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					                                                            INDEX PAGE




   Pathway
   to Flight
     A PROFILE OF
     CAREER
     OPPORTUNITIES
     IN NIAGARA’S
     AEROSPACE
     SECTOR




Produced for the     In partnership with and supported by
                                                                             RETURN to INDEX PAGE




Research conducted by
Duncan MacDuff and Maureen McRae
Workplace Development Group, Ventures Division
Glendale Campus, 135 Taylor Road, R.R. #4
Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, L0S 1J0
Phone: 905-641-2252
Fax: 905-988-4303
Email: dmacduff@niagarac.on.ca
For the
Niagara Training and Adjustment Board




and the Niagara Aerospace Partnership for Learning




In partnership with and supported by




We would like to recognize the gracious and candid participation of the
employers who contributed the time and effort to share their
organizational and individual challenges. Clearly, only through their
involvement can we begin to develop a more valid understanding of
Niagara’s evolving aerospace industry and its emerging job and training
challenges. The assistance and guidance provided by all members of the
Niagara Aerospace Partnership for Learning is also gratefully appreciated.
Finally, we would like to express an appreciation for the leadership
provided by Mark Waring of Aero-Safe Technologies Inc.


April, 2002


Designed by Niagara College Marketing Department
Printed in Canada
CONTENTS
 FOREWORD ...................................................................... iv


 REPORT OVERVIEW ......................................................... 1
 Introduction ......................................................................... 2
 Summary of Findings ........................................................... 3
 Study Scope and Objectives ................................................. 6
 Study Methodology .............................................................. 7


 SECTOR PROFILE ............................................................. 9
 Employer Sample Profile ..................................................... 9
 Industry Structure .............................................................. 10
 National Context ................................................................ 11
 Global Characteristics and Supplier Challenges ............... 13


 EMPLOYMENT & TRAINING NEEDS ........................... 19
 Employment Demand ........................................................ 19
 Occupational Certification and Upgrading Issues ............. 23
 Upgrading Issues ................................................................ 24
 Career Path Opportunities ................................................. 27
 Recruitment Challenges ..................................................... 29

 REFLECTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS .................... 35
 Developing A Regional Skill Advantage ............................ 35
 Recommendations for Further Action ............................... 38


 APPENDICES
 Appendix A –             Occupational Profiles
 Appendix B –             Communiqué
 Appendix C –             Survey Participants
 Appendix D –             Niagara Aerospace Partnership
                          for Learning
 Appendix E –             References




  ii
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CHARTS AND TABLES
 CHART 1: Projected Jobs by Occupation ............................ 4
 CHART 2: Wages by Occupation ........................................ 4
 CHART 3: Sample Profile by Number of Employees ........ 10
 CHART 4: Canadian Aerospace Industry Growth ............. 11
 CHART 5: Regional Aircraft/Aircraft Parts
          Manufacturers and Air Transport Services ...... 12
 TABLE 1: Canadian % Of The World Market ................... 14
 CHART 6: Projected Jobs ................................................... 20
 CHART 7: Projected Jobs by Occupational Clusters ......... 20
 CHART 8: Wages by Occupation ...................................... 21
 TABLE 2: Provincial Retirement Projections
          by Related Occupations .................................... 22
 TABLE 3: Occupational Certification ................................ 23
 FIGURE 1: Career Pathways .............................................. 28
 TABLE 4: Typical Career Pathway for
          Manufacturing Technology .............................. 32
 TABLE 5: The Technological Education
          Aerospace Career Path ...................................... 33
 FIGURE 2: Aerospace/Technological Regional
           Skill Development Model ............................... 36




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FOREWORD
Canadians have a distinguished history in the development of human aviation. From the lofty
ambitions of the forming members of the Aerial Experiment Association, which included
Canadians Alexander Graham Bell, John McCurdy and ‘Casey’ Baldwin, came the early flying
machines. Among their accomplishments was the Silver Dart, which made its maiden Canadian
flight off the ice of Baddeck Bay (Cape Breton Island) in 1909. Through WWI, the airplane
changed forever the way of war, and led to a surplus of skilled Canadian aircraft mechanics,
designers, builders, and pilots. Then came the legendary bush flying of the 1920s and 1930s, the
upshot of Canada’s skills surplus and precursor to the growth of Canada’s earliest commercial
airlines, Western Canada Airways and Trans-Canada Air Lines (TCA). Through to the
realization of the spectacular Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow interceptor and Avro Canada C-102
Jetliner, Canadians have consistently demonstrated their innovative vigour.1
   Today, employers assert repeatedly that in a global market, what differentiates competitors
from competitors with a tangible advantage,2 is the quality and innovative talents of their
people. And few industries demand greater precision, better teamwork, and more inventive
merit than the aerospace industry. Canada’s internationally renowned aerospace industry is
the only advanced technology sector in the Canadian economy that maintains a trade surplus.
Exports, which comprise over three-quarters of its output, have enabled the national industry
to accumulate a trade balance of $25 billion since 19903. Over the same time period,
employment in the national industry has nearly doubled.
   Niagara has played a role in Canada’s impressive accomplishments in the fields of aviation
and subsequently aerospace, with roots to the industry’s legendary evolution during the
1920s. Producing for virtually all segments of the industry, including the civil, commercial,
defence, satellite, and radar industries, Niagara’s manufacturers’ turn out helicopters, wing
panels, flaps and ailerons, flight instrumentation, diagnostic systems, and precision-machined
parts. Air transport service and maintenance providers broaden the range of regional aviation
industries through the provision of airports, flight training centres, repair services, flight
service centres, aerial tours, filming, photography and surveillance, and charter services.
   Regional aerospace employers know that the global market is projected to continue its
growth pattern, as it sheds the short-term decline experienced in 2001. They know too, their
key to increasing their share of the growth is the skills and innovative capacity of their
people. And with conservative employment projections of more than 540 jobs over the next
10 years, offering annual wages averaging close to $40K year, employers are intent to seize
the opportunity presented by the market. Through the formation of the Niagara Aerospace
Partnership for Learning (NAPL), regional employers are working hard to cultivate a clear
and sustainable competitive advantage, by developing the skills and pioneering spirit of their
present and future workforce. They invite you to learn about their strategies, and to gauge
your own readiness to join in their quest.


– Duncan MacDuff
  Report author and NAPL member




1
    Highlights in the History of Canadian Aviation, National Aviation Museum, 2002
2
 The concept and importance of differentiating between competitiveness and developing a competitive advantage was first presented to Niagara
aerospace employers in a report and discussion led by George Schriver, WCM Consulting Inc. and facilitated by Renato Romanin of The Niagara
Economic and Tourism Corporation and Gary Bruno of The Economic Development & Tourism Corporation of Fort Erie, December 2000.
3
    Aerospace…Innovation in Action: Annual Report 2001, Aerospace Industries Association of Canada, 2001

        iv
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Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector   REPORT OVERVIEW




This report is divided into four sections. The first section,




                                                                                           Overview
                                                                                             Report
entitled Report Overview, includes an introduction to the
report and a summary of the overall findings. The scope,
objectives, and methodology of the study are also outlined
here.
   Following, in the section entitled Sector Profile, there is a
description of the employer sample. As well, background
information about the industry structure and about the
industry’s national context are presented. A summary of the
key features of the global aerospace industry provides a solid
context for understanding the human resource challenges
facing the regional aerospace industry, and leads us to the
crucial importance of a skilled workforce in Niagara.
   Next is a presentation of the industry’s Employment &
Training Needs, with a focus upon the projected employment
demands, and occupational certification and training
requirements. In this section we will also look at recruitment,
retention, and career development issues.
   In the fourth and final section, entitled Reflections &
Recommendations we synthesize the challenges for Niagara and
consider a strategy to grow the regional aerospace industry by
developing a regional skill advantage, and ultimately set the
stage for further action through specific recommendations.
   The Appendices (A through E) house five sets of resource
materials, including copies of the each of the following
elements:
   A- Occupational Profiles
   B- Communiqué
   C- Survey Participants
   D- Niagara Aerospace Partnership for Learning
   E- References.




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                REPORT OVERVIEW              Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector




                                             INTRODUCTION
                                             Niagara’s history in aviation manufacturing dates back to the
                                             1920s, a period of burgeoning exploits in Canadian aviation.
                                             Today it continues to play a significant role in the regional
                                             economy. Concentrated in, but not exclusive to Fort Erie,
                                             Niagara’s aerospace industry includes companies from all
                                             major industrial groups and a number of specialty
                                             manufacturers. Collectively they produce finished goods that
                                             cover almost every facet of the industry, including helicopters,
                                             aeroplane parts and components, rescue and recovery
                                             equipment, flight instrumentation, and precision engineered-
                                             parts. Six companies employing over 800 people make up the
                                             region’s aerospace manufacturing industry. An additional ten
                                             regional businesses provide a range of air transportation
                                             services, including the following: airports, flight training
                                             centres, repair services, flight service centres, aerial tours,
                                             filming, photography and surveillance, and charter services.
                                                Three labour force issues compelled regional manufacturers
                                             to establish the Niagara Aerospace Partnership for Learning,
                                             an industry-led team focused upon workforce development.
                                             Compelling issues included the following:
                                             • Increasing competition for skilled workers
                                             • A lack of regional post-secondary training and certification
                                             • A perceived lack of awareness of employment opportunities
                                               within Niagara’s aerospace sector
                                             • A concern about the industry’s capacity to effectively
                                               recruit new employees into the aerospace industry.
                                                The development of a skilled and ready labour force is
                                             critical to the success of the aerospace industry as it evolves
                                             over the next ten years. It is also part of a crucial strategy to
                                             grow business within the region. The Canadian commercial
                                             aerospace industry has increased sales by more than 50% over
                                             the past decade, with Canada’s growth concentrated at the
                                             Tier I level. Accompanying Tier I growth is the increasing
                                             practice of demanding more sophisticated processes from their
                                             Tier 2 and Tier 3 suppliers, which is where Niagara’s
                                             aerospace industry is concentrated.4 Clearly the demand for
                                             increased sophistication presents both a challenge and an
                                             opportunity for the regional industry. This study is intended
                                             to help the industry meet its current and projected workforce
4
 Sector Competitiveness Frameworks –         needs, and to assist in attracting new business by developing
Aircraft and Aircraft Parts, Industry        and expanding the productive and adaptive capacity of the
Canada- Aerospace and Defence Branch, 1996   regional labour force.




