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The Social Sciences Sociology

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					Women’s Studies




                  1
        Women’s Studies
   First Wave Feminism
       Mary Wollstonecraft’s (1792)
        A Vindication of the Rights
        of Women is one of the first
        written works to be called
        feminist
       Suffragette Movement




                                       2
        Women’s Studies
   First Wave Feminism
       Mary Wollstonecraft’s (1792) A Vindication of
        the Rights of Women is one of the first written
        works to be called feminist
       Suffragette Movement
       The World Wars
            Nontraditional jobs
            Women’s professional sports



                                                      3
Backlash!




            4
        Women’s Studies
   Second Wave Feminism
       Fighting for full equality
       Fighting for control over own body
       More powerful in regards to voting, financial
        issues, education and power




                                                        5
        What is feminism?
   Feminism is:
       A belief in equality for all people
       Men’s and women’s positions in society are
        based on social institutions and social attitudes
       Because of these structural inequalities,
        feminists believe in transforming society on
        behalf of women
       Women’s experiences, concerns, and ideas are
        as valuable as men’s

                                                        6
Research Methods in the
Social Sciences




                          7
      Scientific Method
   Best way yet discovered for separating
    truth from untruth
   Check your book for steps in the
    scientific method




                                         8
      Types of Research
   Basic research

   Applied research

   Program evaluation




                          9
        Research Methods
                                           Advantages
   Nonexperimental                   Describe and predict
    Methods:                           behavior
       Archival research             Useful when ethical
       Naturalistic observation       considerations prevent
       Surveys                        true experimentation
       Case studies
       Correlational research
   Experimental Method               Causality


                                                          10
      Nonexperimental Methods
   Archival research



   Naturalistic observation



   Survey research

                                11
      Nonexperimental Methods
   Case Studies


   Correlational Research




                                12
        Correlational Research
   Strength of a relationship is represented by
    a mathematical score
       Ranges from +1.0 to -1.0
       _____________ signifies strength of relationship
       _________ signifies nature of the relationship




                                                    13
        Correlational Research
   Strength of a relationship is represented by
    a mathematical score
       +1.0 – Perfect positive correlation




                                              14
        Correlational Research
   Strength of a relationship is represented by
    a mathematical score
       +1.0 – Perfect positive correlation
       -1.0 – Perfect negative correlation




                                              15
        Correlational Research
   Strength of a relationship is represented by
    a mathematical score
       +1.0 – Perfect positive correlation
       -1.0 – Perfect negative correlation
       0.0 – No correlation = No relationship!




                                                  16
Correlational Research




                         17
Correlational Research




                         18
      Interpreting Correlations
   A large-scale study of contraceptive use in
    Taiwan found that people who had more
    electrical appliances in their homes were
    more likely to use birth control.



      Does this mean that toasters
      cause people to use birth control?
                                              19
Interpreting Correlations

Correlation ≠ Causation!




                            20
      Interpreting Correlations
   When we find a correlation between two
    variables A and B, there are three possible
    explanations:




                                              21
      Interpreting Correlations
   The more psychology courses students take
    during their college years, the higher scores
    they get on a measure of interpersonal
    sensitivity.




                                              22
      Interpreting Correlations
   A study on the effects of alcohol found that
    higher and higher doses of alcohol produced
    increasingly lower scores on a test of
    memory recall.




                                             23
      Interpreting Correlations
   A college professor notices that the farther
    students sit toward the back of the room,
    the worse their grades in the course seem
    to be.




                                               24
      Interpreting Correlations
   A survey of adolescents being treated for
    eating disorders noted that those who
    watched the most TV during the week
    tended to get the lowest ratings on a
    measure of general health.




                                                25
      Interpreting Correlations
   Correlations allow us to describe
    relationships

   Correlations allow us to predict




                                        26
Interpreting Correlations




                            27
        Experimental Research
   Investigates causal relationships between
    factors
       Deliberately induce change in one factor and
        observe the effect that change has on other
        factors
   Variable:




                                                       28
      Experimental Research
   Independent variable (IV)




                                29
      Experimental Research
   Dependent Variable (DV)




                              30
  Manipulation, Comparison,
  and Control

Manipulate
                IV         DV
             Music      Heart Rate
             No Music




                                     31
 Manipulation, Comparison,
 and Control

Compare
             IV          DV
          Music       Heart Rate
          No Music




                                   32
 Manipulation, Comparison,
 and Control

Control
             IV          DV
          Music       Heart Rate
          No Music




                                   33
 Manipulation, Comparison,
 and Control

Control
               IV                  DV
           Music                Heart Rate
           No Music



          All Other Variables
                                             34
      Random Assignment
   Individuals have an equal chance of being in
    the treatment condition as in the control
    condition




                                             35
      The Beauty of Random Assignment
   Allows the experimenter to assume the
    groups are roughly equivalent prior to
    administering the IV




                                             36
        The Beauty of Random Assignment
   Groups may differ in an important way
    just by chance
       Statistical procedures tell us likelihood that
        results are meaningful




                                                         37
      Key Elements of True Experiments
   An independent variable
   A dependent variable
   Random assignment of subjects to different
    levels of the IV
   A concrete hypothesis of how the IV should
    affect the DV



                                            38
        Cumulative Nature of Science
   An experiment or nonexperimental study
    can answer only a few, very specific
    questions
   Our confidence in scientific findings
    increases as:
       Results are __________
       Findings from related studies _______on the
        same conclusion


                                                  39

				
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posted:2/26/2012
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