Wilsonian Progressivism at Home and Abroad by yaohongm


									Wilsonian Progressivism at
    Home and Abroad
    The Emergence Of Woodrow Wilson
• Democrats were thrilled
  about Republican split.
• Dems nominate Woodrow
  Wilson, a militant
• President of Princeton,
  instituted sweeping
  educational reforms
• Governor of New Jersey;
  ignored party bosses.
  Progressive. Very Popular
The Emergence Of Woodrow Wilson
 • Eloquent and somewhat of a zealot.
 • Strong moral streak; unwilling to compromise
   matters of principle.
 • Appealed to the people over the heads of the bosses
   and legislature.
 • In 1912 Democrats nominated him on the 46th ballot
   when Bryan swings his support to Wilson.
    – “New Freedom”- stronger antitrust legislation, banking
      reform, tariff reductions
           The Bull Moose Campaign
• Progressive republicans
• Nominate Theodore
• New Nationalism-
  consolidation of trusts and
  labor unions, growth of
  regulatory agencies in DC,
  woman suffrage, broad
  social welfare ( minimum
  wage and social insurance)
              Wilson’s New Freedom
• Favors small enterprise,
  entrepreneurship, free
  function of unregulated
  unmonopolized markets,
  shun social welfare.
• “Not regulation,
  fragmentazation of big
  industrial powers”
• TR assassination attempt in
  WS, had to stop
  campaigning last two
Woodrow Wilson- Minority President
 • Wilson wins with 41%.
 • Wilson gets fewer votes than Bryan in any of his
   three defeats.
 • Taft-TR combined had 1.2 Million more votes
 • Progressives (Wilson and Roosevelt) together got
   far more votes than Taft.
    – Thus, Progressivism was the winner.
 • Wilson wins because Republicans split the vote
 Woodrow Wilson- Minority President
• Bull Moose Problems- one
  man show, elected few
  candidates o state and local
• Socialists Party- more than
• Republicans minority in
  Congress and out of the
  White House for only the
  second time since before
  the Civil War.
      Wilson: The Idealist In Politics
• 1st southerner since Zachary Taylor in
  the white house
• Shares faith in the masses
• Son of a Presbyterian Minister;
  fervent piety and a stark view of good
  and bad that makes it hard for him to
  compromise. He is rigid.
• Moving orator, but cold personally.
• Student of government; professor of
  political science. Believed in strong
• High sense of morals and idealism
               Wilson’s Defects
• Cold and austere
• Lacked the common touch;
  not good with humans
• Intellectually arrogant.
• Morally righteous. Rigid
  and uncompromising
• Stubborn
• Racist
          Wilson Tackles The Tariff
• Assault on triple wall
  of privilege- tariff,
  banks, trusts
• 1. Underwood Tariff-
  huge reductions
   – Landmark in tax
     legislation- graduated
     income tax
        Wilson Battles Bankers
• Problem- banking reserves were heavily
  concentrated in NY and other large cities- hard
  to mobilize in times of financial panic
• Republicans – favor Third Bank of the United
  States with 15 branches
• Demos- decentralized bank in government
         Federal Reserve Act (1913)
• Federal Reserve Act: most important piece of economic
  legislation between the Civil War and the New Deal.
• Federal Reserve Board-oversaw nation wide system of
  twelve regional reserve districts
• Empowered to issue federal reserve notes backed by
  commercial paper- amount of money in circulation could be
  swiftly increased as needed or legitimate requirements of
      The President Tames The Trusts
• Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914- president
  appointed commission to inspect industries
  engaged in interstate commerce- root out unfair
  trade practices, unlawful competition, false ads.,
  mislabeling, and bribery
• Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914
   – Strengthened Sherman Anti-Trust Act by lengthening
     the list of unfair trade practices
   – Exempts labor and agriculture- legalizing strikes and
     peaceful picketing
   – Gompers- “Magna carta” of labor
