THE INCREDIBLE, EDIBLE EGG
1. Basic Facts 4. Grades
-Eggs are in the meat group -Grade refers to the quality of the egg and its shell at
-Two eggs can be eaten for one serving of meat the time the egg is packed.
-Eggs are a high quality protein because they contain -Grades are AA, A, B, and C, AA being the freshest.
all of the essential amino acids (those than cannot be --The grade does not affect the food value or
manufactured by the body) and because the protein is nutrients, but does effect the egg's cooking
easily digested. Eggs also contain other important properties.
nutrients such as choline and lecithin. When cracked open, eggs of different grades have a
1B. Composition of an Egg
Albumin--white part-is both thick and thin--the 5. Sizes
fresher the egg, the thicker the white Size is based on minimum net weight per dozen.
Yolk--yellow part Jumbo, 30 oz.
Shell--porous and permits moisture and gases to pass Large, 24 oz .
through Small, 18 oz.
Bloom--thin, natural film that seals the pores of the Extra Large, 27 oz.
egg shell in order to protect the egg Medium, 21 oz.
Chalazae--thick white cord that holds the egg yolk in Pee Wee, 15 oz.
the center of the egg--sort of like an umbilical cord Recipes are written based on using large eggs.
that nourish the chick
6. Color of the Shell
2. Nutrition There is no difference between brown and white
-A large egg contains the following percentages of shelled eggs. The shell color is simply determined
U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances. by the breed of the hen. Both have the same
Protein 15%, Riboflavin 10%, Iron 5%’ Phosphorus nutrients, flavor, keeping quality and cooking
10%, Vitamin A 5%, Calcium 3%, Folic Acid 7.5%, characteristics.
Iodine 17.5%, Thiamin 3%, Zinc 5%, Vitamin B 12,
7.5%, Vitamin C less than 2% 7. What are the stringy white pieces in the egg
2B. Nutrition Rope-like strands of egg white, called chalazae
-Eggs also contain other important nutrients such as (ka-LAY-zee) are not imperfections, nor beginning
choline and lecithin. embryos. Chalazae serve as an anchor to keep the
-Both white and yolk contain protein, minerals and yolk centered in the thick white. It is harmless and
water soluble vitamins. The yolk also contains perfectly edible.
lecithin, cholesterol, the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E,
and K, and the lipids, and almost all of the iron. The 8. When buying eggs
fatty acids found in the yolk lipids are most -Buy eggs with no cracks
mono-unsaturated. Vitamin C is the only essential -Buy eggs that have been kept cold
nutrient not found in eggs. -Put eggs in the refrigerator as soon as you get home
3. Eggs and Cholesterol -Keep eggs in the carton you bought them in to help
-Egg yolks, when compared to all other foods, are keep the eggs from picking up other food odors
high in cholesterol content. -Eggs can be refrigerated for at least 4 to 5 weeks
-There is no proof that eating eggs will cause
coronary heart disease or that refraining from eating 9. Is the egg fresh?
them reduces the possibility of heart disease. -A fresh egg sinks when placed in cold water. An old
*Eat as part of a well balanced variety in egg floats because the egg has absorbed air through
moderation! its porous shell and it now has a larger air cell.
-A fresh egg has no odor when broken.
-As eggs age, their firmness breaks down and the
white and yolk combine more and spread. 13B. Hard-cooked/hard boiled--Cover the eggs in
their shells with water and bring the water to a rapid
10. Salmonella Bacteria boil over high heat. Then, reduce the heat so that
-There is a risk of contracting salmonellosis from the water is just below simmering. Cover the pan
raw or undercooked eggs. Thoroughly cooking and cook the eggs for 15 to 20 minutes. In order to
eggs kills any bacteria that might be present. prevent a greenish ring from forming around the yolk
- The chance of purchasing a contaminated egg at the (caused by the formation of iron sulfide), carefully
grocery store is 1 in 10,000 eggs. watch the cooking time, and immediately cool the
cooked eggs in cold water. Let the eggs stand in
10B. Salmonella Bacteria cold water for at least two minutes.