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Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector       REPORT OVERVIEW




SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
For more than 75 years, Niagara’s aerospace industry has
contributed to Canada’s growing aerospace sector. Today,
regional manufacturers continue to produce a wide range of
quality products for virtually all segments of the industry,
including the civil, commercial, defence, satellite, and radar
industries. Delivered products also reflect the breadth of the
industry, for they include helicopters, wing panels, flaps and
ailerons, flight instrumentation and diagnostic systems, and
precision machined parts. Their combined sales exceed $125
million annually, and they are planning for long-term growth.
This summary presents the key findings and challenges the
industry must address to achieve its growth plans, and the
crucial employment and training needs on which growth so
pivotally rests.
    Regionally there are six companies employing a total of 840
people in the manufacturing of aerospace craft and
components, and another ten regional employers, with
approximately 100 employees, that provide air transport
service and maintenance. Regional services include airports,
flight training centres, repair services, flight service centres,
aerial tours, filming, photography and surveillance, and
charter services. Eight employers5, representing 88% of the
region’s aerospace employees, recently stipulated the
following key employment related issues as having the
greatest negative impact upon their competitiveness and
growth plans:
• A shortage of qualified, skilled labour for selected
  aerospace occupations
• A lack of aerospace specific courses and programs within
  the Niagara region.
   In excess of 540 jobs are projected to arise over the next
ten years. Approximately one quarter (155) are projected to
arise by 2006, with the majority (392) of the projected jobs to
arise by 2011. Fifty-six percent (56%) of the projected jobs are
in response to the need to replace retiring personnel, and 44%
reflect anticipated growth needs. The majority (96%) of the                          5
                                                                                       Employer sample includes aero-safe
projected jobs will be full-time. Nine occupational clusters                         technologies inc., Devco Aviation Ltd.,
account for 93% of the projected jobs. Chart 1 illustrates the                       Eurocopter Canada Limited, Fleet
number of jobs projected by sample participants across core                          Industries Ltd., McDonco Machine Ltd.,
occupational clusters.                                                               Niagara Air Tours, Niagara Helicopters
                                                                                     Limited, and Welland/Port Colborne
                                                                                     Airport.




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REPORT OVERVIEW       Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector




                      CHART 1:
                      Projected Jobs by Occupation

                                                   14 Production/Material Planners
                         12 Quality Technicians
                                                            24 Administrators/Managers
               24 Engineers/Technologists                                                               38 Other

    40 Licensed Tradespeople
                                                                                                                   61 Trainees/
                                                                                                                      Machinists
            103 Sheet Metal
                Workers
                                                                                                                   165 Assembly Fitters
                   64 Composite
                      Lay-up &                                                                              TOTAL: 547 JOBS
                      Tool Workers



                          Wages in the aerospace industry are higher than the
                      regional average across all industries. The annual wages across
                      all of the projected occupations range from $26,000 to
                      $80,000, with the average across all occupations approaching
                      $40,000 annually.

                      CHART 2:
                      Wages by Occupation




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Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector       REPORT OVERVIEW




   The aerospace industry is more sensitive to cyclical swings
than many other industries particularly because of its global
integration, relatively long lead-time for project orders, and
weak linkages with non-aerospace sectors. The current global
economic slowdown will lead to a short-term decline of 217
jobs in the regional aerospace manufacturing industry.
Regional employers are optimistic about the future, and for
good reason; the opportunity to grow business exists.
Canada’s share of world aerospace production has more than
tripled since 1976. More recently, between 1993 and 2001,
Canadian sales have grown by 250% and employment by
150%. As for the future, the world’s leading manufacturers
have forecasted annual average growth rates in passenger and
cargo traffic of 5.1% and 6.7% globally, and 3% for the North
American market, over the next twenty years. The challenge
for the Niagara industry is to advance its capacity to
coordinate business growth while simultaneously nourishing a
vital advantage – the development of a highly innovative and
skilled workforce.6
    While the number of jobs projected to arise over the next
decade within the existing employer base does not, in and of
itself, signal any supply-side alarms, it’s the combination of a
number of recent industry trends and regional demographic and
economic variables that, collectively, prompt industry concerns
about its capacity to respond quickly to new projects, bid
successfully for competitive contracts, and grow the regional
aerospace industry. The regional industry’s projected shortage
of skilled labour is certainly magnified by the increasing cross-
sector competition for skilled workers and the lack of regionally
accessible aerospace-specific training. Spearheading the regional
industry’s quest to create a clear and sustainable competitive
advantage is an industry-led team, composed of employers,
government representatives, and trainers and educators.
Established in 2001, the mandate of the Niagara Aerospace
Partnership for Learning (NAPL) is as follows:
• Promote the aerospace industry in the Niagara region,
• Project and assess workforce demand requirements and
  labour force supply issues                                                         6
                                                                                      Sources: Aerospace…Innovation in
• Expand on effective school-to-work initiatives, such as co-                        Action: Annual Report 2001, Aerospace
  op, and build local training capacity to ensure the industry                       Industries Association of Canada, 2001;
  is able to attract, develop and retain Niagara’s best and                          Industry Profiles- The Canadian Aerospace
  brightest.                                                                         Sector, Human Resources Development
                                                                                     Canada, 2002; and Civil Aerospace – The
                                                                                     Outlook, Rolls-Royce Canada Limited, 2001




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REPORT OVERVIEW   Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector




                     Since its inception, NAPL initiatives have included a joint
                  open house; an all-day, three-plant career fair for high school
                  students; meetings with high school guidance counselors and
                  technical directors; the development of five occupational
                  profiles to promote career awareness within the sector; and the
                  research and recommendations contained in this report. As well
                  a web site, located at www.napl.ca, provides information about,
                  and access to, industry employers, co-op and job opportunities,
                  and direct links to the national industry. These initiatives have
                  served as the industry’s initial catalysts for NAPL members to
                  begin to implement the report’s recommendations in their
                  pursuit of a regional skills advantage.



                  STUDY SCOPE and OBJECTIVES
                  Niagara aerospace manufacturers initiated this inquiry out of a
                  concern for their capacity to attract and develop a skilled and
                  innovative workforce. They believed their potential to grow the
                  regional industry was becoming increasingly hindered by a
                  shortage of skilled workers. This study was designed to help
                  define the scope of the current and projected skills shortages, and
                  identify strategies to align growth aspirations with workforce
                  development initiatives. Although initiated by and focused upon
                  regional manufacturers, the study also considers the demand,
                  recruitment, retention and development challenges facing
                  regional air transport service and maintenance businesses. The
                  primary objectives of the study were to do the following:
                  • Establish an employment profile of the number and types
                    of individuals employed in the regional aerospace industry;
                  • Project regional job growth and replacement needs by
                    occupation;
                  • Develop between three to six occupational profiles related to
                    the aerospace industry. Profiles would include information
                    about the occupations’ job functions, education and
                    certification requirements, working conditions, training
                    availability, employment outlook, and wages;
                  • Identify and assess training and development issues;
                  • Develop a profile of the labour supply, concentrating on
                    Fort Erie, but within the context of the regional labour
                    force supply potential;
                  • Develop a career path model of broad occupational clusters,
                    including educational and training linkages, and an outline
                    of training requirements for entry-level occupations.




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Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector   REPORT OVERVIEW




STUDY METHODOLOGY
An industry advisory committee met monthly from August
2001 through February 2002 to discuss, clarify, and refine
specific study parameters and to monitor the validity and utility
of the study. Researchers began with a review of the
information needs and priority issues to verify and refine study
outcomes, before moving into the design phase of the research
process. Preliminary research initiatives consisted of first hand
discussions with selected leaders from the industry,
government, and education, and a literature review of related
studies, demographic profiles and training/education programs.
Routine collaboration through the entire life of the study has
ensured consistency of interpretation and sustained progress.
   The next stage involved the development of research
instruments and communication tools. Four different research
methods were used to collect data. They are listed below,
essentially reflecting the order in which they were implemented.
• Review and Content Analysis of an extensive set of secondary
  data sources and materials ranging from the local to the
  national environment, and focusing upon individual
  occupations and broader occupational clusters. This
  method helped establish the dominant issues, trends and
  opportunities, hard demographic and profile data, and
  context for local demand and supply needs.
• Interviews with Regional Aerospace Employers provided
  detailed employment demand projections, focusing upon
  occupational-specific opportunities within the context of
  broader career pathways. Employer interviews also helped
  to extend and build commitment to the study and its
  recommendations.
• Statistical Analysis of local youth supply and mature workforce
  supply was used for labour force supply-side analysis.
• Group discussions/Interviews with educators focused upon
  broadening the understanding of the youth supply potential
  and related issues, and developing strategies to ensure
  school-to-work transitions are effective, and productive for,
  and meaningful to, employers and employees.
   The findings are based upon a review of more than thirty
studies/reports, and interviews or discussions involving
representatives from seven regional employers, two school
boards, and one union. One additional employer responded to
a short questionnaire.




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Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector   SECTOR PROFILE




This section provides an overview of Niagara’s aerospace




                                                                                           Sector
                                                                                           Profile
manufacturing industry, and its context within the Canadian
setting. It will begin with a brief definition of the aerospace
industry before turning to a profile of the employer sample. A
short description of the structure of the industry, including its
national context, will follow. A summary of the trends in the
global industry and subsequent challenges facing Canadian and
Niagara aerospace manufacturers will conclude this section.
   The aerospace industry is composed of companies that
design, manufacture, and repair civil, commercial, and
military aircraft and spacecraft, and their related subsystems,
components and parts. Industry products and services include
fixed (airplane) and rotary (helicopters) wing craft; space
satellite, engine, airframe, and avionics manufacturing and
maintenance; software development and simulation; and
precision machining.



REGIONAL EMPLOYER AND
SAMPLE PROFILE
There are six employers within the region of Niagara that are
directly involved in the manufacturing of aircraft, and aircraft
and aerospace parts. They are the primary focus of this study.
Another ten regional employers provide air transport service
and maintenance. They too were invited to participate in this
study because they face some similar challenges in recruiting
and retaining skilled personnel. Regional manufacturers
produce a wide range of quality products for virtually all
segments of the industry, including the civil, commercial,
defence, satellite, and radar sectors. Delivered products also
reflect the breadth of the industry; they include helicopters,
wing panels, flaps and ailerons, flight instrumentation and
diagnostic systems, and precision machined parts. Regional air
transport services include airports, flight training centres,
repair services, flight service centres, aerial tours, filming,
photography and surveillance, and charter services. Niagara’s
aerospace industry employs more than 900 people throughout
the region. Manufacturers are concentrated in, but not
exclusive to, Fort Erie. Air transport services are located
throughout Niagara, with services available in Welland,
Grimsby, Niagara-on-the-Lake, and Niagara Falls.




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                   SECTOR PROFILE           Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector




                                               Eight employers participated in this study either by
                                            interview or by completing a questionnaire. The majority
                                            (seven of eight) of the employers have non-unionized
                                            workplaces. Their total employment is 823 employees, which
                                            represents approximately 88% of the region’s aerospace-
                                            related employment. Four of the participants manufacture
                                            aircraft, and aircraft and aerospace parts, and four participants
                                            provide air transport charter services, specialty services, or
                                            aircraft servicing. Chart 3 illustrates the employer sample by
                                            the number of employees and by industry sector.


