0313e Refinery Future Challenge

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					Refinery Future Challenge
Energy Resources are not mere
Feedstock – They are the Future
The refinery market is undergoing a process of change              Natural gas, associated gas, coal, heavy residues and bio-
towards more efficient use of the raw materials which              mass will be the feedstock of choice for synthesis gas pro-
requires the continuous development of new technologies            duction.
as well as the improvement of already existing ones. The
need to fulfill the restrictive regulations in force with regard   For the automotive industry synthetic fuels will open up
to sulfur concentrations, e.g. the EuroNorm 5 in Europe,           new opportunities for optimized and highly efficient
and the approval of a mandatory biofuels additive quota            engines. Synthetic fuels are quasi sulfur-free and will lead
are the driving forces.                                            to a reduction in greenhouse gases by 40 %. Thus excellent
More efficient processes including the optimal use of the          conditions will be created for meeting future emission con-
“bottoms of the barrel” to meet the requirements of new            trol requirements.
or existing plants are our goal.

As a result of increasing energy consumption, global energy
demand will almost double until 2050; this implies a future
change in raw material needs which will go hand in hand
with a shift from almost exclusively oil-based fuel produc-
tion towards synthetic fuels via synthesis gases.

                                                                   NODCO Refinery, Qatar

Lurgi’s Concept: Independence of
Specific Raw Materials and Across-
the-Board Technologies Involvement
In this changing context it is important for the energy indus-            We are also aware of biomass as an alternative, regenera-
try to have a competent partner it can rely on: Lurgi is that             tive component that can play a major role both today and in
partner.                                                                  future. We are able to supply concepts, technologies and
In fact, we are in a position to offer essential proprietary              plants for the efficient conversion of biomass into essential
technologies across the entire process chain and we inte-                 products.
grate licensed technologies of third parties into fuels pro-
duction complexes to yield products of impeccable quality.                Lurgi commands vast experience in fuel production tech-
                                                                          nologies. Thanks to its excellent competence Lurgi is in the
Lurgi knows what it means to enhance an existing plant.                   best position to apply the conventional refinery technologies
Whether basic engineering, FEED engineering or a general                  for the production and upgrading of synthetic fuels.
revamp is needed, Lurgi provides comprehensive and compe-
tent advice as PMC – Project Management Consultancy – is an
essential element of our business to ensure project reliability.

Lurgi´s Technology Routes:
An Overview
Lurgi possesses technologies and expertise for fuel produc-     Fuels via Bio Resources
tion starting from all kinds of natural feedstock containing    Bioethanol and Biodiesel/FAME are excellent blending com-
carbon and hydrogen. Based on this Lurgi can provide con-       ponents for gasoline and for diesel, respectively. Lurgi pos-
cepts for both a conventional refinery and an integrated        sesses the 1st generation technologies for synthesis from
multi-resource fuel production site. Independency from          natural sources. Furthermore Lurgi concepts integrate 2nd
crude oil will be the advantage in the future. And Lurgi has    generation technologies like hydrogenation of fatty acids or
the key.                                                        fatty acid esters.

Conventional Refinery                                           Hydrogen/Oxygen
Conversion technologies and hydrotreatment are the core         Cost efficient hydrogen/oxygen supply and management
processes of a conventional refinery and have a long history    are essential for a modern refinery. Lurgi as a member of
at Lurgi.                                                       the Air Liquide Group can make use of excellent competen-
                                                                cies in this business.
Syngas Route
Lurgi is very well positioned in the production of synthetic    Purification/Separation Technologies
fuels via syngas. The corresponding technologies are the        Appropriate purification/separation technologies are
result of long-term development and are outstanding. This       required to achieve all targets in terms of product quality
process line opens the access to high quality fuels, methanol   and to meet environmental regulations. With its compre-
and petrochemicals. New synthetic fuels/designer fuels via      hensive portfolio, Lurgi is in a position to offer all technolo-
methanol are also an option in Lurgi´s portfolio.               gies needed to reach these objectives.

