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AIRCRAFT HANDLING

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					AIRCRAFT
HANDLING
OBJECTIVES

 MAINTENANCE
 GROUND HANDLING
 PREPARATION FOR FLIGHT
 GENERAL FLYING
 AEROBATICS
 FORMATION FLYING
 AIRCRAFT EMERGENCIES
        CHAPTER 1
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE
 MAINTENANCE –
 POLICY & OBJECTIVES
Balance of preventive and corrective
maintenance
Operational Objectives
 counter surprise attack
 support intensive flying over a sustained period
 meet needs for NATO & our National
  commitments
 satisfy contingency plans
 meet needs for peacetime tasks (e.g. training,
  humanitarian, etc)
MAINTENANCE –
POLICY & OBJECTIVES
Maintenance objectives:
 Minimise cost (manpower & resources)
 Minimise faults that would
     Hazard   an aircraft,
     Affect its operational capability
     Need expensive repairs

   Find ever-better ways of improving
    reliability & maintainability
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

Aims
 Reduce probability of failures
 Restore inherent levels of reliability
 Ensure that time & use do not effect
  performance
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
Servicing
 Carried out after a period of use and
  in preparation for the next period of
  use
 Checking consumables
 Examining for any obvious signs of
  unserviceability (e.g. fuel leaks,
  excessive oil consumption, cracks,
  corrosion)
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
Scheduled Maintenance
 Carried out at regular predetermined
  intervals
 Keep the aircraft in a sound overall
  condition
 Minimise random faults and hence the
  amount of corrective maintenance
 Minimise the amount of day-to-day
  attention needed
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

Condition-Based Maintenance
 Some parts are monitored
  continuously.
 Repairs are carried out when a
  condition needing attention is found
 This is done where replacing/fixing an
  item at regular fixed intervals would
  cost too much
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

Out-of-Phase Maintenance
 Not all parts need servicing at the
  same time
 Scheduled or condition-based
  maintenance which is needed at
  interval that do not fit the
  maintenance cycle
CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE

 Carried out when a fault occurs to
  make the aircraft serviceable again
 Faults are random
 Cannot be planned or timetabled
CONTINGENCY MAINTENANCE

 In times of conflict it may be necessary
  to relax maintenance standards
 Level of preventive maintenance
  considered essential
MODIFICATIONS

 Remedy a design fault
 Incorporate new technology


   Only undertaken when authorised,
    and under strictly controlled conditions
     Control costs
     Minimise downtime
     Ensure safety of aircraft
Aircraft Maintenance Data Form –
MOD FORM 700 SERIES
   Each aircraft has its own MOD Form 700
     Shows  current condition of aircraft
     MOD Form 700 broken down into series of
      different forms
        701 – permitted fuel and oils, basic weight, tyre
         pressures, alignment record, aircraft dimensions
        703 – onboard software log: what software is
         loaded into the system(s)
        725 – flying log and fatigue data sheet: details
         of each flight and fatigue meter readings
        725A – air to air transactions: in-flight fuelling
        705 – flight servicing/fuel certificate/captains
         after-flight declaration (note of any faults
         noticed)
MAINTENANCE RECORDS –
MOD FORM 700 SERIES
 Info fed into RAF’s maintenance data system
  (MDS)
 MDS can provide, info on defects & servicing
  work done
 Allows better use of servicing resources
 MDS has 6 major elements
     Faults
     Modifications
     Manpower utilization
     Task achievement
     Technical costs
     logistics
Self Assessment 1
1) What is the RAF’s maintenance policy
   based on?
      A balance of preventive and corrective
      maintenance
2) What is an MOD Form 700?
      Aircraft Maintenance Data Form
3) What is an MOD Form 703?
      Onboard Software Log
4) What is an MOD Form 705 used for?
    Flight Servicing/Fuel Certificate – used for
      certifying flight servicing and fuel states
    CHAPTER 2
GROUND HANDLING
SEEING IN & SEEING OFF
Arrivals usually attended by a handling team of
2 tradesman.
  Team marshals aircraft into a parking area
 When signalled by aircraft captain – chocks
   inserted and ground power and ground
   servicing equipment connectedcleared of
      The parking area will have been
        extinguishers and non-essential items.
 Fire foreign objects are positioned and
   manned during engine shut- downs
     This is steps positioned and aircrew
 Aircraft to avoid FOD (foreign object damage)
   assisted with unstrapping
 Safety devices fitted
Similar actions in reverse order for departures
MARSHALS
   Assist the pilot in safe manoeuvring of the
    aircraft of the ground
   Communicates with the pilot by making
    visual signals with his arms and hands
   More than 70 signals are used in the RAF
   Extent of marshalling depends on:
     Pilot’sknowledge of airfield
     Number of obstructions
     Size of aircraft
     Field of view from cockpit
MARSHALLING
DAY
 Marshall identify themselves with energetic
  waving of arms in a circular motion
 Type of marshalling depend on
  circumstances
NIGHT
 Depends of lighting available
 Marshal use wands or torches for
  identification
MARSHALLING