CHART 37:
Sample
Profile by
Number of
Employees




                                            INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
                                            The manufacture of aircraft and of aircraft and aerospace parts
                                            is a complex and labour-intensive process, involving
                                            thousands of manual steps in the production process. It is
                                            controlled by a small number of primary, global
                                            manufacturers, indigenous to a few rich industrial nations
                                            with significant military interests, and supported by an
7
  A fifth manufacturer, Irvin Aerospace     international network of suppliers.8 National governments
Canada Limited, which operated in Fort      have historically coveted domestic aircraft manufacturers for
Erie from 1925 – 2001, was closed by its    their benefits to national defence, export revenues, technology
parent company in August of 2001. Their     spillovers to other industrial sectors, and well-paying jobs.9
projections have been excluded from the
findings.                                      Aircraft and aircraft and aerospace parts manufacturers are
                                            divided into tiers. Tier 1 manufacturers are the ‘prime’
8
 The U.S, the U.K., France, Canada, and     manufacturers (e.g. Bombardier Aerospace, Boeing Aerospace
Germany account for over 85% of global      Ltd., Bell Helicopter Textron). They are responsible for the
exports of aircraft, and aircraft engines   production of the completed aircraft, and will frequently
and parts. Source: Sector Competitiveness   produce the main components, such as airframes. Eurocopter,
Frameworks: Aircraft and Aircraft Parts,    the Region’s only Tier 1 producer, is a fully integrated
Industry Canada, 1999                       manufacturer with responsibility for the design, manufacture,
9
 Sector Competitiveness Frameworks:         modification, repair and overhaul, flight test, and certification
Aircraft and Aircraft Parts, Industry       of helicopters. The Tier 2 manufacturers produce major
Canada, 1996                                subsystems, such as the avionics systems or power train. Fleet,
                                            a regional Tier 2 supplier, produces helicopter cabins, wing




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Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector        SECTOR PROFILE




panels, and flaps and ailerons. Tier 3 suppliers manufacture
components and sub-assemblies, such as aircraft skis (e.g.
Genaire) and specific instrumentation (e.g. Insight). Tier 4
suppliers produce a smaller number of precision parts (e.g.
Aero-safe and McDonco), which are then integrated at a higher
tier level.10 Many manufacturers at the lower tier levels produce
for a range of industries, and are thereby somewhat less
vulnerable to the cyclical swings of the aerospace industry.


NATIONAL CONTEXT
Canada’s position in the global aerospace industry is
particularly impressive, considering its mid-size economy and
relatively small military interests. After struggling through the
recession of the early 1990s, Canadian sales have risen rapidly
since 1996. By the end of the first year of the new millennium,
Canada had achieved the fourth largest aerospace industry in
the world, with annual sales reaching $20 billion and
employment soaring to 90,00011 people across more than 700
companies12. Chart 4 illustrates the national sector’s impressive
growth in sales and employment between 1993-200113.
CHART 4:
Canadian Aerospace Industry Growth14



                                                                                     10
                                                                                       A report on the Aerospace Sector in Fort
                                                                                     Erie and the Niagara region, WCM
                                                                                     Consulting Inc., 2000
                                                                                     11
                                                                                       Aerospace…Innovation in Action:
                                                                                     Annual Report 2001, Aerospace Industries
                                                                                     Association of Canada, 2001
                                                                                     12
                                                                                       Industry Profiles- The Canadian
                                                                                     Aerospace Sector, Human Resources
                                                                                     Development Canada, 2002
   Two trends dominate the sales performance of the national
aerospace industry, namely growth in the commercial arena and                        13
                                                                                          2001 figures are estimates
export growth. Over the last decade, sales to commercial                             14
                                                                                       Sources: Aerospace…Innovation in
markets have grown by more than 50%, whereas military
                                                                                     Action: Annual Report 2001, Aerospace
markets have remained relatively constant. By the end of the
                                                                                     Industries Association of Canada, 2001;
1990s, approximately 70% of the industry’s annual revenue
                                                                                     and Industry Profiles- The Canadian
came from civil aerospace markets. Exports are also crucial to
                                                                                     Aerospace Sector, Human Resources
understanding the Canadian aerospace industry. Looking at the
                                                                                     Development Canada, 2002
period 1995 to 2000, one finds that annual exports have




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                    SECTOR PROFILE             Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector




15
  Sources: Industry Profiles- The Canadian     consistently been between 75-80% of the industry’s annual
Aerospace Sector, Human Resources              output. Approximately two-thirds of all exports go to the
Development Canada, 1996 and Canada’s          United States with the balance of the exports going to Europe,
aerospace industry – industry facts and        South America and the Pacific Rim. Consequently the national
figures, Aerospace Industries Association of   industry has achieved a trade surplus of $25 billion over the
Canada, 2001                                   past decade.15
16
  Aerospace…Innovation in Action:                 Historically innovation has also, quite arguably, been a
Annual Report 2001, Aerospace Industries       pivotal element in Canada’s success internationally. “From the
Association of Canada, 2001                    Silver Dart, to the Regional Jet and Canadarm 2, the growth
17
                                               and development of Canada’s aerospace industry is replete
  Aerospace Capability Profile, Fort Erie
                                               with examples of innovation and world firsts.”16 However, in
Economic Development and Tourism
                                               recent years there is evidence that investment in research and
Corporation, 2001
                                               development has not kept pace with sales growth, thereby
                                               raising some concern about future competitiveness. One other
                                               aspect of the sales ‘success story’, the decreasing percentage of
                                               domestic supplier content, demands a closer examination,
                                               particularly because of its relevance to the regional scene. In
                                               the sub-section entitled Global Characteristics and Supplier
                                               Challenges, this report will touch more upon the issues of
                                               domestic supplier content, and innovation, particularly in
                                               relation to human resource requirements.
                                                  Within Canada, Quebec and Ontario account for close to
                                               90% of Canada’s aerospace revenues and employment.
                                               Although relatively small in comparison to the two lead
                                               provinces, the aerospace industry is also an important
                                               contributor to the provincial economies of Manitoba, Nova
                                               Scotia, and British Columbia. In the Niagara region, the
                                               municipality of Fort Erie possesses the majority of regional
                                               aerospace manufactures, where they represent 40% of the
                                               municipality’s total industry employment17. Chart 5, below,
                                               shows the distribution of regional aircraft and aircraft parts
                                               manufacturers, and regional air transport services.

CHART 5:
Regional Aircraft/
Aircraft Parts
Manufacturers
and Air Transport
Services




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GLOBAL CHARACTERISTICS AND
SUPPLIER CHALLENGES
Three dominant characteristics of the global aerospace
industry are briefly outlined in this section, namely its global
concentrations, the importance of innovation, and the
challenges to suppliers. Combined, these three
characteristics provide a solid context for understanding the
industry’s workforce needs. As well, they help explain why
the jobs projected through this study represent a baseline
estimate, with the potential to rise or decrease dramatically
based upon the regional industry’s success at aligning its
growth plans with its workforce development initiatives.


GLOBAL CONCENTRATIONS
Aerospace production is dominated by a relatively small
number of primary manufacturers and concentrated within
the G7 nations. The two dominant commercial aircraft
manufacturers globally are Boeing and Airbus Industrie. The
industry’s primary consumers are also narrowly limited to
the world’s airlines and armed forces. The United States, by
far the world’s largest consumer and producer of aerospace
products, holds approximately 56% of the world market
across all market segments18. Among the U.K., France and
Germany, Europe currently possesses the second largest
share of the global aerospace market, amassing more than
30% of global sales in 1999.19 Market concentrations,
coupled with long lead times to complete an aircraft order,
result in cyclical variations that are much more prominent
than those in the overall market economy. Given that year-
over-year revenues can vary by 20%, a long-term view is
required to provide adequate understanding of industry
trends. Employment subsequently can, in the short-term,
also appear rather volatile with layoffs in a cyclical
downturn, and a hiring frenzy in an upturn in the markets.20
   Through the past fifteen years the global industry has                            18
                                                                                       Aerospace Output, 1999, The European
continued to evolve in several consistent directions. The                            Association of Aerospace Industries, 2000
rapid sales growth of the late 1990s was preceded by the dip
                                                                                     19
in the early 1990s, due to the end of the Cold War and                                 Aerospace Output, 1999, The European
subsequent recession, and the similarly rapid growth                                 Association of Aerospace Industries, 2000
through the late 1980s. Growth through the late 1990s was                            20
                                                                                       Sector Competitiveness Frameworks:
driven by the expansion in the commercial industry, as                               Aircraft and Aircraft Parts, Industry
defense spending was curtailed at the end of the Cold War.                           Canada, 1996




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                                           During this period, increasing consolidations through mergers
                                           and acquisitions dominated the global scene, as the primary
                                           commercial competitors strived to achieve efficiencies. The
                                           resulting productivity increases at the upper tier have led to
                                           lower employment growth than sales growth, and widened the
                                           productivity gap between the upper and lower tiers.
                                              The patterns outlined above apply equally to the Canadian
                                           aerospace industry, which has, since 1985, grown by more
                                           than 150%21, and achieved the world’s highest rate of national
                                           growth in aerospace revenue. Canada’s success is concentrated
                                           in specific market segments. Most notable segments include
                                           regional aircraft, business jets, commercial helicopters, small
                                           gas turbine engines, flight simulators, landing gear, and space
                                           applications. Table 1 illustrates the present market strengths
                                           of the national industry.


                                           Table 122 Canadian % Of The World Market
                                            Market                                                 % of Global
                                            Segment                                                Market – 1999

                                           Commercial Turbine Helicopter                           50%

                                           Business Jets                                           35%

                                           Regional Aircraft                                       46%

                                           Aircraft Environmental Systems                          66%

                                           New Large Aircraft Landing Gear Systems                 60%

                                           Commercial Simulator Market                             75%


                                              The present economic slowdown has certainly weakened
                                           the global demand in the short-term. However, long-term
                                           historic trends justify optimistic growth projections for the
                                           next twenty-year period. Commercial industry analysts project
21
  Industry Profiles- The Canadian          an average annual growth in the 5% range for global passenger
Aerospace Sector, Human Resources          traffic, and 7% range for global cargo traffic.23 And unlike the
Development Canada, 1996                   growth witnessed through the latter 1990s, which relied solely
                                           upon the uptake in commercial spending, the next period of
22
  Canada’s aerospace industry – industry   growth is projected to include increasing global defence
facts and figures, Aerospace Industries    expenditure, due to mounting demands to replace existing
Association of Canada, 2001                aerospace products. The U.S., in particular, has made
23
  Sources: The Outlook – Civil aerospace   substantial increases in defence spending recently, with
and The Outlook – Defence aerospace,       intentions to maintain annual increases over the next five
Rolls-Royce, 2002                          years. The prospects for the Canadian aerospace industry,




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particularly the top tier original equipment manufacturers, are
promising, but not without some caveats. First, the North
American market, the primary destination of Canadian
aerospace products, is projected to grow at a slower rate (3%)
due to its mature nature. Secondly, given that the Canadian
aerospace industry’s growth has almost entirely been in the
commercial arena, there may be some question whether the
Canadian aerospace industry will be able to tap into the
growing global defence expenditure, where purchase decisions
are even more political than decisions related to commercial
purchases. By the same token, investments in the national
military may provide an inside track to Canadian aerospace
companies. For example, Eurocopter is among the top three
competitors for the Canadian government’s military helicopter
replacement program.


