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					                 IMPROVING SAFETY
                          AT
                   LEVEL CROSSINGS
 Next                              A.K.RAO

Previous                       DIRECTOR GENERAL

  Home     Nov. 21,2005           RDSO, INDIA

    Exit                  1
               Indian Railways : Mega size Railway System


           •   63221 route kilometers
           •   40798 coaching vehicles (incl.EMUs & DMUs)
           •   7772 locomotives
           •   228170 wagons
           •   7031 block stations
 Next
           •   1442 thousand work force
Previous
  Home     •   Rs.1 Billion Revenue Expenditure daily.
    Exit                         2
                 Indian Railways- Daily Transport Output


           •   2 Million Train Kilometers.
           •   15 Million Passengers
           •   1.6 Million Tonnes Freight Loading
           •   9032 Passenger trains run
 Next      •   5700 Freight trains run
Previous
  Home
    Exit                        3
             LEVEL CROSSINGS (L.C.)


           Manned          16642 (45%)

           Unmanned        20313 (55%)

           Total           36955
 Next
           • On an average, 1 LC every 1.6 Km
Previous
           • Some spaced as close as 300 m
  Home
    Exit                    4
                             IR :Trend of Train Accidents per year

                                1393

           Accidents/year
           Avg No of Train

                                       866
                                             757

                                                       464
                                                             415 351 325
                                                                            234


 Next
                                                        Period
Previous        1960s                  1970s                 1980s         1990s
                2001-02                2002-2003             2003-04       2004-05
  Home
    Exit                                           5
               IR :Accidents per million train Kms

           6
                   5.5
           5

           4

           3
                          1.8     2
           2
                                        0.86 0.65 0.55
           1
 Next                                                          0.44 0.39 0.31
           0
Previous       1960-   1970-   1980-   1990-   2000-   2001-   2002-   2003-   2004-
                61      71      81      91      01      02      03      04      05
  Home
    Exit                                 6
                 Type wise Accidents per Year (1995-96 to 2004-05)


                                        Misc
                Unmanned LC Fire
                            3%
                                        1%     Collisions
                  17%                            6%




           Manned LC
             4%
 Next
Previous
                                                  Derailments
  Home                                              69%
    Exit                            7
                       Trends of Level Crossing Accidents
           139.4

                   112

                                                                 96        95
                                             84         88
                                                                                    70
                            67.7   63.2




 Next
Previous
  Home
           1960s   1970s   1980s   1990s   2000-01   2001-02   2002-03   2003-04   2004-05

    Exit                                      8
                   Trends of Unmanned Level Crossing
                        Accidents since 1995-96
                                                               80      82      86
                                                         73
                                              67                                       65
             52                      48
                     45       50




 Next      1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99   1999-   2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05
                                             2000
Previous
  Home
    Exit                                             9
            Trends of Manned Level Crossing Accidents
                          since 1995-96

                                              26
                     20              19
              16              16
                                                                          14
                                                          11
                                                                  8                9
                                                                                           5


           1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99   1999-      2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05

 Next                                        2000



Previous
  Home
    Exit                                           10
                     Casualties in Train Accidents (1995-96 to 2004-05)


                                   Fire
                                   2%        Misc             Collisions
                                             0%                 33%

           Unmanned LC
              40%




 Next                            Manned LC
                                                    Derailments
                                                       16%
                                   9%
Previous
  Home
    Exit                                  11
                   Level Crossing Accidents

           Type of LC Gate     % Share of       % Share of
                              Total Accidents    Fatalities
                                 on IR
           Manned               4%                  9%


           Unmanned              17%                40%
 Next
Previous   Total                 21%                49%
  Home
    Exit                          12
                Trend of Level Crossing accidents

           Type of LC   1995-1999      2001-2005    Trend
           Gate          (4 years)      (4 years)
           Manned            71             37        48 %
                                                    reduction
           Unmanned         195            313        61%
                                                    Increase
           • Accidents at Unmanned Level Crossing are
 Next        predominantly due to lapses on the part of road
Previous     users. In view of stupendous increase in road
             traffic, there does not appear to be any let up in
  Home
             the mishaps.
    Exit                          13
             Actions which have contributed to
             reduction of accidents at Manned Crossings

