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									Community Empowerment for progress Organization

                           Basic survey report

            Constituency Development Fund

Application of SWOT analysis for establishing data for future in-depth research

                               BASIC SWOT ANALYSIS


                       Constituency Development Fund –CDF 2010

                        A quality study

Contact: Community Empowerment for Progress Organization-CEPO


                       December 2010


Community Empowerment for Progress Organization (CEPO) expresses gratitude to its team for their
tireless engagement in carrying out this assessment on the basic SWOT analysis on the Constituency
Development Fund (CDF) after the independence of South Sudan from the rest of Sudan.

CEPO appreciates the honorable members of both national and state assemblies that were involved in
giving information at the course of data collection processes, members of the selected constituencies for
the survey including the formal groups such as youth, religious institutions, women and chiefs for their full
cooperation and assistance making this assessment successful in their respective constituencies without
any interference and same appreciations are extended to all the executive directors, Payam
administrators, Boma administrators and headmen involved in the study.

Thanks to everybody who have contributed towards the success of this basic study


To understand the effectiveness and impact of the Constituency Development Fund and to draw
information in response to the constituency development act 2007 section 40(6) quoted as “All County
Project Committees and all Constituency Development Committees shall be dissolved upon the
election of a new Assembly and no payments shall be made from the Constituency Accounts until
the new Committees are formed”.

 There is need for an evaluation to be carryout in order to establish clear view of the impact of constituency
development fund in the year 2011. This study mainly focuses on the use of basic SWOT analysis for
viewing the constituency development fund impacts and effects and for drawing findings and
recommendations for in-depth research on the constituency development fund by the national assembly
research unit. The studies was carried out covering three randomly selected constituencies and in total 30
constituencies were covered. The constituencies are mixed of rural, urban and populated constituencies.

The focus of the study was qualitative in order to establish ground information for carrying out quantitative
study by the government or any other stakeholder, and if CEPO receive funds, it may undertake the broadly
research before the distribution of the next constituencies development funds for the year 2012.

The overall purpose for conducting this study comes as a result of CEPO plan to conduct awareness rising
on South Sudan Constituency Development Fund act 2007. Secondly, the issue of how much is the
constituencies’ development funds being preserved by the constituencies’ members.

The basic SWOT analysis of the study confirmed that, there is need to carry out an in-depth study to have
genuine perspectives on the effectiveness and impact of constituency development fund in the year 2012.

The overall summary of the SWOT analysis findings are;

         The constituency development fund is seen positively by the constituency members (community) in
          various ways ranging from taking the town to the people, addressing rural migration, promoting and
          strengthening civic engagement, making people feel the presence of the government including
          answering some of the questions for the libration war.
         There is need for much to be done in raising awareness among the constituency members on the
          constituency development fund act 2007, because the level of ignorance about the act among the
          constituency members is high including majority of parliamentarians involved in the study target

 Among the key recommendations for follow up action are;
    Development of constituency development fund public awareness raising manual is paramount
       which CEPO intends to initiate.
    The national assembly research committee should undertake in-depth research on the
       constituency development funds projects of the year 2011 in order to have clear perspectives
       before the distributions 0f 2012 funds
    Accountability and transparency regarding the CDF should be made in both approach state
       institution owned processes on one hand and constituency members owned in the other hand

 The study has faced the following challenges below;
  o Majority of the constituency members turn to blame much than give genuine argument for
      betterment of the constituency development funds
  o Little finance for carrying out the study, this has made access to adequate information limited
  o Majority of the constituency members seem to view the CDF as government owned projects than
      being theirs. This has been a problem in some constituencies in great Bahr El Ghazel states in

Constituency Development Funds (CDF) is an approach of sharing the national wealth with the
communities through supporting total community development projects or initiatives. The CDF is allocated
through the members of parliament for each constituency. The parliamentarian is obliged to work together
with the constituency members on selecting which project do the constituency members want to be funded
by the CDF funds. Unfortunately, there is good number of cases that the constituency members felt they
are neglected by their parliamentarians or their parliamentarians have misused the CDF and other
constituencies’ members felt they are not involved in the processes of the CDF fully; it is only their
constituency government officials who are involved in the processes.

