Lecture 9: Family & Child Development by 6pKUar2

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									 Lecture 9: Family & Child Development



Module: Developmental Psychology (4PS014)

Date: 11 April 2008



Lecturer: Dr Lovemore Nyatanga



                                            1
       Learning outcomes

At the end of the session students will be able
  to:
     Discuss the meaning of family
     Discuss the function of families in different
      contexts
     Discuss family dynamics in relation to child
      development
     Parenting styles & child development



                                                      2
What is family

                    Persons sharing a
                     common ancestry
                    Persons with a
                     common lineage (or
                     genealogy)
                    A fundamental social
                     group normally
                     consisting one or two
                     parents with one or
                     more children


                                         3
    Nature of families

   Family is a social construction that
    differs with culture (e.g. Nuclear &
    Extended family).




                                           4
Role & Function

 Family rearing as a social function
 Providing for children & ensuring
 their well-being
 Nurture & develop social &
 economic skills necessary in adult
 life
 Follow cultural & social memes that
 are part of cultural identity

                                  5
Family Dynamics

   According to Siegler, Deloache &
    Eisenberg (2007), family dynamics
    denote the interactions & factors within
    them.
   How family members affect one another
   How family dynamics may influence child
    development (e.g. emotional intelligence)



                                           6
Factors Affecting Family Dynamics

Factor       Description

Economic     Family’s ability to meet basic
Support      economic needs
Social       Family, friends & institutions
Support
Cultural     Expectations, values & beliefs
Support
Health &     Reasonable state of family health
well-being
                                              7
Parenting Styles
 The primary role of parenting is to
  socialise, teach, & control the child.
Two elements are central:
 Parental demandingness (or behavioural
  control) denotes various attempts
  parents make to integrate the child into
  the family.
 Parental demandingness can be positive,
  supportive and motivating.
 Parental demandingness can also be
  negative punitive & full of
  confrontational.
                                        8
Parenting Styles
Two elements are central:
 Parental responsiveness (or warmth &
  sensitivity), denotes parental attempts to
  foster individuality, self-regulation, and
  dependability.
 Parental responsiveness requires the
  parent to be attuned, supportive, and
  acquiescent to children’s special needs
  and demands (Baumrind 1991)



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Parenting Styles (Maccoby & Martin 1983)


             Authoritative


               Parenting
Permissive                     Rejecting
                Styles


               Authoritarian


                                           10
    Parenting Styles
        ps

                Accepting &
    


                                 Rejecting
                 Responsive     Unresponsive

Demanding &
 Controlling    Authoritative   Authoritarian


Undemanding                     Neglecting or
Uncontrolling     Permissive      Rejecting
                                           11
    Parenting Styles
Authoritative   High in both demandingness &
                responsiveness.
                Set clear & fair standards & expectations

Authoritarian   High demandingness but low
                responsiveness.
                Discipline & power is high & obedience is
                key
Permissive      High responsiveness but low in
                demandingness. No real expectations
Neglecting      Usually too absorbed in own issues
                Low in both demandingness &
                responsiveness
                                                        12
    Possible Developmental Consequences

Authoritative   Tend to be well adjusted
                Tend to do well academically
                Tend to have good emotional intelligence
Authoritarian   Moderate adjustment
                Moderate academic achievements
                Poor self regulation (unresponsive)
Permissive      Problem behaviour (lack of boundaries)
                Moderate academic achievements
                Fair to poor self regulation
Neglecting      Anti-social behaviour
                Poor academic achievement
                Poor self regulation

                                                           13
     Questionable parental tactics

Smacking         Whatever the reason, smacking is likely to create
                 resentment & anger
Insincere praise Whatever the intention, it Likely to erode trust &
                 respect.
Threats          If you are naughty I will send you to your room & you
                 will not watch TV today
Punishment       You have been really naughty – so you are grounded
                 this week-end
Destructive      You are absolutely useless. Just leave it to me
Criticism
Bribes           Go to the shop for me & I will cook for you

Nagging          Have you done the tasks I gave you more
                 than 2 hours ago?                                    14
Summary
   Family as fundamental social group of kinships
   Family has role and function as perceived
    within specific cultures
   Each family has dynamics that represent
    interactions
   A number of factors influence family dynamics
    (e.g. health & well-being)
   Parenting styles influence behaviour (child to
    adulthood)
   Consequences of poor parenting style can have
    negative effect in later life.

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Recommended reading
   Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on
    adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of
    Early Adolescence, 11(1), 56-95.
   Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the
    context of the family: Parent–child interaction. In P. H.
    Mussen (Ed.) & E. M. Hetherington (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of
    child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and
    social development (4th ed., pp. 1-101). New York: Wiley.

   Santrock, J. (2002) Lifespan Development (International
    Edition). McGraw Hill: London
   Siegler, R., Deloache, J. & Eisenberg, N. (2006) How
    children develop 2nd edition. Worth Publishers: London,
    chapter 12 (module textbook)

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