Routes to Liquid Fuels

             Bio                                                                 Heavy
                                                          Crude Oil                             Natural Gas         Coal         Biomass
           Resource                                                             Residues

                 Pressing                                 Refinery
                                                                                                   Reformer, Gasification

Fermentation                                                                                                                      O2
                                                      Hydrotreating            H2

                                                                                                          Syn Gas
                  fication                      Hydro-           FCC
                                                cracker                             Fischer

                                                                                                                                 Syn Fuels
                                                                                    FT Hydro-                     Petro-
  Bioethanol     FAME          Hydro Carbons                                         cracker         H2         chemcials


                                               Gasoline – Designer Fuels – Diesel – Others

                              Fuel        Feed                                Export Steam


                                                              Process Steam

                                     Steam Reforming                          Heat Recovery

                                     Shift Conversion                Demineralized            Flue Gas

                                      Pressure Swing
                                     Adsorption (PSA)


                                                                         Cutting-edge Technologies will
Conversion and Hydrotreatment                                            Secure the Future
Lurgi can offer its proven experience and expertise com-                 Lurgi has selectively developed its own proprietary technolo-
bined with licensed technology of third parties.                         gies and combines them with complementary processes of
Among others Lurgi’s experience in this field covers such                others. For our customers this offers an unique asset: impar-
key technologies as:                                                     tial advice. Based on integrated solutions, Lurgi technologies
                                                                         will boost the efficiency of state-of-the-art refineries.
■ Hydrocracking:

Hydrocracking is used for the conversion of heavy hydrocar-              Hydrogen
bons to lighter, cleaner and more valuable products. Sulfur              The predominant part of the hydrogen produced worldwide
and nitrogen compounds will be removed from the prod-                    is used subsequently in refineries and the petrochemical
ucts. The middle distillates obtained are high value products            industry for various purposes. More than 95 % of this
and excellent blending components for the diesel oil pool as             demand is covered by steam reforming of hydrocarbon
well. In addition, hydrogenated products are suitable as                 feedstocks. Lurgi has longstanding experience with this
feed for ethylene crackers.                                              technology. Great efforts have been made to develop it fur-
                                                                         ther in order to be able to offer tailored solutions for each
■ Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC):                                    and every application in industry.
Fluidized catalytic cracking selectively converts hydrocarbon
feeds to a variety of products: high octane number gasoline,             The clients' unit concept will be optimized to meet any
distillate oils, olefins for alkylation or polymerization and LPG.       requirements for efficient and reliable hydrogen production
                                                                         at the specified purity. Lurgi commands the full range of
■ Hydrotreatment:                                                        experience in engineering hydrogen and steam reforming
Hydrotreating improves the quality of straight run and                   units based on various feedstocks. Natural gas, refinery
cracked petroleum fractions ranging from light cuts (naph-               gases, associated gases, naphtha, LPG or any mixture are
tha, kerosene, diesel) to vacuum gas oil by removal of sulfur            used as process feedstock.
and nitrogen and by hydrogenation of unsaturated com-
Furthermore, hydrotreating of vacuum distillates with selec-
tive dewaxing for producing high grade lube oils.

