Does the education of others reduce fertility

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					Does the education of others
      reduce fertility?

     Rodrigo Dominguez
        Oct. 7, 2008
Layout

   Variables that might affect fertility
   Importance of Education
   Processes through which the education
    of others affect fertility
   Other perspectives
         Variables that affect fertility
   Culture:
      Age at marriage and first birth.

      Gender Preference

      Contraceptive use

      Role of women at the household, community and national level.

   Economic status:
      Costs of child bearing

      Retirement expectations

      Economic activity.

   Health:
      Infant Mortality Rates

      Life Expectancy

   Urban-Rural Setting.
Education


   Has the potential to affect all of the
    other variables.
Education of Others
   Why?
       Non-educated women have experienced a
        reduction in fertility.
       Some variables are more likely to change in a
        highly educated society.
       Need to allocate resources more effectively
   How?
       Spillover Effects
       Broad Economic Changes.
                 Education of Others?
                   Spillover Effects
   Social Learning:
       Knowledge transmitted by communication and
        observation


   Social influence:
       Imitation of others’ behaviour to gain others’
        approval.

   Both variables depend on the level of social interaction
                                                    Source: Kravdal, 2002.
          Variables that affect fertility
   Culture:
      Age at marriage and first birth.

      Gender Preference

      Contraceptive use

      Role of women at the household, community and national
       level.
   Economic status:
      Costs of child bearing

      Retirement expectations

      Economic activity.

   Health:
      Infant Mortality Rates

      Life Expectancy

   Urban-Rural Setting.
Education of Others?
Broad Economic Change
   Higher productivity per worker in Agriculture.
   Establishment of Manufacturing Industries.
   Higher Concentration of People.
   Higher demand for female labour: Change in
    women’s role.
   Change in Costs and Benefits of children
   All these changes will also diffuse to the less
    educated population.
Does the Education of Others Affect
Fertility?
Other perspectives

   How can education change fertility in
    places that have below replacement
    fertility rates?
   How to account for the effect of the
    education of “others” in the change of
    fertility rates?
       Interconnected variables
       Two way causation.
Does education of others reduce fertility?
Examples
   Sub Saharan-Africa (Kravdal)
       Higher education levels led to a decrease in
        fertility rate.
       This influenced both the educated and the
        uneducated segments of the population.
   India.(McNay)
       Increased use of contraceptives among the
        uneducated women.
       Clear example of social learning and social
        pressure.
Conclusion
   The education of others does have the
    potential of reducing fertility.
   There are two main processes through which
    the education of others might affect fertility
    rates.
   It is hard to establish the causality of these
    changes, and to measure the “diffusion”
    effect, controlling for everything else.

				
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