This basic SWOT analysis of constituency development fund comes as results of CEPO concern about the
following questions;

     1.    What is CDF to the constituency members?
     2.    Who own the CDF between the parliamentarians and the constituency members?
     3.    What has the CDF brought as a change into the communities of South Sudan?
     4.    How much are the constituency members informed about the CDF act and
     5.    What to extend is the act followed by both the parliamentarians and the constituency members?

CEPO considered these five questions as the motivators for this study. CEPO as civil society organization
feels that it has a duty to find answers to these questions and design a solution for each since civil society
organizations act as bridges between the citizens, their leaders and representatives

Any development in the society requires collective efforts. Hence CEPO want to establish this basic SWOT
analysis data to enable the national assembly to conduct in-depth research on year 2010 CDF project
specifically covering the thematic areas of;

    1. Changes brought by the CDF in the south Sudan communities and this includes the impact and
       effectiveness of the CDF
    2. Accountability and transparency regarding the CDF funds
    3. Participation of the constituency members in the CDF processes?

Therefore, this basic SWOT analysis will be used for lobbying the government to have evaluation on the
CDF across the country for the year 2012 CDF distribution.

Goal of the study

To have basic evaluation of constituencies’ projects processes in some parts of South Sudan

Specific objectives of the study

1. To be aware of the community members opinion on the CDF impacts
2. To learn about the community members opinion on CDF procedure and processes verse their
3. To learn about areas of improvement on the CDF projects
4. To identify gaps in the CDF processes
5. To develop basic data for CEPO intervention on the CDF through focusing on awareness rising among
   the constituency members.
6. To assess the level of awareness on the CDF act through a sample of random selection across the
7. To make recommendations and suggestion on way forward

This exercise is focusing on measuring the effectiveness and impact of the CDF in the communities of
South Sudan on one hand and trying to understand how much are the constituencies members informed
about the CDF act of 2007 on the other hand. The study is too basic and more of public discussions on the
processes and procedures of the CDF in year 2010 within the South Sudan communities. The approaches
used for facilitating the discussions are as follow below;

Informal Public discussions: Involves key informants forums in the communities. Forums in social places
such as tea joints, play locations and other informal public gatherings in the communities that can be used
to general public opinion on issues of concern. The approach was used to get the real ideas of common
men to formalize the processes of the discussions, which hinder freedom of expression.

Key informants interviews: Interviewing religious leaders, civil society organizations, youth, women,
chiefs, county commissioners, county executive directors, county legislative council members and
Payam/Boma administrators.

Focus group discussions: Grouping the individual who are the direct victims of the conflict addressed,
individuals involved in the constituency development fund activities in the communities or constituencies
directly or indirectly

Do No Harm: test of Do No harm was conducted during the study. This was done with the purpose of
understanding whether the CDF can trigger conflict that may level to violence on one hand and whether the
CDF can bring harmonious co-existence among the communities with difference or frictions within same

CLARIFICATIONS: Why SWOT analysis as study tool

1. Equating effectiveness and impact verses development in the constituencies and
2. Matching gaps verses failure, for discovering the CDF successes against losing on one hand and
   sustainability against areas that need improvement on the other hand. There is need to have a clear
   viewpoint about the CDF strengthens, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in order to draw
   reasonable conclusion on CDF facilitation in relation to the CDF successes, effectiveness, gaps and
   failures as bases for measuring sustainability and identifying areas of improvement.

The study intends to establish qualitative data with the use of SWOT analysis at basic level. In other words,
the study looks at community members and some national parliamentarians’ opinions without any statistical
test. The study involved the following category of the community members in each methodology approach
as below:

Under informal discussions: Estimated as 1,250 mixed community members were involved in giving
information through their personal opinion on the CDF processes, procedures and impact including their
level of information about the 2007 CDF act. The categories of community members involved in the
sections of the community include: Local government officials, Youth, women, religious leaders, community
opinion leaders, traditional leaders, and chiefs, members of the law enforcement agencies, traders and the
formal or informal community organized groups.