IMPORTANCE OF INNOVATION
Innovation, through investments in research and development
(R & D), is a crucial variable in international competitiveness,
and high-technology industries are the innovation leaders. The
aerospace industry is one of only four industries that has been
designated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD) as a high-technology industry because of
its relatively high investments in R & D.24 Evidence directs us
to three broad advantages of innovation:
• Increased Market Share – Companies that innovate tend to
  gain market share and develop new product markets, and/
  or use resources more productively;
• Higher Compensation – High-technology companies are
  associated with high value added production and success in
  foreign markets which helps to support higher                                      24
                                                                                        High-technology industries are
  compensation to the workers they employ;                                           characterized by their above-average
                                                                                     levels of research and development (R & D)
• Cross-Industry Benefits – R & D performed by high-
                                                                                     in the creation of their products. Other
  technology industries has spillover effects that benefit other
                                                                                     industries include computers and office
  commercial sectors by generating new products and
                                                                                     machinery; electronics and communica-
  processes that can often lead to productivity gains, business
                                                                                     tions; and pharmaceuticals. Source:
  expansions, and the creation of high-wage jobs.25
                                                                                     Technology Diffusion: Tracing the Flows of
   The Canadian aerospace industry is Canada’s leading high-                         Embodied R&D in Eight OECD Countries,
technology exporter with more than three-quarters of its                             Organization for Economic Co-operation
products sold to other countries, the majority going directly                        and Development, 1993
south to the United States. Its successes over the past decade,                      25
                                                                                      Science and Engineering Indicators,
according to the Aerospace Industry Association of Canada
                                                                                     National Science Foundation, 2000




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                                             (AIAC), are rooted in the strong industry-government
                                             partnerships through the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, which
                                             facilitated innovation and cultivated Canada’s rise in the
                                             global marketplace.
                                                Yet the very tools, investments in innovation, that
                                             promoted the success of the national industry, through a
                                             combination of private sector R & D, and research by the
                                             Department of National Defence and the National Research
                                             Council, have not kept pace with the rapid growth of the
                                             industry. R & D investments by the Canadian aerospace
                                             industry have dropped from a 1980s average of 10% of sales to
                                             less than 5% of sales by the end of the 1990s, leaving the
                                             industry susceptible to its dominant competitors, the United
                                             States and Europe, and in some key niche markets, Brazil, an
                                             impressive upstart in the Regional Jet segment. Industry
                                             vulnerability is further magnified by the significant public
                                             investment in aerospace innovation in key competitor nations,
                                             and the long development times and even longer product life
                                             cycles that characterize industry products. 26


                                             SUPPLIERS’ CHALLENGES
                                             Although the capacity for significant vertical integration exists
                                             in the Canadian industry – that is the potential for a trickle-
                                             down effect with sales/benefits from projects in one tier
                                             passing on to the next lower tier27 - the numbers reveal a
                                             serious and potentially very detrimental trend for domestic
                                             suppliers. The national industry’s impressive growth has not
                                             been distributed across the various industry tiers. Growth has
                                             accrued almost exclusively to the Tier 1 companies, whereas
                                             domestic suppliers (Tiers 2-4) have seen their share of the
                                             growth steadily decline as the percentage of import content
                                             rises. A continuation of recent trends may soon see foreign
                                             aerospace suppliers with two-thirds of the material inputs to
                                             Canadian aerospace products.28

26
                                                Several explanations may account for the weaker
  Aerospace –meeting Canada’s
                                             performance of Canada’s lower tiers. Consistent with global
innovation challenge, Aerospace Industries
                                             trends over the past decade, Canadian suppliers have been
Association of Canada, 2001
                                             increasingly requested to enhance product sophistication,
27
  Canada’s aerospace industry – industry     product quality, and data integration, concurrent with a
facts and figures, Aerospace Industries      reduction in costs. While some have been able to meet the
Association of Canada, 2001                  demands made by the first tier, success has not been
28
                                             widespread across Canadian suppliers. Original equipment
  Source: US Department of State FY 2001
                                             manufacturers are also reducing their number of suppliers in
Country Commercial Guide
                                             an effort to streamline procurement practices and cut




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expenses. Bell Helicopter, for example, cut its supplier base
from 10,000 in 1990 to 2000 in 1996, and intends to reduce it
to 1000 by 2000.29
    Human resource issues have arguably also played a role in
the shifting supplier base. Globally, the attraction of lower
labour costs offered by up and coming producers, for example
from Asia and South America, is a challenge facing Canadian
suppliers. In North America, the boom in the commercial
market also saw competition for skilled labour heat up, and
cross-border poaching of highly skilled engineers and
technicians exacerbated the shortages.30 The skills shortage
problem, characteristic of the latter 1990s, may appear to have
disappeared during the present economic slowdown.
However, given the industry’s dominant proclivity to hire-and-
fire as workloads fluctuate, and the combination of labour
force demographics, growth projections for the next twenty
years, and the pivotal role of human talent in innovation, the
skills shortage issue will resurface as an even greater
competitive factor.




                                                                                     29
                                                                                       Industry Profiles- The Canadian
                                                                                     Aerospace Sector, Human Resources
                                                                                     Development Canada, 1998
                                                                                     30
                                                                                       Industry Profiles- The Canadian
                                                                                     Aerospace Sector, Human Resources
                                                                                     Development Canada, 1998




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Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector   EMPLOYMENT & TRAINING NEEDS




In this section, the focus is turned to the employment and




                                                                                           & Training Needs
                                                                                               Employment
training needs of the Niagara aerospace manufacturing
industry with reference to its provincial and national contexts.
Three human resource matters will be discussed. The section
begins by taking a look at the Employment Demand projected
by the employer sample. After, the report will review the
Upgrading Issues and Occupational Certification requirements
articulated by sample participants, and assess the Recruitment
Challenges facing regional employers.
   Before looking at the regional job outlook, it is prudent to
recognize the short-term cyclical swings that are common to
the aerospace industry, and in particular to the lay-off of 217
people in the regional aerospace manufacturing sector that
occurred during this study, due to the current economic
slowdown. Regional manufacturers know their industry’s
established history of rapid hires, and equally quick
dismissals, must cease. The pattern of global growth
experienced through the 1990s is forecasted to continue
through the next twenty years. And while Canada’s national
industry has performed exceptionally through the 1990s, its
suppliers’ share of the product content has declined, as have
the crucial investments in innovation and people. Repeatedly
during this study, regional employers returned to their core
need – people, skilled and innovate people – citing skilled
workers as foremost to their capacity to secure contracts, grow
their businesses, and attract additional investment. The
challenge for the Niagara industry then is to advance its
capacity to coordinate business growth while simultaneously
nourishing a vital advantage – the development of a highly
innovative and skilled workforce.



EMPLOYMENT DEMAND
Eight employers, representing approximately 88% of the
regional aerospace employment base, shared their five and ten
year employment projections. Seven of the eight employers
anticipate hiring new personnel over the next five years.
Collectively, they project 547 job openings through to 2011.
Of these, 155 (28%) are projected to come open over the next
five years; with the majority, 392 (72%), projected to arise
between the years 2006–2011. Chart 6 illustrates the number
of projected jobs across the regional aerospace sample through
the next decade.




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                                   CHART 6:     Projected Jobs




                                                                                       2001-2011



                                      Ninety-six per cent (96%) of the job projections are for
                                   full-time employment. Business growth accounts for 44% of
                                   the projected opportunities, while 56% are projected to arise
                                   through replacement needs, primarily due to anticipated
                                   retirements. Out of the more than fifty occupation codes
                                   projected, nine occupational clusters account for 509, or 93%
                                   of all of the projected jobs. Chart 7 illustrates the number of
                                   jobs projected by sample participants across the nine leading
                                   occupational clusters.


                                   CHART 7:
                                   Projected Jobs by Occupational Clusters
                                                                     14 Production/Material Planners
                                            12 Quality Technicians
                                                                              24 Administrators/Managers
                                 24 Engineers/Technologists                                  38 Other

                  40 Licensed Tradespeople                                                               61 Trainees/
                                                                                                            Machinists
                              103 Sheet Metal
                                  Workers
                                                                                                         165 Assembly Fitters
                                     64 Composite
                                        Lay-up &                                                    TOTAL: 547 JOBS
                                        Tool Workers




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    Wages in the aerospace industry are higher than the
regional average across all industries. The annual wages across
all of the projected occupations range from $26,000 to
$80,000, with the average across all occupations approaching
$40,000 annually. Chart 8 illustrates the annual wages for the
top nine occupational clusters. Please note the wages listed for
machinists include apprentice positions; wages for licensed
machinists are considerably higher than the listed wages.
CHART 8:
Wages by Occupation




                                                                                  e
                                                                         o   pl
                                                                  s   pe
                                                         a   de
                                                      Tr




   Regional employers raised concerns about their capacity to
attract and retain skilled people early in the year 2001. Initial
concerns were based upon four notable observations:
• Historic recruitment difficulties
• Forecasted cross-sector competition for skilled workers
• Lack of regionally accessible aerospace-specific training
• Desire to expand the regional industry.
  The slowing of the economy in 2001, and the tragic attacks
on September 11th, 2001 have, by camouflaging the long-term




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                                            need for skilled people, magnified the recruitment, retention,
                                            and development challenges facing the regional industry.
                                            Concerns about the industry’s capacity to attract skilled
                                            people runs across all of the occupational clusters listed
                                            above, with special reservations for Licensed Tradespeople,
                                            Engineers/Technologists, and Management clusters. The
                                            cluster of Licensed Tradespeople encompasses a variety of
                                            occupations, including aircraft maintenance engineers, pilots,
                                            tool and die makers, and avionics technicians. Cumulative
                                            attrition projections to the year 2010, which were prepared by
                                            Ontario’s Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities,
                                            support the individual company concerns expressed through
                                            this study. See Table 2 for a listing of the aerospace and
                                            aerospace-related occupations with high rates of attrition.


                                            Table 231 Ontario Retirement Projections
                                            by Related Occupations

                                             Selected                                              Projected     Projected
                                             Occupations                                           Departures    Departures
                                                                                                   by 2005       by 2010

                                             Instrumentation and avionics mechanics,
                                             technicians & inspectors                              23%           37%

                                             Air pilots, flight engineers & flying instructors 19%               32%

                                             Aerospace engineers                                   19%           31%

                                             Aircraft mechanics & inspectors                       19%           30%

                                             Manufacturing managers                                22%           37%

                                             Industrial electricians                               15%           28%

                                             Machine fitters                                       15%           27%

                                             Machinists & machining & tooling inspectors           15%           27%


                                               The numbers in Table 2, although they reflect province-
                                            wide projections, are applicable to the Niagara scene. Note
                                            that, in five of the occupational categories, 30% or more of the
31                                          incumbents are projected to leave the industry by 2010, and
  Projection of Retirements by Occupa-
                                            even more disconcerting, between 19% to 23% are estimated
tions, Ontario, 1996-2010, Ministry of
                                            to leave by 2005. The loss of skilled personnel is difficult for
Training, Colleges and Universities, 2000
                                            any industry. Characteristically labour intensive processes
(unpublished document)




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utilizing cross-functional teams, research and development
demands, and stringent regulatory requirements make the loss
of skilled and innovative people particularly damaging for the
aerospace industry.