Advanced hydrogen management systems are the key to            It will digest not only the traditional heavy refinery residues
high unit efficiency and availability. Lurgi steam reforming   but also all kinds of other liquid and even solids-containing
units feature the most sophisticated control systems that      residues and combinations. The process enables the manu-
can be found in this sector. They therefore reach exception-   facture of a wide range of products including ammonia,
ally high on-stream factors.                                   methanol, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, oxo-alcohols and
                                                               fuel gas. The integration of an efficient MPG with a com-
Multi Purpose Gasification (MPG)                               bined cycle (IGCC) represents an option for generating
MPG is a mature process for converting refinery residues       clean power from residual fuels.
into clean synthesis gas with minimal environmental impact.
Many of the undesirable components in crude oil – sulfur       Lurgi Rectisol® Process for Purifying Syngas
and heavy metals – are concentrated in residual fuel oil.      Lurgi’s Rectisol process uses refrigerated methanol as the
Increasingly stringent environmental legislation dictates a    solvent for physical absorption.
reduction in sulfur content and/or the application of expen-   The undesired components of the raw syngas, such as CO2,
sive flue gas treatment techniques when burning such resid-    H2S, COS and the remaining sulfur compounds, HCN, NH3,
ual fuels. MPG makes these measures dispensable. The           as well as nickel and iron carbonyls are physically absorbed
declining demand for residual fuel oil and increasing          from the raw syngas by the solvent. These components are
demand for distillates are pushing refineries to look for      then desorbed by reducing the pressure of the solvent,
alternative conversion processes of the heavy residues.        stripping and, if required, reboiling the solvent. The
MPG is such an alternative.                                    absorbed higher hydrocarbons are recovered in an addi-
                                                               tional extraction stage, if necessary.
                                                               The solubility of the different components to be removed
                                                               varies considerably. This also applies to H2S and CO2 and
                                                               allows selective removal of these components.

Sulfur Management                                                Bioethanol
Lurgi offers sulfur technology ranging from Claus plant, tail-   Lurgi’s specialist ethanol expertise has been used to plan
gas treatment to sulfur degassing and incineration. The sul-     and build plants from 50,000 to 300,000 t/a, and to expand
fur recovery plants excel by efficiencies of up to 99.9 %.       and optimize existing production facilities. Lurgi is also spe-
Besides the possibility of marketing the captured sulfur,        cialized in the design and construction of plants associated
intelligent sulfur management allows to meet evermore            with ethanol co-products and processes including protein
stringent emission control requirements. In the field of         extraction, distillers grains or biogas. Our Bioethanol tech-
Claus and OxyClaus® technologies Lurgi is at the very top        nology is oriented towards a minimum consumption of utili-
worldwide.                                                       ties, in particular of energy and water.

Biodiesel                                                        Synthetic Fuels
Lurgi offers more than 20 years of experience in the transes-    With its Fischer-Tropsch technology, Lurgi offers a process
terification of oils and fats to methyl esters. Our technology   for generating synthetic fuels from coal (Coal-to-Liquid),
is characterized by a particularly reliable plant concept. In    biomass (Biomass-to-Liquid) and natural gas (Gas-to-Liquid).
our process plants we refrain from using any centrifuges
thereby achieving higher plant availability. High yields and     Lurgi’s Fischer-Tropsch technology is an ultra-modern
low consumption are the main characteristics of our eco-         process involving a proprietary Fischer-Tropsch catalyst
nomic plant design.                                              which Lurgi developed together with StatoilHydro and
The glycerin that forms during the transesterification           PetroSA in the framework of the joint venture company
process can be converted to pharmaceutical grade glycerin.       GTL.F1 AG with registered office in Zurich and demon-
Lurgi engineers single-train plants with capacities in the       strated in a semi-commercial scale plant which is the
range of 10,000 to 250,000 tons per year.                        world’s largest pilot plant of its kind.

                                                       Lurgi ReformerTM
                                                       ■ Steam Generation

