Chapter Four_ Section One

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					   Unit Two:
The Ancient World
      Why It Matters
• Each civilization that you will
  study in this unit made important
  contributions to history.
  – The Greeks developed democratic
  – The ancient Chinese created paper.
  – The people of India invented the
    concept of zero.
    Chapter Four:
The Ancient Greeks
     Section One:
   The Nile Valley
     Guide to Reading
• Main Ideas                    • Key Places, People, and
  – The geography of              Terms
    Greece influenced where       –   Crete
    people settled and what       –   Mycenae
    they did.                     –   Peloponnesus
  – The Minoans earned            –   Agamemnon
    their living by building      –   peninsula
    ships and trading.            –   colony
  – Mycenaens built the first     –   polis
    Greek kingdoms and            –   agora
    spread their power
    across the
    Mediterranean region.
  – Colonies and trade
    spread Greek culture and
    spurred industry.
  – The idea of citizenship
     Did You Know?
• In early Greece, roads were
  bumpy dirt trails and of little
  use to travelers. Because of
  this, ships became very
  important. To be near ships,
  most Greek communities
  settled within 60 miles of the
  The Geography of
•Mainland Greece is a
 peninsula—a body of
 land with water on
 three sides.
    The Geography of
• The Ionian Sea is to
  the west of Greece, the
  Aegean Sea is to the
  east, and the
  Mediterranean Sea to
  the south.
  The Geography of
•Ancient Greeks were
 fishers, sailors,
 trades, and farmers.
     The Geography of
• Although Greece’s
  rocky soil made it
  difficult to farm, people
  could grow wheat,
  barley, olives, and
  grapes in the favorable
Discussion Question
•How did geography
 discourage Greek
•How might a
 peninsula be affected
 by its surrounding
     The Minoans
•The ruins of the
 Minoan civilization,
 the first civilization
 to arise in Greece,
 are on the island of
    The Minoans
•Artifacts at the
 palace at Knossos
 reveal the riches of
 the Minoan people,
 such as wine, oil,
 jewelry, and statues.
    The Minoans
•The Minoan people
 were traders,
 traveling ship to
 trade with other
    The Minoans
•The Minoan people
 were traders,
 traveling by ship to
 trade with other
     The Minoans
• The Minoan civilization
  collapsed around 1450
  B.C., although
  historians disagree on
  the cause of Minoan
Discussion Question
•How did the Minoans
 become a trading
    The First Greek
• The first Greek kings
  were Mycenaean leaders,
  whose people invaded the
  Greek mainland around
  1900 B.C.
 –The center of the
  Mycenaean kingdom was a
  place surrounded by large
     The First Greek
• The Mycenaeans began
  trading with the Minoans and
  learned much about Minoan
   –Before collapsing around
    1100 B.C., the Mycenaean
    civilization was the most
    powerful on the
   The First Greek
•The Dark Age
 occurred between
 1100 B.C. and 150
 B.C. and was a time
 of less trade and
 poverty among
   The First Greek
•The Dorians invaded
 Greece, bringing new
 weapons and farming
 technology to the
 Greek people.
     The First Greek
• The Greeks learned about
  an alphabet from the
  Phoenicians, one of their
  trading partners.
   –The Greek alphabet had
    24 letters that stood for
    different sounds.
 Discussion Question
•What changes
 occurred during
 Greece’s Dark Age?
•What was one
 positive result of the
 Dark Age?
 A Move to Colonize
• After the Dark Age,
  Greek people began to
  set up colonies in other
  –This colonization
   spread Greek culture.
 A Move to Colonize
• Trade between
  colonists and the
  parent cities grew, and
  soon merchants were
  trading goods for
  money instead of more
Discussion Question
•How did new
 colonies affect
•What invention
 allowed merchants to
 trade for money?
      The Polis
•A polis, or city-
 state, was like an
 independent country.
  –City-states varied
   in size and
      The Polis
•An acropolis, located
 at the top of a hill,
 was the main
 gathering place of a
      The Polis
•An agora, or open
 area, served as a
 market and as a
 place for people to
 meet and debate
       The Polis
• The Greeks were the
  first people to develop
  the idea of citizenship,
  in which citizens of a
  country are treated
  equally and have rights
  and responsibilites.
      The Polis
•In Greek city-states,
 only free, native-
 born, land-owning
 men could be
      The Polis
•Citizens could vote,
 hold office, own
 property, and defend
 themselves in court.
        The Polis
• The military of the city-
  states was made of
  ordinary citizens, not
  –These citizens were
   called hoplites and
   fought each battle on
   food instead of on
 Discussion Question
• How did citizenship make
  the Greeks different from
  other ancient peoples?
• How does the Greek
  definition of a citizen
  compare to the modern idea
  of who is a United States
    Section 1 Review
1. What made the Minoans wealthy?

2. How was a Greek city-state different from a

3. What changes occurred during the Dark

4. Name three rights granted to Greek citizens
   that American citizens have today.

5. Why did the use of money help trade grow?
  Graphic Organizer
Compare the Minoans and Mycenaeans.

 Minoan                   Mycenaean
Journal Assignment
Discuss the following statement:
“The geography of Greece
influenced where people settled
and what they did.”

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