OCCUPATIONAL CERTIFICATION
AND UPGRADING ISSUES
A significant percentage of the occupations within the aerospace
industry require specific certification. Occupations with
Transport Canada licensing requirements that are most pertinent
to this study are listed in Table 3. As well, the basic educational
requirements for each of these occupations32 is noted.


Table 3 Occupational Certification
 Occupations                              Education Requirements,
                                          Completion of …

 Aerospace Engineers                      Secondary school,
                                          and University degree,
                                          and Workplace training program

 Aircraft Maintenance Engineers Secondary school,
                                and 2-3 year college program in
                                aircraft maintenance engineering,
                                and Workplace training program
                                at a Transport Canada Approved
                                Training Organization (company)
                                                                                     32
                                                                                       Readers interested in learning more
 Pilots                                   Secondary school,                          about licensing requirements may refer to
                                          and Training through an                    Aircraft Maintenance and Manufacturing
                                          accredited flight training school33,       Branch’s web site at: http://www.tc.gc.ca/
                                          and/or 2-3 year college program            CivilAviation/maintenance/menu.htm
                                          in aviation and flight technology
                                                                                     33
                                                                                       A complete list of flight training schools
 Sheet Metal Workers                Secondary school,                                is accessible through the Transport Canada
 (also applies to Assembly Fitters) and Workplace training program,                  web site at http://www.tc.gc.ca/aviation/
                                    and/or College sheet metal/                      ActivePages/ftae/Index.htm. Local
                                    aircraft structural repair program               aeroplane flight training units include
                                                                                     Grimsby Aviation, Air Combat Canada Inc.,
 Technicians and Technologists,           Secondary school, (e.g. Avionics
                                                                                     Niagara Air Tours Ltd., St. Catharines
 Maintenance                              and 2-3 year college program in
                                                                                     Flying Club, and Welland Aero Centre Falls
 Technician)                              avionics or electronics and/or
                                                                                     Aviation Limited.
                                          4-year apprenticeship program,34
                                                                                     34
                                          and Workplace training program                  Canadian Aviation Maintenance Council




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                                          The Aeronautics Act regulates the accreditation or licensing of
                                          many personnel working in the Canadian aerospace industry.
                                          Administration of the Act is the responsibility of Transport
                                          Canada. The accreditation and licensing of personnel covers
                                          the full range of aerospace related production and services,
                                          including persons engaged in the design, manufacture,
                                          distribution, maintenance, and certification or installation of
                                          aerospace products and equipment used to provide services
                                          relating to aeronautics. Among many other regulatory powers,
                                          the Act also accredits and licenses all personnel involved in
                                          the crewing of aircraft and in the control of air traffic.35
                                             Appendix X includes five short profiles of the occupations in
                                          most demand in the regional industry, namely Aerospace
                                          Engineers, Assembly Fitters, Avionics Maintenance
                                          Technicians, CNC Machinists, and CNC Programmers. Each
                                          profile includes a brief description of job duties, education and
                                          certification requirements, working conditions, training
                                          availability, career path options, and wage rates paid by the
                                          regional industry. One of the challenges reinforced through the
                                          profiles is the lack of regional certification-related training.



                                          Upgrading Issues
                                          Clients and regulators continue to challenge aircraft and
                                          aircraft parts manufacturers to reduce costs, increase
                                          performance, extend aircraft life, minimize environmental
                                          impacts, and improve safety.36 Regional aerospace employers,
                                          particularly the machining and fabricating manufacturers,
                                          recognize that continued productivity improvements,
                                          combined with increased scheduling flexibilities and reduced
                                          production cycle times, are crucial to their international
                                          competitiveness, and subsequently their ability to secure
                                          contracts. They also recognize that the efficiency gains must
                                          be coupled with advances in quality. The catalyst for success,
                                          cited repeatedly by regional employers, is the skill and
                                          innovative strengths of their people, and training is a key
                                          ingredient in skill development.
                                             Looking at the regional sample, one finds that all of the
                                          participating employers coordinate regular training to advance
35
  Aeronautics Act, Transport Canada –     the skills of their employees. Common training topics include
Safety and Security, Civil Aviation –     the following:
Regulatory Services, 1998
                                          • Orientation for new hires
36
  Aerospace Manufacturing Technology
Centre, National Research Council, 2001   • Literacy and numeracy upgrading




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• Communications
• Computer applications
• Health and safety
• Leadership
• Components assembly
• Quality training
• Recurrent regulatory training
  (e.g. for Aircraft Maintenance Engineers)
• Training in composite structures
• Geometric Tolerance
• Machining
• Ground and flight training for pilots.
   Training methods vary, but are dominated by the ‘in-
house’, company developed and delivered approach.
Customer and vendor-supplied methods are also customary
in one workplace. Although regional employers are able to
access local educators for the more general training, such as
leadership training, most of the technical and all of the
regulatory training needs currently involve either bringing
the expertise in or sending employees outside of the Region.
Both options are expensive and hinder the regional
industry’s competitiveness. Greater industry-college
collaboration at the regional level is needed to moderate this
shortcoming. Selected programs, such as Niagara College’s
Electronics Engineering Technology, could, with guidance
from the Canadian Aviation Maintenance Council and the
support of regional employers, have an aviation stream or
option developed to meet regional training demands.
   The use of significant informal, on-site and on-the-job
training has been particularly well developed by one regional
employer. The high priority placed on grassroots
development is due, in part at least, to the rigorous demands
placed on aerospace employees. Aerospace machinists for
example, in comparison to other sectors, are required to
work to tighter tolerances and often have to produce
difficult-to-machine parts, such as parts with irregular
curvatures made from costly alloys37. On-the-job training                            37
                                                                                       Assessment of the Skills and Training
may also offset the difficulty, particularly for small and                           Situation in the Canadian Aerospace
medium-sized companies, of finding time to free up                                   Industry, Aerospace and defence Branch,
personnel to attend more formal training.                                            Industry Canada, 1999




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                                              Upgrading issues for the local industry are characterized
                                          by the dominance of on-the-job training methods and lack of
                                          access to cost-effective regulatory and industry-specific
                                          technical training. The long-standing industry practice of
                                          laying people off when times are lean, rather than
                                          introducing counter-cyclical training, appears to continue to
                                          plague some employers as well. There is evidence that
                                          training can become a more effective part of the industry’s
                                          tools for dealing with cyclical downturns. During the
                                          slowdown that occurred during the early 1990s, some
                                          companies avoided layoffs of skilled workers by
                                          implementing new production processes and increasing in-
                                          house training. Such was the case for Pratt & Whitney when
                                          it introduced its Kaizen training and process improvement
                                          system. The provincial and federal governments may also
                                          have a role to play in supporting counter-cyclical training,
                                          particularly if the benefits of long-term investments in
                                          training compare favorably to the costs of lay-offs and
                                          subsequent recruitment and training costs. 38
                                             The recent creation of industry programs, such as the
                                          Aerospace Industry Training Program (AiTP) developed by
                                          the Ontario Aerospace Council (OAC), provide the regional
                                          industry with quality, accessible and relevant training to
                                          upgrade their existing personnel in a wide range of program
                                          areas. With twenty-eight courses39, ranging from Basic
                                          Measurement to Contract Management and Working Together
                                          presently clustered in five core program areas (Behaviour,
                                          Management, Manufacturing, Program and Contracts
                                          Management, and Quality) the AiTP certificates offer a
                                          solid foundation for upgrading the regional workforce.
                                          Regional employers indicated again and again, throughout
                                          this study, that their pace of expansion has been restricted
                                          by the skill shortages they face. Yet to-date, the regional
                                          industry has made little use of the OAC courses, and
                                          Niagara College has failed to effectively promote its
                                          benefits and versatility. These too need to change, for the
                                          AiTP courses offer a quality, cost-effective means of
                                          developing the existing workforce and of attracting new
38
  Assessment of the Skills and Training   people to enter the industry.
Situation in the Canadian Aerospace
Industry, Aerospace and defence Branch,
Industry Canada, 1999
39
  Course Catalogue, Aerospace Industry
Training Program, Ontario Aerospace
Council, 1999




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CAREER PATH OPPORTUNITIES
Below are presented the career pathways most practiced by
regional employers. Seven broad occupational clusters provide
the framework for this illustration, and the corresponding
education and experience considerations depict the various
entry points and upgrading relationships. Figure 1, on page
28, visually represents the dominant entry points to the
industry and the career pathways most practiced. The seven
broad occupational clusters, classified as production support,
manufacturing, administrative, licensed trades, technicians/
technologists, engineering/design, and management, are
represented by rectangles; oval shapes reflect an applicant’s
education and experience; and arrows depict the flows
between occupational clusters.
   Entry points are largely dependent upon the educational
qualifications and acquired aerospace-industry-experience of
the applicants. The five heavy blue arrows illustrate the most
dominant entry flows. Most typically, high school graduates
with limited aerospace experience, and co-op and apprentice
candidates enter the industry through either one of the
occupations clustered in production support or through one
of the occupations clustered in manufacturing. A smaller
number may also first enter the industry through one of the
administrative occupations. The greatest potential for
mobility for this initial group is within occupational clusters,
and between the three clusters. Their opportunities for
further career mobility will depend principally upon the
acquisition of additional education/certification. As well, a
small number with significant experience and in-house
training may advance to management roles within their
respective occupational clusters.
   College graduates and certified tradespersons with limited
aerospace experience will typically enter one of three broad
clusters, namely licensed tradespeople, technicians/
technologists, or the administrative cluster, in an occupation
that corresponds with their education, such as an avionics
technician, licensed pilot, or human resources coordinator.
University graduates with limited aerospace experience will
typically enter one of two broad clusters, either the
engineering/design or administrative cluster, in an occupation
that corresponds with their education, such as metallurgical
engineer or contract administrator. The majority of
management positions within regional firms have been filled
through internal promotion. There certainly is some




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                EMPLOYMENT & TRAINING NEEDS   Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector




                                                                                   FIGURE 1:      Career Pathways




LEGEND

 Occupational
 Clusters


 Applicant
 Education
 & Experience


 Major
 Flow paths


 Secondary
 Flow paths




                                              movement between aerospace firms, particularly from the
                                              smaller and medium sized firms to the larger organizations.
                                              One of the local manufacturers, for example, ‘lost’
                                              approximately 14% of its personnel, primarily trades persons,
                                              technicians and engineers, to larger ‘primes’ during the past
                                              two years. Movement between firms is less frequent across the
                                              manufacturing, production support and administrative
                                              clusters. During the past two years, and across all
                                              occupational clusters (though predominantly in the licensed
                                              trades) approximately 9% of new regional hires came from
                                              other aerospace firms.
                                                 Several factors, more prevalent in the aerospace industry,
                                              have led to a dominant practice of promoting from within. For
                                              example, the project nature of the aerospace manufacturing
                                              industry underlines the importance of effective cross-
                                              functional groups. Experience, an element crucial to the
                                              success of all industries, may also be even more pivotal to the
                                              aerospace sector, given the role of innovation and the rigorous
                                              performance and safety standards imposed upon the industry.




