Nanotechnology and welding – actual and possible future

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					   Nanotechnology and
   welding – actual and
possible future applications


                            Dr. Gary R. Heath

BEMA\S Oct 2006
                   Wear & Fusion Technology
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                                 Pr es ent at i on Over vi ew


• Industrial Wear Resistant Coatings used today
• Limitations of conventional Industrial thick coatings
• Nano Materials. What are they?
• How are Nano Materials formed and destroyed?
• Conversion of an idea to an industrial technology
• The world first Nano alloyed welding products
• Industrial applications and results
• Conclusions for the future with Nano alloys

 BEMA\S Oct 2006
 Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
Nano Hysteria- Can it help Engineering?




BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                      Nano St r uct ur es i n Nat ur e




BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                        Man Made Nano St r uct ur es




BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                                Pr es ent at i on Over vi ew




1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter = 10 m           -9



BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
          Current Production of Nano Materials




                                    Mainly Ceramics-Ti2, PSZ
                                    Expensive Chemical processes
                                    Small quantities
                                    Individual particles
BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                 Nano Crystals and Nano Coatings




                                    Coatings are very thin
                                    and processes in laboratory

                                    Individual particles are used as
                                    Additives or sintered
BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                Wear Protection Coating Thickness

  Coating
 Hardness
                                      Diamond
                                      Coatings
                                                    Industrial
                                                   Grade Wear
                                                    Coatings
     55 HRc
                                                  Conventional
                                                   Coatings
                                                                   Thickness mm

 Todays                               1nm        1mm             1cm
  Nano
Coatings
  BEMA\S Oct 2006
  Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic                                         Wear/ 1/
                       Composite
         Tr adi t i onal Mat er i al Sel ect i on


                                                         12                                          Brittleness
                                                         10
                                                          8
                                    V o lu m e L o s s
                                                          6
                                                          4                    CrC                 WC
                                                          2
                                                          0
                                                              100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
                                                                             H a rd n e s s (H v )



Composite-Hard Phase in Tough Matrix
BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                  Si ze Mat t er s . Nano St r uct ur e


With very small grains the ration of grain
boundary to crystal can reach 50%

Grain boundaries are amorphous or
NanoCrystalline- giving toughness




    BEMA\S Oct 2006
    Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                                            Hal l - Pet ch Ef f ect




            HARDNESS
            STRENGTH




                                                   GRAIN SIZE
        BEMA\S Oct 2006
        Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Equation
Hall – Petch Relationship Eutectic
                s
   The Pr obl em f or I ndus t r i al , t hi ck
        wel d over l ay Nano Coat i ngs

1. HEAT of welding process. Destroys
   Nano particles or grows them

3. COST of Nano particles. OK for thin
   coatings or as additive, but not 5mm
   coating

5. APPLICATION needs to be done on site,
   with conventional equipment. Not Lab.




    BEMA\S Oct 2006
    Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
 The Problem of Heat for Nano materials




                                     When heat is added to a
                                     NanoStructure, the particles
Oswald Ripening Effect               grow to normal size. None of
                                     the benefits, all of the cost
 BEMA\S Oct 2006
 Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                                 or
anoAl l oy s t r uct ur e vi a Am phous Rout e


                                        Create Nano structure from
                                        normal raw material

                                        Cool down quickly to
                                        form amorphous
                                        and crystallize to
                                        Nano structure with temp.
                                        and time




    BEMA\S Oct 2006
    Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                or
              Am phous and NanoSt r uct ur es




Tafa 95MXC - Eutronic 595
BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
Nano St r uct ur ed Ther mal Spr ay Coat i ngs




Fast Cooling rate and Composition
gives Nano/structured Coating




   BEMA\S Oct 2006
   Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                   Cooler Cool er
  Cas t ol i n pr ot ect s Grates Gr at e and
Boi l er s wi t h Nano coat i ng f or 15 year s




  BEMA\S Oct 2006
  Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
 or                               el
W l d’ s Fi r s t Nano al l oyed W di ng wi r e
                     DO*390N


                                               Solves the Slow Cooling
                                               Problem with welding by
                                               chemistry. 16 Patents
                                               protecting this technology
                                               through partnership with
                                               NanoSteel in USA

                                               First Nano alloy as gas
                                               protected Welding Wire
                                               (1.6mm) for use on all
                                               conventional machines

    BEMA\S Oct 2006
    Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                                        TDRD, MSDS, CEIL stock item 1.6, Price position DO*48 & 11, EG 8336
                  el
ypi cal DO* 390N W d Over l ay St r uct ur e




    BEMA\S Oct 2006
    Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                                  i
                              Chem s t r y and Pr oper t i es
                                         DO*390N

                                          All-weld-metal chemical analysis

 C               Si                 Mn      Cr      Mo      W       Nb        B    Fe    Hardness
<5%             <2%                 <5%    <20%    <10%    <10%    <10%      <5%   bal   71 HRC




 Exceptional wear resistance to abrasion & erosion with moderate impact
 Single layer deposit hardness approximately 70 HRC
 Retention of useful bulk hot hardness to 750°C
 Withstands repeated thermal cycles
 Low coefficient of friction without lubrication
 Smooth ripple-free weld surface resistant to galling


      BEMA\S Oct 2006
      Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                 Var i ous Cr ys t al St r uct ur es
                                       i
                        t hr ough Chem s t r y




                                    b.c.c.   h.c.p.   f.c.c.




BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                   X Ray Di f f r act i on of DO* 390N




X- RAY DI FFRACTI ON PATTERN - α FE MATRI X 30nm CRYSTALLI TES
     BEMA\S Oct 2006
     Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
          ,
Uni f or m hi gh har dnes s t hr ough coat i ng




   BEMA\S Oct 2006
   Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                                G65 Wear Tes t r es ul t s




BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
         DO* 390N wel d over l ay, machi ned




BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
         DO* 390N Pr act i cal I mpact Tes t s




BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                                    Mi xer s cr ews




BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
Agr i cul t ur al appl i cat i ons , Dr edgi ng




BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                                    Wear Res i s t ant edges




BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
         Fans wi t h s er i ous er os i on wear




BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                      el
            DO* 390N W d over l ay on s cr ew




BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                                    Tr ans por t Scr ews




BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                       r y. Si nt
       St eel I ndus t DO*390N er Cr us her s




BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
    St eel I ndus t r y. Si nt er Cr us her s




BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                   What does t he f ut ur e hol d?



• Product just launched, need to monitor success
• Properties to be explored further (friction, corrosion)
• Determine new applications (Dedging, sugar, etc.)
• Optimise the parameters to optimise structure
• Work closely with industrial customers to accelerate
the implementation of NanoTechnology in Maintenance




BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic
                                    Thank You




THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
BEMA\S Oct 2006
Dr. Gary Heath, Castolin Eutectic