The constituencies covered are 30 in total and 3 constituencies per state. The criteria for selecting the
constituencies are random sampling technique covering the following aspects per state;

1. Populated constituency: this is a constituency which is highly populated. Some constituencies are
   selected with the characters of rural and urban population. In this type of constituencies, 10 were
   covered across the country. The populated constituencies compose of rural and urban setups

    2. Rural constituency: this is a constituency with absolute characters of rural society. In this type of
       constituencies 10 were covered across the country.
    3. Urban constituency: this is a constituency with absolute characters of urban society in this type of
       constituencies 10 were covered across the country.

    A general principle applied to all categories of the constituency is the population of the constituency must
    have at least stayed in the constituency since 2005-2010.

    The constituencies covered demanded their names withheld in this report but tabulated as constituency
    number (xy) for the reason of not exposing their representatives to the rest of the parliamentarians in which
    may instigate political friction, however, they agreed that their numbers (figures) and names will be
    mentioned under conditions that if the parliament mandated CEPO to conduct the study because this
    study is CEPO self-initiative for advocacy and lobbying for boarder study on the CDF under the parliament
    mandate so as to give boarder information for developing CDF community sensitization

    Rationale of the study

    This study was underlined by the principle of creating awareness rising on the constituency development
    act 2007. With regard to sensitization of the populace of South Sudan on the constituency development
    Fund act 2007, it is necessary to have knowledge on the past year 2010 CDF projects for effective
    designing of the sensitization manual. The study closely covers perspectives from the following
    characterized constituencies’ population, rural and urban constituencies across the country in order to have
    sample of opinion inclusively.

                                      RESULTS OF THE SWOT ANALYSIS
Strengthens                                       Weaknesses

Advantages of constituency development fund Disadvantages of constituency development fund
(CDF)?                                      (CDF)?

a) Promoting development in             the   rural a) More of government officials driven process
    communities( functionalize the concept of take b) It is more politically driven by politician aspiring for
    the towns to the people)                           political positions
b) Make the community understand what is c) Slow in implementation in terms of fund release
    government and this promotes civic engagement      and this sometimes create friction between the
Innovative aspects of the CDF on governance            constituency members with their leaders and
and development?                                       representatives
a) Help in making the people participate in both Gaps in CDF processes
    governance and developmental issues
b) Turn the term constituency as a value aspect a) The direct participation of the constituency
    that each community wish to have constituency      members is more of gilded processes
    in order to have funds for development          b) The constituency representative including the other
c) Creates chance for deeper understanding of          officials like personalizing the processes
    community development and civic engagement      c) Limited knowledge about the CDF processes and

d) Promotes more constituency members and their          the role of the constituency members during the
   leaders and representative interactions over          processes
   governance and development issues                 d) Ignorance about CDF policy with regard to
e) Encourage individuals to become more political        accountability and transparency
   interest for running for government positions     Gaps in capabilities as members of constituency?
 What are your capabilities as members of
constituency?                                        a) Lack of proper knowledge about the constituency
                                                         development act-2009
a) Have the power to being the approval for the      b) Lack of understanding the procedures of the
   project                                               constituency development funds
b) Understand the constituency challenges better     c) Poor culture of facts presentations to the
c) Being votes always having say is power                constituency members particularly by the
                                                         honorable members of the national legislative
Added value of the CDF                                   assembly
a) Proper boarder understanding of the               d) Believing on rumors strongly than facts
   constituency                                      e) Lack of spirit for recognizing the difference and
b) Do bring development into attention of every          implications of the constituency development fund
   member of the constituency                            on the community
c) Reduce politicians from being bully to being What are your own vulnerabilities as members of
   seekers of constituency members support and       the constituency?
d) Promotes accountability and transparency
   through the power of the electoral vote           a) Having less or zero knowledge about the
e) Promotes political pluralism in the sense that if     constituency development fund act and procedures
   the constituency has more members of              b) Always not being fully and directly involved in the
   parliament from various parties then the              process and the use of rumors by others is always
   constituency will get more opportunities of           high
   earning more funds                                c) Due to the fruits of the constituency development
                                                         funds, community frictions or clashes are on
                                                         increase over where should the development take
                                                     d) Negligence of the grass root members involvement
                                                         due to the constituency development fund
                                                         politicization of the scale of community conflict over
                                                         the facts information on the constituency
                                                         development fund is merging up
Opportunities                                        Threats