  WW and progressive at High Tide
• Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916- credit available to
  farmers at low interest rates (populism)
• Warehouse Act of 1916- authorized loans on the security
  of staple crops (populism)
• La Follette Seamen’s Act- decent and living wage for
  American Merchant ships
• Workingmen’s Compensation Act of 1916- assistance to
  federal civil service employees during periods of
• Restriction on child labor on products in interstate
• Adamson Act of 1916- 8 hour work day for employees
  on trains in interstate commerce, and overtime pay
               Wilson’s Blind Spot
• Wilson’s one failure in broadening the
  rights of the downtrodden was Blacks.
• He increased segregation in the Civil
  Service and generally had a very blind
  eye—even a hostile eye—toward
  concerns of blacks regarding civil
• Proclaimed Birth of a Nation an
  important insight into history.
• Election of 1912 was a fluke, needs to
  get the Bull Moosers on Democratic
       New Directions In Foreign Policy
• WW- Hated, big stick
• WW- hates $ diplomacy-
  no special support to
  American investments in
  China and Latin America
• Jones Act- Philippines gets
  territorial status and
  promised independence as
  soon as stable government
  is formed
  New Directions In Foreign Policy
• 1914-1915- Haiti in
• Marines sent to protect
  American lives and
  property(19 year stay)
• 1915- Marines sent to
  Dominican Republic
• 1917- Buys virgin
  islands from Denmark
Moralistic Diplomacy In Mexico
• Mexico 1913-
  Victoriano Huerta
  takes presidency-
  results in mass
  migration to US to SW
  US- fruit pickers and
  highway constructors-
• WRH- pumps up war
     Moralistic Diplomacy In Mexico
• WW- arms embargo, didn’t
  recognize government
• Tampico Incident- US
  troops arrested then
  released in Mex, demanded
  21 gun salute but didn’t get
  it, Navy takes over port to
  prevent guns from coming
  in, ABC powers meditate
• Venustiano Carranza takes
  over- hates US for military
Moralistic Diplomacy In Mexico
• Pancho Villa- rival to
  Carranza- kills
  Americans in Mexico
  and the US in hopes of
  provoking war
• US sends John (black
  Jack) Pershing
• Army withdrawn in
  1917 – ( threats from
                  Road to WWI
• Serb patriot killed Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand, the
  heir to the throne of the Austria-Hungary “empire” in
  Serajevo in 1914.
• Austrians blame Serbia. Backed by Germany, send
  stern ultimatum to Serbia
• Serbia backed by Russia, mobilizes, menacing
  Germany on the east.
• France mobilizes on Germany’s other side.
• Germans strike at France through Belgium.
• England enters the war against Germans.
• Japan eventually comes in against Germany, as well.
• Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey
  and Bulgaria
• Allies: France, Russia, Britain, Japan.
         Precarious Neutrality
• US and WW favor
• Both sides want
  American help
• US mainly Anti-
  German- Kaiser
  Wilhelm II seen as
              Precarious Neutrality
• France and England war
  needs stimulates US
• JP Morgan and Co. give
  roughly 2.3 billion dollars
  to allies
• 1915- Germany starts
  submarine warfare
• Germany says they will try
  not to attack neutral ships
             Precarious Neutrality
• Submarines known as U
• Lusitania sunk 1915- 128
  Americans dead( was also
  carrying ammunition
• Two months later Arabic
  sunk- two Americans dead
• Germany promised not to
  attack ships without
          Precarious Neutrality
• 1916- pledge broken,
  attacked the Sussex
• Germany again
  promised not to attack
  merchant vessels
  without warning, but
  wants the US to tell
  allies to modify illegal
     Wilson Wins Reelection In 1916

• Progressive re nominate
  TR, but he refuses to run.
• Republicans nominate
  Charles Evans (evasive)
• Hughes is a poor candidate
  who tailors his rhetoric
  concerning the war
  depending on his audience
• Demos- WW- slogan “He
  kept us out of war”

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