 RESPONSIBILITY
 It is the responsibility of the pilot for the
  safety of the aircraft
 If marshalling instructions are unsafe he
  does not have to comply
CHOCKS, SAFETY DEVICES,
BLANKS & COVERS
  Must be in place whenever aircraft is
shut down and stationary on the ground

    Unless removed temporarily for
             maintenance
DANGER ZONES

Areas where there is a high risk of injury to
 personnel when aircraft components or
  systems are operated on the ground
                Engine intakes
                Exhausts
                Propellers
                Helicopter rotors
WHEEL & BRAKE FIRES

   Friction between the brake pad and disc,
    causes the disc to heat up
   Brakes can overheat
     prolongedtaxiing; or
     an abnormal landing

    Causing brake or wheel to catch fire
 MANHANDLING & TOWING

If ground crew need to move the aircraft
 Normally towed using a suitable vehicle
 But may be manhandle if a vehicle is not
   available    Handling party
                         Experience supervisor
                          1 person in cockpit to
                             operate brakes
                         1 person at each wing
                            Driver for towing
                        vehicle/enough people to
                         manhandle the aircraft
PARKING
 Park facing into the wind
 Double chock the wheels
 Release the brakes
 Check electrical services, ignition
  switches and fuel cocks are turned off
 Apply control locks
 Fit pitot & static vent covers
 Lock canopies and doors if necessary
REFUELLING

   Refuelled in accordance with local
    orders
   Refuelled by
     hand,
     bowsers,
     specially  built ground installations, portable
      fuel tanks;
     or in-flight from a “tanker” aircraft
REFUELLING – RISK OF FIRE

STATIC ELECTRICITY
 The Aircraft must be earthed
 The bowser must be earthed
 A wire connects the aircraft to the
  delivery hose
REFUELLING - RISK OF FIRE
   Ensure correct grades if fuel and oil used
   Leave air space in oil tanks for expansion &
    frothing
   Never refuel in a hanger
   Filter fuel before it enters the tanks
   No cigarette lighters, non-safety matches,
    must wear rubber/crepe soled shoes
   Avoid fuel spillages
   Work on electronics must not be carried out
    during refuelling
REFUELLING - RISK OF FIRE
   Must be more than 40m from any aircraft
    with engines running
   No naked lights or flames within 30m
   Refuelling vehicles must be positioned so
    they can be moved quickly
   Suitable fire extinguishers must be ready to
    use
   Stand only on approved walkways on the
    aircraft
   Replace filter caps and check they properly
    fitted
   Record details on MOD Form 705
PRESSURE REFUELLING

   Dramatically reduces refuelling time

   In flight
     The   only difference is the filling point
 TYPES OF FUEL

 AVGAS – aviation gasoline
 AVTUR – aviation turbine fuel (kerosene)
 AVTAG – aviation turbine widecut
  gasoline
 AVCAT – aviation turbine fuel, used
  widely by the Royal Navy
LOADING

Large aircraft have an air quartermaster
   Responsible   for loading and securing of
    loads
   Ensure that load is evenly distributed and
    securely stowed
   Ensure centre of gravity is within limits
OVERLOADING

 Increases the stalling speed and
  landing and take-off runs
 Reduces rate of climb
 Reduces range of endurance
 In twin/multi-engined aircraft it may be
  impossible to maintain flight on the
  event of an engine failure
 Lowers the aircrafts ceiling
SELF ASSESSMENT 2

1.   What is FOD?
2.   What is the aim of a marshaller?
3.   How do marshals identify themselves
     to pilots?
SELF ASSESSMENT 2

1.   Who is responsible for the safety of
     the aircraft?
2.   What are the responsibilities of an air
     quartermaster?
         CHAPTER 3
PREPARATION FOR FLIGHT
AIRCRAFT CAPTAIN

				
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