What are the interests for the CDF further             What are the negative aspects of CDF that people
activities?                                            do speak about?

a) Promotes principles- of- co-existence               a) Limited involvement and participation of the
b) Open space for public civic engagement over            vulnerable groups in the constituency
   governance and developmental issues                 b) Some national parliamentarians are bullying the
c) Strengthening and encouraging constituency             processes too much
   members and their leaders/representatives’          c) Some national parliamentarians have absolutely
   interactions                                           personalized the CDF and
d) Reduce migration from the rural to the urban        d) Distance themselves for the constituency members

   while                                               inquires
e) Increase the migration from urban to rural      e) Some national parliamentarians do not want to be
What do people say about the CDF positively?           held accountable, because of this
                                                   f) Majority of the constituency members see the CDF
a) Brings development to the people                    as government project where they have no say
b) Make people feel the presence of the                over it
    government for the people                      What are the future challenges that may create
c) Make people understand the cause of the war community members fictions or disagreement over
    that lasted for the 21 years                   the use of the CDF?
d) Helps in improving cooperation and co-existence
    among communities                              a) Limited participation of the constituency members
e) Draw attention of the community on democratic       right from the beginning of the CDF processes
    transformation                                 b) Slow or delay of the funds without updates to the
f) Empower both community members and                  constituency members may course some
    parliamentarians with information or data for      parliamentarians price
    framing effective governance and service c) Lack of strategy for follow up of the CDF planning
    policies                                           meetings
What help have you done in your community          What are the things that may prevent the
using the CDF?                                     sustainability of the CDF activity
a) Have brought together the conflicting parties for a) Lack of sensitization of the constituency members
   peace building and harmony co-existence               on the CDF act,2009, may cause friction and
b) Built and strengthen effective social relationship    clashes in some constituencies
   between the conflicting parties                    b) Poor designed follow-up plans by the various
c) Easier access to developmental opportunities          constituency stakeholders
d) Opens more room for dialogue with the c) No proper defined roles and responsibilities for all
   government over community developmental               the stakeholders to ensure accurate monitoring
   challenges                                            and evaluation of the CDF
e) Used as a tool of advocacy and lobbying for
   getting resources for other projects

                                         SWOT ANALYSIS FINDINGS

    Why the processes of the constituency development fund
     1. It is most of parliamentarian and other government officials driven process with limited community
         members participation right from the beginning of the processes in majority of the sample areas of
         the survey
     2. Majority of the constituency members including some parliamentarians are not well informed about
         the constituency development fund particularly the following sections of the act as below
             I.  Section 23: Composition of the Constituency Development Committee
            II. Section 33: Returns to Constituencies Development Fund
           III. Section 38: Community interests be represented
           IV. Section 40: Membership
            V. Section 43: County Projects Committee to approve
           VI. Section 35: Community Initiatives

Benefits of CDF
   1. Creates development in the rural communities
   2. Functionalize the concept of “ take the town to the people in the villages”
   3. Reduce rural-urban migration and
   4. Increase urban-rural migration
   5. Promote focus on civic engagement
   6. Make the community understand what is meant by constituency and why does it matters

Constraints and gaps of the CDF
   1. It is more political and intellectual driven in the sense no direct involvement of the community
   2. The constituency members have limited in some case zero knowledge on the constituency
       development fund act, 2007
   3. Due to the limited knowledge about the CDF procedures, proceedings and processes,
       accountability and transparency are at stake in some constituencies