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Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector        EMPLOYMENT & TRAINING NEEDS




RECRUITMENT CHALLENGES
The number of jobs projected to arise over the next decade,
within the existing employer base, does not, in and of itself,
signal any supply-side alarms. Rather, it is the combination of
a number of recent industry trends, and regional demographic
and economic variables that, collectively, prompt industry
concerns about their capacity to respond quickly to new
projects, bid successfully for competitive contracts, and grow
the regional aerospace industry.
   In recent years, regional aerospace employers have noted
several recruitment trends in the highly skilled technical
positions such as CNC Machinists, Aircraft Maintenance
Engineers, Avionics Technicians, and Pilots. Job postings have
gone unfilled for months at a time, which contributes to rising
costs for recruitment, increased timelines to deliver products,
and increased training costs due to the hiring of less-qualified
applicants. In addition, albeit not substantiated with
quantitative evidence, several employers have repeatedly stated
that a shortage of skilled personnel has curtailed their rate of
expansion. The lack of Transport Canada approved training
regionally compounds employers’ retention challenges. One
employer indicated that prospective recruits that leave the
region to complete certification requirements do not return to
work in the regional industry after completing their
certification. The present economic slowdown and subsequent
layoffs have been highly publicized, and will thereby reinforce
public impressions of the cyclical nature of the industry.                           40
                                                                                       News Release 2002-02-05 by the
   The changing dynamics of the regional economy and                                 Conference Board of Canada, 2002
demographic make-up are also contributing to the recruitment                         41
                                                                                        This profile is primarily composed of
concerns expressed by regional aerospace employers. The                              excerpts from the following sources:
regional economy is expected to achieve the fastest growth                           Confronting the Jobs Challenge: A Niagara
rate of the top twenty-five economies in the country in 2002,                        Human Resources, Niagara Economic and
with an estimated increase in GDP of 3.9%40, due largely to                          Tourism Corporation, 2000; A Competitive
the $800-million construction of the permanent casino. The                           Analysis of Niagara’s Business Opportuni-
December 2000 release of the study entitled Confronting the                          ties Associated with Adult Lifestyle: A
Jobs Challenge: A Niagara Human Resources sounded a labour                           Demographic Perspective, Madison Avenue
force alarm by taking a broad look at the labour force supply                        Demographics Group, 1999; The Niagara
concerns for Niagara. The ‘Jobs Challenge’ report clearly                            region Economy: Prosperity in 2000 and
indicated that many employers presently, and many more are                           Beyond, Bank of Montreal, 2000; Work in
projected to, increasingly find it difficult to recruit qualified                    Niagara 1999-2003: A profile of Sectoral
labour as the demographic mismatch escalates. A brief profile                        and occupational opportunities, Niagara
of the regional demographic trends provides a solid context                          College & HRDC, 1999; Making Waves: A
for understanding the labour supply concerns41.                                      profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s
                                                                                     marine sector, Niagara College, 2000.




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EMPLOYMENT & TRAINING NEEDS   Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector




                              • The regional population is characterized by growth, a
                                changing age structure, a skew towards an older
                                population, and notable municipal variation. Niagara ranks
                                first among all Canadian CMAs (Census Metropolitan
                                Areas) with respect to the proportion of households headed
                                by a person fifty-five years or older; and fourth in Canada
                                and second in Ontario with respect to the proportion of
                                household heads forty-five and over.
                              • Employment growth in Niagara since the recession of the
                                early 1990s has exceeded that of Ontario and Canada, and
                                the area’s population growth has responded in kind.
                              • The age structure of Niagara’s population is changing. Over
                                the next decade it is projected that most of the growth in
                                Niagara’s population will occur among those between the
                                ages of forty-three and sixty-seven; the population aged
                                eighty and older will also increase, as will the population
                                aged fifteen to thirty-two. Declines in population will occur
                                among those aged under fifteen, thirty-three to forty-two,
                                and sixty-eight to seventy-nine.
                              • The regional labour force is projected to experience above
                                average growth, spurred by a growing tourism market and
                                the need to replace a significant portion of its aging
                                workforce.
                              • Labour Force projections for Niagara suggest that most of
                                the growth over the next decade will occur among both
                                males and females between the ages of forty-five and fifty-
                                nine, an age group dominated by baby boomers. Between
                                2009 and 2019, growth will be concentrated more among
                                those twenty-five to forty-four, the latter reflecting the
                                aging of the baby boom echo as well as increased net in-
                                migration.
                              • The next twenty years will see the retiree feeder group (55
                                to 64) overshadow the growth of the labour force feeder
                                group (15 to 24), both in Niagara and Ontario. The aging of
                                the labour force will lead to more diverse forms of labour
                                force participation because of the following:
                                 - The inclination to work part-time rather than full-time
                                   increases as people approach their retirement years
                                 - The older the population in the community, the more
                                   they have time to participate in volunteer activities
                                 - Self-employment is an option that is more attractive after
                                   the age of thirty-five




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Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector        EMPLOYMENT & TRAINING NEEDS




   - The likelihood of working at home increases with age,
     especially after age fifty-five
   - Niagara can anticipate an 18% decline in the number of
     high school graduates over the next three years, and from
     2005 through the ensuing ten years a continued decline.
     By 2015 we can anticipate a 25% decline in the annual
     number of area graduates.42

    Aggravating the projected decline in the youth population
is the cross-sector competition for workers, particularly in the
tourism and construction sectors, and the persistently low
levels of interest in technology and manufacturing careers
among youth. The Niagara Catholic District School Board and
the District School Board of Niagara, have developed two
innovative career development models – The Typical Career
Pathway for Manufacturing Technology and The
Technological Education Aerospace Career Path,43 (see Tables
4 and 5) to help bolster student awareness of technology
careers and identify essential courses, but they continue to
struggle for the resources to implement comprehensive and
meaningful school-to-work initiatives at the secondary school
level.44 To help ensure there is an adequate supply of qualified
applicants in the future, an industry-led team, composed of
regional employers, government representatives, and trainers
and educators, was established in 2001 to coordinate an
industry-wide response to the their workforce development
needs. Subsequently named the Niagara Aerospace Partnership
for Learning (NAPL), the group has established the following
                                                                                     42
mandate:                                                                               Calculations based on graduate
                                                                                     projections supplied by Larry Reich,
• Promote the aerospace industry in the Niagara region                               Superintendent of Business & Financial
                                                                                     Services, Niagara Catholic District School
• Project and assess workforce demand requirements and
                                                                                     Board; enrolment projections supplied by
  labour force supply issues
                                                                                     Bob Crawford, Planning Department,
• Expand on effective school-to-work initiatives, such as co-                        District School Board of Niagara, and Ted
  op, and build local training capacity to ensure the industry                       Palmer, Business Education Council; and
  is able to attract, develop and retain Niagara’s best and                          Regional population projections
  brightest.                                                                         developed by Tom McCormack, Strategic
                                                                                     Projections Inc.
   Since its inception, partnership (NAPL) initiatives have
                                                                                     43
included a joint open house; an all-day, three-plant career fair                       Draft model developed by Kevin Graham
for high school students; and the development of five                                and Ola Tkaczyk, District School Board of
occupational profiles to promote career awareness within the                         Niagara, 2001
sector. A web site, namely www.napl.ca, provides information                         44
                                                                                       School-to-Work Transition Programs, A
about, and access to, industry employers, job and co-op                              Summary and Analysis, Paul Fell, Business
opportunities, and direct links to the national industry.                            Education Council, unpublished draft 2002




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TABLE 4:
                                                                                                                          Niagara Catholic District School Board
Typical Career Pathway
for Manufacturing                                                                           TYPICAL CAREER PATHWAY
Technology                                                                          FOR MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
 GRADE 9                                        GRADE 10                                        GRADE 11                                          GRADE 12
 (8 credits)                                    (8 credits)                                     (8 -10 credits)                                   (8 credits )
 O.S.S.                                         O.S.S.                                          O.S.S.                                            O.S.I.S.

 COMPULSORY                                     COMPULSORY                                      COMPULSORY                                        COMPULSORY
 Religion ............................ HRE 1O   Religion ............................ HRE 2O    Religion ............................ HRE 3O      Religion ............................ HRF 3O
 Canadian Geography ... CGC 1D/1P               Canadian History ......... CHC 2D/2P                                                              or .................................... HRT 3M
                                                                                                English:                                          or ................................... CPW 4U
 English ........................ ENG 1D/1P     English ........................ ENG 2D/2P      • University ..................... ENG 3U         or ................................... HHG 4M
                                                                                                or                                                or .................................... HPD 4E
 Mathematics .................... MPM ID        Mathematics ................... MPM 2D          • College ......................... ENG 3C
 or                                             or                                              or                                                English .............................. EBT 4O
 Mathematics ................... MFM 1P         Mathematics ................... MFM 2P          • Workplace ..................... ENG 3E          or .................................... ENG 4C
                                                                                                                                                  or ..................................... ENG 4E
 Science ......................... SNC ID/IP    Science ....................... SCN 2D/2P       Mathematics:
                                                                                                • Functions & Relations .. MCR 3U
 French .......................... FSF 1D/1P    Career Studies ................. GLC 2O         or
                                                (1/2 credit)                                    • Functions ..................... MCF 3M
                                                Civics ............................... CHV 2O   or
                                                (1/2 credit)                                    • Personal Finance .......... MBF 3C


 RECOMMENDED                                    RECOMMENDED                                     RECOMMENDED                                       RECOMMENDED
 Integrated Technology ........ TTI 1O          Manufacturing Technology TMJ 2O                 Science ............................ SNC 3E       Mathematics .................... MAP 4C
                                                                                                or .................................... SPH 4C
 Intro to Info Techn ............. BTT 1O       Technological Design ........ TDJ 2O                                                              Manufacturing
                                                                                                Manufacturing                                     Engineering ...................... TMJ 4C
                                                                                                Engineering ...................... TMJ 3C         or ..................................... TMJ 4E
                                                                                                or ..................................... TMJ 3E
                                                                                                                                                  Technological Design ........ TDJ 4E
                                                                                                Technological Design ........ TDJ 3E              or .................................... TDJ 4M
                                                                                                or ................................... TDJ 3M
                                                                                                                                                  Co-operative Education (2-4
                                                                                                Communications                                    credits at a manufacturing
                                                                                                Technology ....................... TGJ eE         placement)
                                                                                                or .................................... TGJ 3M
 O.S.S. Compulsory Credits
 (22 total)
 • 4 credits      in English
 • 3 credits      in Mathematics
 • 2 credits      in Science
 • 4 credits      in Religion
 • 1 credit       in Canadian History
 • 1 credit       in Canadian Geography
 • 1 credit       in Health and
                  Physical Education
 • 1 credit       in the Arts
 • 1 credit       in French as a
                  Second Language
 • .5 credit      in Civics
 • .5 credit      in Career Studies
 Plus:
 • 1 additional credit in English, or
  a third language, or Social
  Studies and the Humanities, or
  Canadian and World Studies
 • 1 additional credit in Health and
  Physical Education, or the Arts,
  or Business Studies
 • 1 additional credit in Science
  (Grade 11 or 12) or
  Technological Education (Grades
  9-12)
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TABLE 5:
The Technological                                            DISTRICT SCHOOL BOARD OF NIAGARA
Education Aerospace               TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATION AEROSPACE CAREER PATH
Career Path         Ontario Youth Apprenticeship Program Recommended Program, September 2001 to June 2002

 GRADE 9                                           GRADE 10                                          GRADE 11                                          GRADE 12
 (8 credits)                                       (8 credits)                                       (8 credits – one English in                       (8 credits – three English
 O.S.S.                                            O.S.S.                                            each senior grade, and one                        and one Social Science
                                                                                                     Mathematics in Grade 11                           are compulsory at the
                                                                                                     or 12 is compulsory)                              Senior Level)
                                                                                                     O.S.S.                                            O.S.S.