           • Progressive interlocking with Signals
             (45% completed)
           • Provision of telephones (94% provided)
           • Provision of Lifting Barriers with Retro
             Reflective marker in lieu of swing gates on
             double & Multiple lines
           • Widening of road width in Railway land
 Next
           • Distance of lifting barrier increased from 3m to
Previous     5m
  Home
    Exit                         14
           Unmanned Level Crossing : Analysis of accidents


           • Analysis of accidents indicates the following pattern :
              – 85% accidents involve passenger carrying
                trains.
              – 10% are on account of light engines.
              – Remaining 5% involve goods trains.
           • 30% of accidents have been caused by tractor drivers.
 Next      • Around 85% accidents have occurred during daytime.
Previous   • Similarly, around 85% accidents have occurred on
             single/branch line sections.
  Home
    Exit                           15
              Causes of unmanned level crossing accidents

           • Accidents occur at unmanned level crossings due to
             following causes :
              – Inability of road user to expect the train due to non
                 whistling by the train driver from the whistle board
                 right up to the level crossing.
              – Inability to hear the train whistle due to playing of
                 cassette recorder/FM radio at high volume.
              – Tinted glass in many cars prevent road users from
 Next            keeping a sharp look out.
Previous      – Misjudging the speed and distance of the approaching
                 train by the road user, since a train traveling at 90
  Home
                 kmph. covers 25 mts./sec.
    Exit                              16
             Causes of unmanned level crossing accidents (Contd.)


           – Inability to stop short of the level crossing and
             look out for a train due to steep gradient of the
             approach road to unmanned level crossing.
           – Inability to see the train due to obstructions along
             the track,
              • such as tree plantations, or
              • unauthorized jhuggis and hutments etc.
 Next      – Urge for misadventure and complacency.
Previous   – Stalling of vehicle on the level crossing.
  Home     – No driving license for tractor drivers till recently.
    Exit                           17
                 Action Plan to Arrest the Increasing Trend of
                 Accidents at Unmanned Level Crossings



           • Manning of Selected Unmanned Level
             Crossings as per revised criteria.


           • Educate road users by publicity campaigns
             periodically launched through various media
 Next        like quickies on TV, cinema slides, posters, talks
             on radio, newspaper advertisements and street
Previous     plays.
  Home
    Exit                          18
             Action Plan to Arrest the Increasing Trend of
             Accidents at Unmanned Level Crossings (Contd.)


           • Use of Train Actuated Warning Device
             (TAWD)
           • Ensure basic Infrastructure:
              – Adequate Width
              – Normal Gradient
              – Level Surface for 5 M from centre of
 Next            nearest track
              – Road surface in good condition
Previous
  Home
              – Speed Breakers/Rumble strips.
    Exit                       19
             Action Plan to Arrest the Increasing Trend of
             Accidents at Unmanned Level Crossings (Contd.)

           • Provide Retro Reflective road warning boards
             on approaches to level crossings to alert road
             vehicle drivers
           • Provide retro reflective Whistle boards alongside
             the rail track on approach to level crossings.
           • Check Visibility Levels and take corrective
             action.
 Next      • Ease out approach road gradient within railway
             boundary.
Previous
           • Closing of unmanned crossings in close vicinity
  Home
           • Periodic census to be carried out.
    Exit                         20
                Railway Safety Fund

           • Created from 01.04.2001 for financing :
                 – Manning of unmanned LCs
                 – Construction of ROB / RUB at busy level
                    crossings where TVUs (No. of trains * No.
                    of Road vehicles in 24 hours) exceeds
                    100,000 on cost sharing basis with State
                    Government.
 Next             Financed from Central Road fund by levying
                   a Cess of Rs. 1 / litre on Diesel and Petrol
Previous           sales. Railway gets 12.5% of Petrol Cess and
  Home             6.25% of Diesel Cess.
    Exit                          21
                Design Features of TAWD

           – Constant warning time to be provided
             irrespective of varying speed of trains to generate
             faith and confidence among road users.

           – System to be designed in such a manner that there
             is minimum equipment on the ground to reduce
             problem of thefts.

 Next      – System should consume minimum power.
Previous   – System should be rugged to require minimum
  Home       maintenance.
    Exit                           22
               Design Features of TAWD (contd.)