                                                       ■ Reformed Gas Collector

                                                       ■ Combustion Air

                                                       ■ Reformer Feed

                                                                       Intelligent Solutions to the Core
Synthetic fuels generated with Lurgi’s Fischer-Tropsch tech-           Nearly 1500 employees are working for Lurgi worldwide.
nology using biomass, coal and natural gas as feedstocks               More than 15 % are engaged in finding solutions for techni-
represent an alternative to petroleum-based fuels and are              cal problems in the company’s development and technology
superior to petroleum-based diesel fuel in terms of combus-            units. After all, each refinery has its own specific operating
tion properties (high cetane number and high engine effi-              conditions that call for an intelligent integrated concept. The
ciency) and environmental compatibility (free from sulfur              aspects of oil quality and consistency are discussed in coop-
and aromatics).                                                        eration with our chemical laboratory to optimize projects
                                                                       with state-of-the-art analysis methods and equipment.
Via synergies with Lurgi’s technology portfolio it is possible
to offer technical one-stop solutions. Lurgi is organized such         Process optimizations require concrete numerical data, com-
that all processes from raw materials preparation to product           puter-assisted simulation results as well as commonsensible
purification can be supplied from a single source.                     experience. This expertise is indispensable when a decision
                                                                       has to be made; Lurgi contributes to every project the
                                                                       know-how gathered in more than 50 years of refinery engi-

                                                                       Lurgi was successfully involved in the realization of hundreds
                                                                       of process plants worldwide which have been operating
                                                                       profitably for many years. Lurgi is an expert in the design
                                                                       and construction of both complete refinery complexes and
                                                                       individual plant units for the processing of crude oil and
                                                                       syncrudes. Furthermore, Lurgi designs and builds aromatics
                                                                       complexes and a very broad range of petrochemical plants
                                                                       downstream the refinery.

                                      Tenquiz Refinery, Russia

Scope of Services
Lurgi provides total technology solutions executed in full-      ■   Authority Engineering
service operating centers worldwide. The scope of services       ■   Construction
covers all aspects of project development from financing         ■   Operation and Maintenance
through to startup and operation.                                ■   Revamps/Retrofitting
The following comprehensive services are on offer:               ■   Maintenance
                                                                 ■   Technical Service
■   Consulting
■   Market Studies                                               In addition, Project Management Consultancy services are
■   Feasibility Studies                                          offered for providing comprehensive project management
■   Product Marketing                                            and associated services for a Refinery Project.
■   Financing
■   Contracting
■   Countertrade
■   Global Sourcing
■   Linear Programming – Investment Analysis
■   Conceptual Studies
■   Basic and Detail Engineering
■   Value Engineering

Great Tools for your success
Get your study first                                          Energy and heat recovery optimization tools help to mini-
Lurgi uses modern Linear Programming Modeling Systems         mize the utility consumption of your plant. Lurgi applies
which provide the most economic refinery concept enabling     dynamic simulation tools to analyze the safety and the con-
refineries and petrochemical plants to meet today’s plan-     trol scheme of your plant and to design or debottleneck the
ning challenges.                                              flare & vent systems of your refinery. Integrated design tools
                                                              for 2-D and 3-D modeling enable Lurgi to provide engineer-
Best Design and Simulation Tools                              ing packages faster and at high quality.
With a wide range of state-of-the-art process simulation
tools, Lurgi provides best practices and recommendations      Inspection Authorities
on how you can increase efficiency and productivity of your   Lurgi feels at home - all over the world. Based on our
plant by optimizing the process design.                       expertise, projects can be handled regardless of your loca-
Plant design, modernization and optimization are the key      tion. Compliance with worldwide standards and guidelines
prerequisites for long-term successful and safe plant         is a matter of course.
The competitiveness of today’s markets and the focus on
energy efficiency require improved heat-integrated process

Lurgi is a leading technology company operating worldwide
in the fields of process engineering and plant contracting.
The strength of Lurgi lies in innovative technologies of the
future focusing on customized solutions for growth markets.
The technological leadership is based on proprietary tech-
nologies and exclusively licensed technologies in the areas
gas-to-chemical product via synthetic gas or methanol
and synthetic fuels, petrochemicals, refinery technology
and polymer industry as well as renewable resources/food.

Lurgi is a member of the Air Liquide Group.


Lurgi GmbH
Lurgiallee 5 · D-60295 Frankfurt am Main
Phone: +49 (0) 69 5808-0 · Fax: +49 (0) 69 5808-3888
E-mail: communication@lurgi.com · Internet: www.lurgi.com