 COMPULSORY                                        COMPULSORY                                        COMPULSORY                                        COMPULSORY
 Canadian Geography ..... CGC ID/IP                Canadian History ......... CHC 2D/2P              English:                                          English
                                                                                                     • University ..................... ENG 3U         • University ..................... ENG 4U
 English .......................... ENG ID/IP      Career Studies ................. GLC 2O           or                                                or
                                                   (1/2 credit)                                      • College ......................... ENG 3C        •College ........................... ENG3C




                                                                     FT
 French ............................ FSF ID/IP                                                                                                         or
                                                   Civics ................................ CHV20     or                                                •Workplace ....................... ENG3E
 Mathematics .................... MPM ID                                                             • Workplace ..................... ENG 3E




                                                                   RA
                                                   (1/2 credit)                                                                                        *check O.S.S. for completion of
 or
 Mathematics ................... MFM 1P            English ........................ ENG 2D/2P        Mathematics:                                      compulsory credits



                                                                  D
                                                                                                     • Functions & Relations                           RECOMMENDED
 Science ......................... SNC ID/IP       Mathematics ................... MPM 2D              -University .................... MCR3U
                                                   or                                                or                                                Mathematics:
                                                   Mathematics ................... MFM 2P            • Functions–                                      Advanced Functions and
                                                                                                       University/College ......... MCF3M              introductory Calculus
 *check O.S.S. for compulsory                      Science ....................... SCN 2D/2P                                                           • University ..................... MCB4U
 requirements                                                                                        or                                                and/or
                                                   *check O.S.S. for compulsory                      • Personal Finance                                Geometry and Discrete Mathematics
                                                   requirements                                         –College ........................ MBF3C        • University ..................... MGA4U
                                                                                                     • Mathematics for Everday                         and/or
 RECOMMENDED                                       RECOMMENDED                                         Life–Workplace .............. MEL3E             Mathematics of Data Management
                                                                                                                                                       • University .................... MDM4U
 Information Technology ..... BTT 1O               Two of the following technologies:                *check O.S.S. for additional                      or
                                                                                                     compulsory credits                                College and Apprenticeship Mathematics
 Integrated Technology ........ TTI 1O             Construction Technology ... TCJ 2O                                                                  • College .......................... MAP4C
                                                                                                     RECOMMENDED                                       or
 Elective ............................. 1 credit   Technological Design ........ TDJ 2O                                                                Mathematics for College Technology
                                                   Computer and                                      Two of the following technologies                 • College .......................... MCT4C
                                                   Information Science ........... TIK 2O            at the Grade 11 level.
                                                                                                                                                       Two of the following technologies at the
 *O.S.S. Compulsory Credits (18)                                                                     Communications Technology                         Grade 12 level. Either a single credit in
                                                   Computer Engineering                                                                                two or a double credit in one, if available.
 • 4 credits       in English                      Technology ....................... TEE 2O         • University/College .......... TGJ3M
                   (1 credit per grade)                                                              • Workplace ...................... TGJ3E          Communications Technology
                                                   Communication                                                                                       • University/College .......... TGJ4M
 • 3 credits       in Mathematics                  Technology ....................... TGJ 2O         Construction Technology                           • Workplace ...................... TGJ4E
                   (at least 1 credit in                                                             • College ........................... TCJ3C
                                                   Manufacturing Technology TMJ 2O                   • Workplace ...................... TCJ3E          Construction Technology
                   Grade 11 or 12)                                                                                                                     • College ........................... TCJ4C
 • 2 credits       in Science                      Transportation Technology TTJ 2O                  Manufacturing Technology                          • Workplace ...................... TGJ4E
 • 1 credit        in Canadian History                                                               • Manufacturing Engineering                       Design Technology
                                                   Electricity ........................... TEX23       Technology–College ....... TMJ3C                • University/College .......... TDJ4M
 • 1 credit        in Canadian Geography           Refrigeration and                                 • Manufacturing Technology                        • Workplace ...................... TDJ4E
 • 1 credit        in Health and                   Air Conditioning ................. TCX23            –Workplace ..................... TMJ3E
                                                                                                                                                       Manufacturing Technology
                   Physical Education                                                                Technological Design                              • Manufacturing Engineering
                                                   Elective ............................. 1 credit
 • 1 credit        in the Arts                                                                       • University/College .......... TDJ3M               Technology – College ..... TMJ4C
                                                                                                     • Workplace ...................... TDJ3E          • Manufacturing Technology
 • .5 credit       in Civics                                                                                                                             Workplace ....................... TMJ4E
 • .5 credit       in Career Studies                                                                 Transportation Technology
                                                                                                     • College ........................... TTJ3C       Transportation Technology
 • 1 credit        in French as a                                                                    • Workplace ....................... TTJ3E         • College ........................... TTJ4C
                   Second Language                                                                                                                     • Workplace ....................... TTJ4E
                                                                                                     Computer Engineering                              Computer and Information Science
 Plus:                                                                                               • University/College ........... ICE3M            • University/College ........... ICS4M
 • 1 additional credit in English, or                                                                • Workplace ....................... ICE3E
                                                                                                                                                       24 Co-op Credits
  a third language, or Social                                                                        Computer and Information Science
  Studies and the Humanities, or                                                                                                                       Physics
                                                                                                     • University/College ........... ICS3M            • University ...................... SPH4U
  Canadian and World Studies
                                                                                                     2 co-op credits                                   • College .......................... SPH4C
 • 1 additional credit in Health and                                                                                                                   Chemistry
  Physical Education, or the Arts,                                                                   Chemistry ......................... SCH3U         • University ...................... SCH4U
  or Business Studies                                                                                                                                  • College .......................... SCH4C
                                                                                                     Physics ............................. SPH3U
 • 1 additional credit in Science
  (Grade 11 or 12) or                              • Students choose from Technologies available at their school.
  Technological Education (Grades
  9-12)                                            • Currently waiting for MOE approval in Grade 11 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, Electricity and Welding.
                                                   • Ontario Youth Apprenticeship Program is available in Grade 11 and 12.
                                                                                                                            Kevin Graham, Consultant: Technology • Ola Tkaczyk, Consultant: Student Services
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Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector                    REFLECTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS




This report concludes with some reflections about the




                                                                                                             & Recommendations
                                                                                                                    Reflections
findings, and puts forward a model for Developing a Regional
Skill Advantage, before turning to a presentation of the core
recommendations for further action.
    The findings of this study comprise a variety of pressures,
challenges, and opportunities that frequently conflict and
thereby cloud the general perception of the regional industry.
Employment in Niagara’s aerospace industry has declined over
recent years. Regionally, the sample’s projections include the
loss of 217 positions during the last quarter of 2001. Also of
note, just prior to starting the study one employer closed its
doors, leaving seventy-five people unemployed. Yet the
regional industry is part, albeit a small element, of a much
larger provincial, national, and international industry that has
experienced tremendous growth for the past twenty years, and
is forecasted to continue to grow steadily over the next two
decades. With increasing market opportunities, industry
wages that are well above the regional and national averages,
and the prevalence of stimulating work environments, the
industry has much to offer prospective employees. Its
challenge is to advance its capacity to coordinate business
growth while simultaneously nourishing a vital advantage –
the development of a highly innovative and skilled workforce.



DEVELOPING A REGIONAL SKILL
ADVANTAGE
Industry efforts to cultivate a competitive skill advantage will
benefit from a long-term and comprehensive approach. In this
section a model is proposed for consideration. It presents five
crucial stages to developing an effective and sustainable skill
advantage. Its success is very dependent upon the quality and
breadth of the requisite partnership between industry,
government and education representatives. The model is
illustrated in Figure 2, and each of the stages47 is briefly
described below.
• AWARENESS is the initial stage and it is intended to
  introduce primarily young people to the world of aviation,
  manufacturing in general, and to aerospace manufacturing.
  It could also be used with mature adults who possess a
  technological or manufacturing aptitude. It should be
  designed to develop learners’/participants’ understanding of
  the rudiments of aviation, the role and process of

45
   The stages are based on a business case developed by Duncan MacDuff, entitled Technology
Education and The Plastics Industry: Opportunity through holistic learning, 1994, and rooted in the
work of Gert Loose; see Vocational Education in Transition: A Seven-Country Study of Curricula for
Lifelong Vocational Learning, Unesco Institute for Education, 1988

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     REFLECTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS          Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector




FIGURE 2:
Aerospace/
Technological
Regional Skill
Development
Model
There are two dimensions
presented in this model,
namely the five proposed
developmental stages and
their corresponding ‘delivery’
modes, the school system,
post-secondary education,
and the work-place. Learners/
participants progress through
the stages, usually moving
‘up’ the left side of the model
and typically, but not                         manufacturing, and the place of technology and how to
exclusively, through the                       successfully interact with it. In addition, industry
delivery mode aligned to the                   awareness should introduce learners/participants to the
right of each stage.                           variety of occupational clusters and roles, and their
                                               corresponding knowledge, skill and interest requirements.
                                            • ORIENTATION introduces learners/participants to the
                                              regional labour market and to a broad set of career
                                              opportunities, including their associated qualifications.
                                              Components could include an introduction to the ideology
                                              of work, labour market dynamics, a broad range of sectors,
                                              occupational clusters, and the general occupational
                                              characteristics related to each cluster. Through the
                                              orientation, learners/participants would enhance their
                                              understanding of the relationship between individual career
                                              aspirations and regional needs, and be encouraged to reflect
                                              upon their individual career interests.
                                            • EXPERIMENTATION helps learners/participants explore
                                              potential occupational roles in relation to their individual
                                              career interests through an understanding of the benefits of
                                              experiential learning, the opportunity to participate in real
                                              work experience, through such venues as co-op, and an
                                              orientation to all three domains of learning (task, social, and
                                              reflective) within the work setting46. The model suggests the
                                              need to think beyond simply the acquisition of the requisite
                                              task oriented or how-to skills, by also focusing upon the
46
  Learning in the Workplace: The Case for     development of an individual’s social and reflective
Reflectivity and Critical Reflectivity,       capacities. Learners/participants should also be exposed to a
Victoria Marsick, Adult Education             variety of technology applications during this stage, and
Quarterly, volume 38, number 4, 1988.         develop an understanding of the economic, social, and
                                              environmental impact of a range of technologies.




