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USING THE LAND III- Intermediate

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USING THE LAND III- Intermediate Powered By Docstoc
					USING THE LAND III                                  Detergents are cleaning compounds for general,
                                                    food and industry cleaning. They are used in
A DESCRIPTION OF AN EXPERIMENT                      enormous quantities and after their use they are
                                                    usually discharged into rivers, lakes etc. Do
                                                    detergents have any affects on plant growth?
                                                    We are trying to find out if different types of
    procedure         research question             detergents will affect the growth on a plant. We
                                                    think that the detergents will affect the plant
 conclusion         hypothesis     results          growth and kill the plant since the detergents
                                                    material is poisonous to most living things. We
                                                    need these things for the experiment:
Match the terms to one part of the experiment       1. 4 of the same plants in little pots
                                                    2. 3 Different types of detergent.
description on the right.                           3. Area with sufficient sunshine
Write a description of your own experiment that     First of all, make sure that the plants are all the
                                                    same and are all fresh. Take the first plant and
you have done at the faculty or at work.            put it in the area where you are doing your
…………………………………………………………………………………………                  experiment. Water it and let it stay. Next, take
………………………………………………………………………………………..                 the 3 detergents and mix half a cup of detergent
                                                    with half a cup of water and pour the mixtures in
………………………………………………………………………………………..                 each of the remaining 3 plants. Do this for the
………………………………………………………………………………………..                 next 7 days and record your results below after
                                                    the 7th day.
………………………………………………………………………………………..                 After testing for 7 days, the experiment showed
………………………………………………………………………………………..                 that the three plants that had detergent material
                                                    in them died. The poison killed the plants just
………………………………………………………………………………………..                 like we thought in our hypothesis. The plant that
………………………………………………………………………………………..                 didn't have detergent in it lived and was in good
                                                    condition.
………………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………


     Reading: GRASSFARMING (from www.eatwild.com)
Starter: Discuss contemporary problems of animal husbandry in the world and in the Czech
Republic. You can use some of these words:

mad –cow disease          cattle          poultry    feedlot            pasture             suffer

conditions        large-scale rearing (breeding)      food additives              natural instincts


     Comprehension: Read one part of the text. Prepare a short speech about the part
which you have chosen.

     Vocabulary: Choose 5-10 important key terms which express the topic of the extract.
It can be nouns, verbs, adjectives etc.
   Nutritional Benefits of Grassfarming                        Grassfarmers experiment with low-stress weaning
   The meat from pastured ruminants is better for your         Weaning is a stressful time for calves, especially if they
   health than conventional meat in a number of                are weaned just before being shipped to distant
   important ways. First of all, it is lower in total fat.     feedlots. Calves that are raised and finished on
   Grassfed meat has about the same fat content as             pasture are not subjected to the stress of shipping
   skinless chicken or wild deer or elk. When meat is          because they remain on the farm from birth to market.
   this lean, it actually lowers your LDLcholesterol           But the calves still have to be separated from their
   levels.                                                     moms, so a number of grassfarmers are experimenting
   Because grassfed meat is so lean, it is also lower in       with ways to ease this transition. One technique is
   calories.                                                   called "across the fence" weaning. In this case, the
                                                               calves are removed from their mothers but are kept
   Vitamin E                                                   separated from them by only a minimal fence. Because
   In addition to being lower in fat and calories, meat        the cows and calves can still see, smell, and hear each
   from grassfed animals is also higher in vitamin E.          other, weaning tends to be less stressful.
   The graph below shows vitamin E levels in meat              Another stress-reduction technique is called "delayed
   from: 1) feedlot cattle, 2) feedlot cattle given high       weaning." In this variation, the calf remains with its
   doses of synthetic vitamin E (1,000 IU per day), and        mother for a few months longer than customary.
   3) cattle raised on fresh pasture with no added             Ranchers report that the older calves accept
   supplements. The meat from the pastured cattle is           separation more easily. There may be advantages for
   four times higher in vitamin E than the meat from the       the producers as well.
   feedlot cattle and, interestingly, almost twice as high     Pastured cattle can follow a natural eating
   as the meat from the feedlot cattle given vitamin E         schedule, resulting in less stress and injury.
   supplements.14 In humans, vitamin E is linked with a
   lower risk of heart disease and cancer.                     When allowed to range freely, cattle enjoy a twilight
                                                               grazing session. They like to graze in the early evening
                                                               because the temperature is more moderate, the flies
                                                               are less persistent, and the grass tastes sweeter.
                                                               Most feedlot cattle, on the other hand, are fed in the
                                                               morning. This means they have nothing to eat in the
                                                               evening when their instincts are telling them to graze.
                                                               This could be why they are more aggressive in the
                                                               early evening.
                                                               Ascites—a common condition in factory-raised
                                                               broilers—causes severe distress.
                                                               Forcing meat chickens to grow quickly, which is
                                                               standard industry practice, can result in heart failure or
                                                               "ascites." The underlying problem is that the chickens
                                                               develop so rapidly that their heart muscles cannot
Moderate-intensity grazing encourages plant                    keep pace. Ascites kills millions of birds worldwide and
biodiversity and mimics the natural prairie.                   costs the industry an estimated $500 billion per year.
A team of researchers from Colorado State University led       The toll is not just financial. Canadian researchers
by Richard H. Hart studied plant communities in an area of     investigating the course of the disease determined that
Colorado that had been either protected from cattle grazing    during the final stages of ascites, birds are severely
or grazed lightly, moderately, or heavily for 55 years.        distressed. "In advanced stages, the birds are unable
According to the investigators, "plant species biodiversity    to reach the drinkers and become dehydrated. Death is
was greatest on the moderately-grazed pasture. It had          usually preceded by prolonged agony, and is likely a
more kinds of plants than the lightly or heavily grazed        result of dehydration, starvation, respiratory failure,
pastures and was not as completely dominated by the            and heart failure. Given the severity of symptoms and
most common species as the ungrazed exclosures.                chronic nature of this condition, the ascites syndrome
Diversity was least in the ungrazed exclosures, which          must be addressed as an animal welfare problem."
were overrun by plains pricklypear cactus."
The researchers went on to say that "Rangeland today, moderately or heavily grazed by cattle, looks much
like the same rangeland looked in the 1800s, before the Great Plains were settled."
Grazing animals make a visible contribution to soil fertility.
In a conventional feedlot operation, large amounts of manure are deposited in a relatively small space that
is devoid of living plants. Because there is an over-abundance of manure and nothing to fertilize, the
manure becomes a "waste management problem" rather than a natural resource. Feedlot operators spend
millions of dollars a year trying to curb the offensive odors, groundwater contamination, and surface runoff.
In sharp contrast, when animals are finished on pasture, their manure is deposited naturally over a large
area of grassland, allowing the nutrients to be put to immediate use.

      Language point: Conditional clauses, type II

				
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