ACID rules relate to the total destruction of data. The policy of a
company or client used to protect the data. The rules and procedures
in place to protect data. eg insurance company has policy not to lose
old policies when company is handed over. ACID rules also exist to
protect IP. Rules relate to: data relationships, security, protection on
the IP, backups. Protocols for visitors eg. Visitors to a hospital system
can’t dial in remotely without being monitored.
E-Commerce, payment gateways.
Two main methods
- Bank System.
When someone wants to purchase something, a piece of code is sent
down to the database tables and shopping cart at the same time. The
information is then moved to the ‘shopping cart’ (most people today
buy an existing shopping cart).
The shopping cart allows you to continue shopping or to ‘checkout’.
Shopping cart does not store data, it only handles data. The shopping cart will
allow you to choose a payment option. When you have selected the
option the data is then transferred through another portal which
transfers you to either paypal’s payment gateway, or the payment
gateway you have chosen. A portal relates to things which must be
entered in order to continue.
Each payment system will have their own database. When the
transaction has been sent through the portal to the payment
gateways, a small piece of information will be sent back to the
original e-commerce server to inform the server that transaction has
been successful so that the product can be shipped.
Unless you are doing 250,000 500,000 dollars worth of
transactions every year, then it is not commercially viable to use the
bank payment system. Paypal would be a better option. This is
because paypal will handle the encryption / security systems, and
handle any client complaints etc.
So in Carmen’s case, then the suggestion would probably be to being
with Paypal payment system, and then add the banking payment
system later, if it is required. The bank method takes 4 months to
organise, and costs about 7,000 dollars worth of a programmers
time. Bank charges 1% transaction fee, but only checks your security
every 5 years, even though security certificates need to be updated
every year. Paypal on the other hand charges 1.3%, but for that you
also get dispute resolution, security and other benefits.
Security Certificate costs 600 – 1,800 dolalrs p/Yr.
MySQL is owned by Linux, bought out by Oracle. Currently a free
product, doubtful of staying that way.
Oracle is the world’s largest database but costs a lot of money to run.
Microsoft SQL (MSSQL) is a slightly smaller market share than Oracle
but costs far less to run. MSSQL is the safest and strongest MYSQL
database because of the depth of security associated with it.
MSSQL is generally used by the corporate world eg banks, flight
bookings, MYSQL is often used by graphical designers creating a page
on the web. Paypal and banks are all on MSSQL.
MYSQL is a Linux based environment. Partly due to most viruses
being aimed at hitting the corporate world, this means that 90% have
been designed to hit the Microsoft environment, leaving Linux fairly
secure. However, the Security level of a MySQL is not as high as the
security level on MSSQL. Because of the attack level on the Microsoft.
The choice depends on how secure you need the information in your
database to be, sensitive information needs to be protected with
MSSQL. Questions to ask yourself? How likely is an attack to happen?
Microsoft has better encryption, so depends on how important the
data is. Mysql programmers cost $95/hr, MS costs 230-350per hour.
Carmen’s information does not need to be that secure, therefore it
would be advisable for her to use MYSQL. In addition, it is far cheaper
to employ MYSQL programmers.
Richard Branson has chosen to use the MYSQL databases for Virgin
as he is philosophically opposed to MS, and they have been attacked
and crashed their server twice. This shows the frailty of MYSQL.
Does MYSQL have a bigger developer community?
In number yes, in dollars, no.
Far more databases in the world would be MYSQL, but in terms of the
amount of money made, more money would be made with the MSSQL
MYSQL is popular because it is the background for the world’s most
popular CMS Joomla. Joomla is the ‘90%’ usage CMS system in the
world. PHP works and transitions with any of the databases which is
an advantage of it.
PHP is far better than .net to write with because the performance is
so much better. Phycology of web: 30seconds is too long – 4.5
seconds is the average people will wait, if they have to wait longer,
people may think that the system has crashed.
CMS to add products;
It isn’t necessary or recommended to use a CMS to add products to a
database. People who have large amounts of products to add to the
database, or dynamic product changes often have a link to another
‘Back-End’ database which is quicker.
With the ‘specials’ page, you would be using the CMS to assist in
putting up the different specials pages.
It isn’t common to be running both Joomla and your main MYSQL
database at the same time.
Most of the time people use CMS’s to update content and specials, but
it is very rare that people use it to update the whole website. The
shopping cart EG would be a trigger from the Joomla, rather than the
function of the CMS. One of the limitations of Joomla is that it is a CMS
written out of PHP. If you want to do more in depth things, you have
to trigger something else using PHP.
Data, DBMS + Applications;
Database stored in tables.
Limitation of 200 250 tables in a database.
- One to many (transactions)
- One to one. (limitation as to how many fields in a table, the
one-one relationship allows ‘more’)
- Two to two (name to a last name in an account creation)
- CASCADE effect, part of the Integrity in the ACID policy,
which are protocols about if changes are made somewhere,
whether it will be made in a relating field.
It is possible to write code inside the database tables. This is the
closest one can get to binary. This is done because, to run insurance
around the world, or to run a world policy, to make sure that changes
are made to the different countries. Writing the code inside the
databases dramatically reduces the time that the database takes to
process information. Only MSSQL offers this function, and Oracle
databases. This is why they are used commercially for really large
things like banks / insurance brokers. Performance comparison: A
bank estimate can take 12seconds to compute rather than 9hours,
this is critical if things need to be done on the fly.
It is common for people to write different elements in different
scripting languages. For example, moving and dynamic elements of
the page may be written in Java, but other elements may be written
It is common however, for people to write for smaller websites and
E-Commerce businesses for people to write their languages using a
CMS, and using one language.
Can Carmen only use the WISIWYG CMS after her web
site is set up;
Most IT Companies don’t ensure the security of data because they are
paid only to initiate the website and web design. Some companies are
paid to protect and secure the Data, but most companies won’t do
Carmen should be able to secure her database and be able to get it up
and running if it crashes.
It is common to be able to outsource the website code to another
company in order to ensure that it functions properly.
Key Consideration for Securing the website;
The higher the security the higher the cost.
There are different kinds of IP, Static and Dynamic.
1st Level of the Security;
- A dynamic IP address can change in order to stop people
from being able to gain the knowledge of the IP Address in
order to access the database.
- But people who are able to get in that IP are able to access
- Inside the IP address there are often passwords and login
2 nd Level
- Encryption of data. Encrypted the data during transaction.
3 rd Level
- Compilation or compiler. This ‘locks’ the code rather than
leaving it as open source.
- Then move to external company security software packages.
A password with 3 styles (eg. Letter, number, symbols) and less than
13 characters can be cracked in 8 hours.