           – System should work on GSM(R)
             wherever available to keep cost low and
             reliability high.
           – System should be versatile to work on
             other mediums like cable and radio.
           – System should have self diagnostics and
 Next
             be able to convey failure details
Previous
  Home
              automatically.
    Exit   – System should be reliable and fail safe.
                               23
                  TRIALS OF TAWD
               Started in 1989 with various types as under (All with audio
               visual warning for road traffic):
           (1) Open Track Circuit - 10 systems
              2 Kms. long track circuit.
              Equipment at LC gate only.
              Rate of increase of track circuit current dependent on train
               speed used to get constant warning time.
 Next         Problem of maintenance of track circuits in mid-section.
Previous      Rails could not be reserved for this system as provision of
  Home         Audio Frequency Track Circuits required for automatic
               signalling.
    Exit                                    24
                  TRIALS OF TAWD (Contd.)


           (2) High Frequency Track Circuit based – 1 System
              Short HFTC provided at 2 Kms. to detect
               presence of approaching train.
              Cable connection to equipment at LC.
              No constant warning time.
 Next         Problem of maintenance of track circuits in mid-
Previous       section.
  Home
    Exit                           25
                  TRIALS OF TAWD (Contd.)

           (3) Seismic Sensor based – 10 Systems
              Vibrations generated by approaching train
               used to detect its presence.
              Radio connection to equipment at LC.
              No constant warning time.

 Next         Train detection not reliable.
Previous      VHF radio gave low reliability because of
  Home         inherent communication problem with VHF.
    Exit                            26
                  TRIALS OF TAWD (Contd.)

           (4) Axle Counter based – 90 Systems
              Digital Axle Counter track sensor used
               to detect presence of approaching train.
              Cable connection to equipment at LC.
              No constant warning time.
 Next         26 systems commissioned and balance
Previous       to be commissioned by Dec. 31,2005.
  Home
    Exit                         27
                Axle Counter based           (Contd.)

            Monitoring and reset panel with Station Master of
             nearest station.
            Failures due to numerous types of trolleys.
            If train does not clear actuated warning within 10
             minutes, warning stops automatically.
            Problem of provision at closely spaced LCs as
 Next        independent track sensors required for such LCs
             which needs additional cable and expenditure.
Previous
            Continuous and larger power drain as compared to
  Home
             other systems.
    Exit                           28
                          SCHEME FOR SINGLE LINE SECTION

                                                        Clearing detector
                                                          Up Direction
                                                                            Approach Detector
            Approach
                                                                             Down Direction
            Detector
           Up Direction           2 Kms                     2 Kms




                                    Clearing detector
                                     Down Direction

 Next         Station       A   1/2 PET quad            B                                  C

Previous
  Home
    Exit                                          29
                        SCHEME FOR DOUBLE LINE SECTION

           Approach Detector                            Clearing detector
              Up Direction                                                            Approach Detector
                                                          Up Direction                Reverse Direction
                                                                                          [DOWN]




                                        ~2 Kms                              ~2 Kms
            Approach Detector                                                  Approach Detector
            Reverse Direction       Clearing detector
                                     Down Direction                             Down Direction
                  [UP]




 Next
                 Station        B   1/2 PET quad                       B                            B
Previous
  Home
    Exit                                                30
                 TRIALS OF TAWD (Contd.)

           (5) Global Positioning System(GPS) based – All LCs
               in 624 Kms. Section of NF Rly.
                GPS provided in locomotives transmits its
                 location continuously through radio.
                GPS & UHF radio provided at all LCs.
                Warning actuated when train is at 2 Kms.
 Next           No constant warning time.
Previous        Commissioned in Aug. 2005.
  Home
                Performance being evaluated.
    Exit                           31
                COMMON PROBLEM


           Solar panels
           have to be
           provided at most
           of the locations
           for power supply
           which often get
 Next      stolen.
Previous
  Home
    Exit                      32
                  CHALLENGES

           •   Arrest the increasing trend of accidents at
               unmanned Crossings.


           •   Manning of unmanned Level Crossings is a
               costly solution involving recurrent cost

 Next
           •   Education of road users is a vital element in
Previous       the strategy to contain Level Crossing
  Home         Accidents.
    Exit                           33
                CHALLENGES (Contd.)

           • Safety issues at level crossings are treated as
             IR’s problem alone. State governments,
             Surface Transport Ministry and Local
             communities need to be actively involved.

           • Closing of certain LCs located in close
             proximity needs to be done.
 Next      • Indigenous development of reliable TAWD at
Previous     low cost, which is fail safe, pilfer proof and
  Home
             robust to function unattended at isolated
             locations is the need of the day to improve
    Exit     safety at level crossings.
                                   34
           THANK YOU
 Next
Previous
  Home
    Exit      35

				
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