-Researchers have found that salmonella enteritidis
can contaminate eggs in two ways. One, is from 13C. Raw or Boiled?
eggs being contaminated by Salmonella in found in -How can you tell if the egg is raw or hard cooked?
chicken feces on the outside of the egg shell, which Spin the egg on the counter like a top, with the
penetrates the eggs through cracks in the shell. The pointed end down. If it spins, it is hard boiled. If is
second way researchers believe that eggs may doesn't spin, and it teeters over, it is raw. Why?
become contaminated is when an infected hen The raw egg inside gets thrown to the outside of the
transfers the bacteria to the egg yolk before the shell egg, making the egg off balance.
is formed. Thus, when the hen lays the egg, it is
already infected, and is not the result of outside 14. Scrambled, Break two eggs into a bowl with 2 T
contamination. milk, 1/4 t salt and a dash of pepper. Mix with a
fork, stirring thoroughly. Heat 1-2 T butter in a
11. Egg Uses and Properties skillet over medium heat until just hot enough to
Thicken: Eggs are used to thicken liquid mixtures sizzle a drop of water. Pour egg mixture into skillet.
such as custards, pudding, fillings, and sauces. As mixture begins to set at the bottom, gently lift
Leaven: Beaten eggs give a light airy quality to cooked portions with a spatula or a large spoon.
cakes, souffles, and puffy omelets. Avoid constant stirring. Eggs should still be moist
Bind: Eggs can be used to hold dry or heavy (but not wet) when cooked.
ingredients together. Eggs bind croquettes and
meat loaf. 15. Poached In a saucepan or skillet, heat 2" of water
Emulsify: Eggs have the unique ability to allow to boiling; reduce to a simmer. Break egg into a
liquid fats, like butter or oil, to combine with other saucer; slip eggs one at a time into water. Cook at
non-fatty liquids. (mayonnaise and salad dressing) least five minutes. Lift eggs from water with a
Coat: eggs and egg yolks are often used to coat slotted spoon or turner. Season with salt and
thins like breads and pastries. This helps them brown pepper.
and retain moisture.
16. Sunnyside-250 F for seven minutes if
12. Principles of cooking eggs uncovered, or four minutes if covered kills
-Cook eggs on low heat; protein rich foods become salmonella. In a heavy skillet, heat butter or
tough when cooked too high. margarine to 1/8" depth just hot enough to sizzle a
-Cook eggs the length of time given in the recipe; drop of water. Break each egg into a saucer and slip
cooking too long also toughens protein-rich foods them one at a time into the skillet. Reduce heat to
low. Cook slowly, spooning butter over eggs until
Different ways to cook eggs: the whites are set and a film forms over the yolk.
13. Soft-boiled--Put eggs in a pan, (still in shell), Season.
and cover with enough cool water to be 1" above the 16. Fried over easy--250 F three minutes on one
eggs, then bring to a boil. Remove from heat, put a side and two minutes turned over kills salmonella.
lid on the pan, and let stand 6 minutes. Pour off the
hot water, add cold water to cool just for a few
seconds, cut eggs in half and scoop eggs from shell.
Season with salt and pepper, and serve on toast.
17. The egg journey from hen to home
1. Laid--Hens lay eggs in a controlled environment
and are fed a healthful diet of specially mixed grain.
2. Collected--In many operations, the eggs drop
automatically from the hens' cages to a conveyor belt
3. Washed--The eggs are washed and sanitized.
(This process does however, remove the natural
protective covering, the bloom, which is the purpose
of the next step.)
18. The egg journey from hen to home
4. Treated--The eggs are lightly coated with a
harmless invisible oil. This seals the shell pores,
slows down aging and helps prevent bacteria from
entering the shell pores.
5. Candled--The eggs are passed over intense light
and rotated mechanically so that the contents can be
examined without cracking the shell. A candler
checks the condition of the shell, air cell, albumen
and yolk. Inferior eggs are removed.
6. Graded--The eggs are graded: Grade AA, A, or
19. The egg journey from hen to home
7. Sorted--The eggs are sorted according to
minimum weight per dozen:
8. Packed--To minimize breakage, the eggs are
packed in specially designed cartons marked with
the appropriate size and grade.
9. Cooled--The temperature of the eggs is lowered
to 45 F to maintain quality.
20. The egg journey from hen to home
10. Shipped--The eggs are shipped in refrigerated
trucks and delivered to stores. Most eggs reach the
supermarket a few days after laying.
11. Sold--The stores keep the eggs in refrigerated
display cases to maintain freshness.
12. Stored--At home, eggs keep best in their
original carton on a refrigerator shelf.