early inventions was the iron plow. As early as in 1790, Charles Newbold of New Jersey had been working on the idea of a cast-iron(铸铁)plow and spent his entire fortune in introducing his invention. The farmers, however, would have none of it, claiming that the iron poisoned the soil and made the weeds grow. Nevertheless, many people devoted their attention to the plow, until in 1869 James Oliver of South Bend, Indiana, turned out the first chilled steel plow. 1.What does the passage mainly discuss? A.New Jersey as a leader in the agricultural revolution. B.Machinery that contributed to the agricultural revolution. C.The need for agricultural advances to help feed a growing population. D.The development of safer machines demanded by the labor movement. 2.The word “naturally” as used in Para. 1 is closest in meaning to which of the following? a. Unsurprisingly b. Gradually c. Apparently d. Safely 3.Which of the following can be inferred from what Thomas Jefferson said? a. Europe was changing more quickly than America. b. Europe had greater need of farm machinery than Americans did. c. America was finally running out of good farmland. d. There was a shortage of workers on American farms. 4.What point is the author making by stating that farmers could carry nearly all their tools on their backs? A.Farmers had few tools before the agricultural revolution. B.Life on the farm was extremely difficult. C.Americans were traditionally self-reliant. D.New tools were designed to be portable. 5.The farmers rejected Newbold’s plow because ________. A.their horses were frightened by it B.it was too expensive C.they thought it would ruin the land d.they preferred lighter tools acdbd baddc Listening and Speaking Activities(2 Periods) Ask students questions to check their understanding of what they listen to by themselves before they come to class. Then ask them to listen to four passages of the third part. Focus on the main idea of each passage and the important details. Teach the student the ways of understanding long sentences. After the listening activities, ask students to do the following oral work: 1.Can you summarize the characteristics of the English people and analyze the factors that contribute to their success in fighting against the Nazis. 2.What can we learn from the history books? 3.Practise conversational skills, focusing on addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. 4. Act out the role of Edward R. Murrow and give a news report on the air.
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