Areas of improvement for the CDF processes
 1. Increase on awareness raising and dissemination of the constituency development act 2007 to the
     constituency members
 2. The constituency development committee increase constituency members inclusive participation
 3. Institutionalization of accountability and transparency on the constituency development funds
 4. Engagement of the local government fully at county level be strengthen in terms of outreach for
     prioritizing community interest

                  Findings on DO NO Harm application (conflict early warning system)

When the CDF connects people (The CDF in nature is a connector of communities’ members)

Processes                                                 Do NO Harm: When the CDF connects
                                                          people (The CDF in nature is a connector of
                                                          communities’ members)
                                                          Populated      Rural           Urban
                                                          Constituency constituency constituency
Properly facilitated and the processes are constituency Medium           High            High
members owned
When the location for the project is accepted by all the High            High            High
constituency members ( as that is our community interest)
When accountability is done in transparency manner before High           High            High
the majority of constituency members
When the members of the constituency are involved in the High            High            High
CDF prioritization debates rights from the initial stages
Key findings:

1. In the populated constituency, the CDF processes are competitive than in the rural or urban
   constituencies as demonstrated by Medium in the table above under the populated constituency

2. Once the constituency members are involved in all the processes of the CDF, then the CDF is a strong
   connector of the people in the society

When the CDF divides people

Processes                                                      Do NO Harm: When the CDF divides
                                                               people (The CDF in nature is a connector of
                                                               communities’ members)
                                                               Populated      Rural           Urban
                                                               Constituency constituency constituency
When the opposite of the connectors are always done            High           Medium          High
Processes are politicized by the constituency                  High           Medium          High
representative. I.e. members of the parties voted out start
distancing themselves far for forming opposition to the idea
of the CDF as political agenda
When the project is not addressing community interest          High           High           High
When the members of the constituency are ignorant of the       High           High           High
CDF processes
There are limited debates over the CDF activities within the   High           High           High
Key Findings:

    1. In the rural constituency, the members focus on the CDF critical is very low. Here the politicians
       are more in personalizing the CDF mainly due to the rural society ignorance about the CDF
    2. The politicization of the CDF processes is a strong divider of the people in the society since the
       society is a combination of the ruling party and the other parties and some members of the society
       are not funs of politics
    3. None involvement of the constituencies’ members in the CDF debates for planning and
       prioritization is a strong divider of the people in the society
    4. Ignorance of the constituencies members about the CDF act, 2007 has created great gaps in
       implementing the CDF and the informed members of the society are taking it as a chance of
       confusing the constituency members with their representatives


    1. There is need for sensitization the constituencies and members of parliament on the constituency
       development fund act 2007
    2. There is need to simplify the CDF in one page in the local languages of south Sudan tribes to
       strengthen knowledge on the CDF act,2007
    3. There is need for the government of south Sudan to conduct broad research on last year 2011
       CDF projects

    4. The parliamentarians need not to politicize and personalize the CDF projects since, the CDF is
       meant for the whole interest in which some community members are politicians and some are
       members of opposition parties
    5. There is need for the constituency members’ involvement in the CDF processes right from day
       one of planning
    6. The parliamentarians involved in handling the finances of the CDF have to make accountability and
       transparency of the funds utilization to the public


CDF is an approach of sharing the national wealth or cake. So it is the responsibility of the public to see
into it that the parliamentarians account for and ensure that the constituency members are able to make
their representatives answerable on these funds. It is indispensable to first know how much are the
constituency members informed about South Sudan CDF act of 2007. With these viewpoints, CEPO feels it
is essential to conduct sensitization/awareness on CDF act, 2007, it paramount that CEPO has to
assess the constituency members’ level of knowledge on last year projects and procedures before
carrying out the awareness. Basing on the findings of this survey, CEPO is working on designing CDF
sensitization/awareness manual which will be subjected to approval by the CDF parliamentary committee
and authorities in the government of south Sudan. Therefore, CEPO welcomes any entity that is ready to
fund this process.

CEPO South Sudan



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