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Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector   REFLECTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS




• EMPLOYABILITY involves access either to an entry-level
  job and/or to post-secondary education (e.g.
  apprenticeship, college, university) delivered regionally.
  This stage is intended to help learners/participants
  develop their ability to perform job tasks (‘how to’
  knowledge and skills); enhance their understanding of the
  social milieu of the workplace (‘the way things are done
  around here); and extend their problem-solving capacities
  (reflective learning). Learners/employees should have the
  opportunity to learn about career options and their
  associated career paths. An emphasis placed upon
  transferable skills, flexibility, and lifelong learning will
  not only enhance individual productive capacity but also
  the transferability of skills.
• PORTABILITY / PROMOTABILITY is focussed upon
  helping existing workers meet present and future
  workforce demands through a continued emphasis upon
  transferable skills and lifelong learning. Industry employers
  should offer assistance and guidance in the identification of
  individual training and development needs, reward planned
  and incidental learning, and provide equitable and
  accessible learning opportunities.
    The model is not intended to present a template. Rather, it
is intended to provide a framework for industry, education,
community and government partners to collaborate in their
efforts to develop a regional skills advantage.




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REFLECTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS   Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector




                                RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
                                FURTHER ACTION
                                Having assessed the regional industry’s employment demand and
                                training needs, within its broader economic context, this report
                                will conclude with a set of recommendations that are intended to
                                lead to the development of a competitive skills advantage.
                                Members of the Niagara Aerospace Partnership for Learning will
                                be responsible for implementing the three broad types of
                                recommendations listed below. Categories include those relating
                                to Promotion and Recruitment, Training and Development, and
                                Research and Innovation. And although they are organized and
                                presented in order of primary responsibility, efforts must, of
                                course, be coordinated to ensure an integrated response.

                                INDUSTRY
                                PROMOTION AND RECRUITMENT
                                In order to promote the regional aerospace industry, aerospace
                                employers should strive to do the following:
                                • Continue with and expand the industry’s recent initiatives
                                  to raise community awareness of the impact and benefits of,
                                  and opportunities within, the aerospace industry through
                                  the Niagara Aerospace Partnership for Learning.
                                • Strive to extend industry participation including other
                                  manufacturers and air transport service providers.
                                • Strengthen relationships with educational institutions by
                                  providing adequate numbers and quality of apprenticeship,
                                  co-op, and summer employment work experiences.
                                • Investigate with community partners the benefits and
                                  feasibility of coordinating teacher internships.
                                • Assist the educational partners with the development of a
                                  ‘hands-on’ experimentation course designed to teach about
                                  aerospace manufacturing and design. Examples could
                                  include the assembling of a light aircraft, and/or the design
                                  and development of components.
                                • Develop and implement, in partnership with community
                                  partners, industry awareness and orientation ‘materials’ that
                                  could be directed to both the broader population and specific
                                  audiences, particularly youth. Consult with the producers of
                                  current materials, such as the Ontario Aerospace Council’s
                                  Introduction to Aerospace, and After the Arrow, developed by




                                    38
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Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector   REFLECTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS




   Celeris Aerospace, Industry Canada, the Department of
   National Defence, and the National Research Council. Also
   review any related materials developed by the Aerospace
   Industries Association of Canada (AIAC) and Canadian
   Aviation Maintenance Council.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
In order to develop the productive capacity of the aerospace
industry’s present and future workforce, aerospace employers
should do the following:
• Review existing training and promotion policies and
  practices to ensure they support the identification of
  individual training and development needs, reward planned
  and incidental learning, provide equitable and accessible
  learning opportunities, support the retention of skilled
  personnel.
• Promote and facilitate the development of employees’
  computer skills.
• Cross-train the current workforce to facilitate workplace
  and industry mobility. The Aerospace Industry Training
  Program (AiTP), developed by the Ontario Aerospace
  Council may be an appropriate initial program.
• Investigate the benefits, feasibility, and demand for
  alternative training modes, such as computer-based-
  training. Start with a review of the products developed by
  Aerospace Training Canada International (ATCI).
• Ensure that union contracts and practices adequately
  support members’ upgrading goals.
• Ensure that equity and training support mechanisms are
  adequately addressed in future collective agreements.
• Investigate the demand for, interest in, and feasibility of
  developing shared apprenticeships to stimulate broad-based
  skill development.
RESEARCH AND INNOVATION
In order to develop the innovative capacity of the regional
aerospace industry, aerospace employers should strive to do
the following:
• Work with the Aerospace Industries Association of Canada
  (AIAC), particularly the Suppliers’ Council Continue to
  develop better ‘integrators’ that facilitate supplier
  competitiveness.




                                                                           39
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REFLECTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS   Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector




                                • Investigate the potential utility and benefits of Niagara
                                  College’s advanced technology services, such as its applied
                                  research capacity and visualization lab.
                                • Review the technology investment fund, Technology
                                  Partnerships Canada (TPC) to determine whether there is
                                  any potential regional application in consultation with
                                  Niagara College’s Centre for Integrated Manufacturing and
                                  Applied Research (CIMTAR).
                                • Attract investment in the regional aerospace industry
                                  through the promotion of the Region’s competitive skills
                                  advantage in partnership with the Niagara Economic and
                                  Tourism Corporation and community partners.

                                GOVERNMENT and COMMUNITY
                                ORGANIZATIONS
                                PROMOTION AND RECRUITMENT
                                In order to promote the regional aerospace industry, government
                                and community organizations should do the following:
                                • Communicate and promote the aerospace industry’s jobs to
                                  the community, being sensitive to avoid ‘over selling’ the
                                  industry. Encourage young people to first prepare
                                  themselves for technical careers that could apply to a
                                  variety of sectors and facilitate skill transferability.
                                • Determine capacity to support the development of industry
                                  awareness, orientation, and experimentation materials and
                                  strategies.
                                • Review and assess the labour force supply characteristics of
                                  the adult population. For example, how do the findings of
                                  the forty-plus study, conducted by the Niagara Training
                                  and Adjustment Board, relate to the industry’s workforce
                                  needs?
                                • Facilitate regional labour force development in partnership
                                  with community and industry partners. For example, work
                                  with the Niagara Aerospace Partnership for Learning to
                                  develop a ‘come back to Niagara’ strategy directed to highly
                                  skilled ex-patriots who are working in the industry outside
                                  of the Region.
                                TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
                                In order to develop the productive capacity of the aerospace
                                industry’s present and future workforce, government and
                                community organizations should do the following:




                                    40
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Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector   REFLECTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS




• Promote and support upgrading training for current
  workforce members and investigate means of supporting
  counter-cyclical training during periods of economic
  slowdown.

REGIONAL SCHOOL BOARDS
and COLLEGE
PROMOTION AND RECRUITMENT
In order to develop the aerospace industry, regional educators
should strive to do the following:
• Communicate and promote the aerospace industry to
  potential and current students.
• Develop and implement, in partnership with community
  partners, industry awareness and orientation ‘materials’ that
  could be directed to both the broader population and to
  specific audiences, particularly youth.
• Develop a ‘hands-on’ experimentation course designed to
  teach about aerospace manufacturing and design, in
  collaboration with industry partners. Examples could
  include the assembling of a light aircraft, and/or the design
  and development of components.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
In order to develop the productive capacity of the aerospace
industry’s present and future workforce, regional educators
should strive to do the following:
• Investigate the feasibility of delivering training tutorials
  (focusing upon certification requirements) that incorporate
  a combination of traditional and distance education modes,
  in collaboration with industry employers and associations.
  Start with a review of the products developed by Aerospace
  Training Canada International (ATCI).
• Develop an aerospace option, where appropriate, with
  related programs to reduce costs and broaden student
  exposure to the opportunities in the aerospace industry, in
  collaboration with industry employers and associations.
• Review and discuss with industry employers, the features
  and potential benefits of hiring recent technology graduates
  through the National Research Council’s technology
  internship program, which is administered by the Industrial
  Research Assistance Program.




                                                                           41
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REFLECTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS   Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector




                                • Assess the potential to develop and offer post-diploma
                                  programs that facilitate the development of recent
                                  technology graduates (e.g. Electronic Engineering
                                  Technicians) to complete an intense ‘aerospace-focused’
                                  certificate, such as for avionics technicians.
                                RESEARCH AND INNOVATION
                                In order to develop the innovative capacity of the regional
                                aerospace industry, regional educators should strive to do
                                the following:
                                • Develop partnerships with industry that will facilitate the
                                  opportunity for instructors to participate in industry
                                  internships and conduct applied research.
                                • Present to industry partners the potential utility and
                                  benefits of Niagara College’s advanced technology services,
                                  such as its applied research capacity and visualization lab.
                                • Review the technology investment fund, Technology
                                  Partnerships Canada (TPC) to determine whether there is
                                  any potential regional application in consultation with
                                  industry employers.
                                   The above recommendations are expressed with the
                                genuine intention to help make a difference. For all of the
                                partners – employers, employees, unions, government
                                representatives at all levels, student and labour force
                                members, and the schools/colleges – stand to benefit from a
                                coordinated and integrated response to the needs articulated
                                through this report.




                                    42
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Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector   APPENDICES




Appendices
Appendix A – Occupational Profiles
Appendix B – Communiqué
Appendix C – Survey Participants
Appendix D – Niagara Aerospace Partnership for Learning
Appendix E – References


April 2002




                                                                           43
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                                                                                                                                  RETURN to INDEX PAGE




           AEROSPACE
           OCCUPATIONAL


           Profile
                                                                                                  • Conduct performance analysis on
                                                                                                    aircraft components and aircraft
                                                                                                    structure
                                                                                                  • Drawing preparation and design
                                                                                                    drafting
                                                                                                  • Research and select various types
                                                                                                    of materials used in the manu-
                                                                                                    facturing of aircraft and aircraft
                                                                                                    components
                                                                                                  • Conduct stress and reliability
                                                                                                    analysis on aircraft and aircraft
                                                                                                    components
                                                                                                  • Develop and conduct computer
                                                                                                    simulations of aerospace vehicles,
                                                                                                    systems and components
                                                                                                  • Co-ordinate ground and flight tests
                                                                                                    of air and spacecraft


                                                                                                  EDUCATION AND CERTIFICATION

                                                          JOB DESCRIPTION                         Entry level to this occupation
                                                                                                  requires completion of secondary
NOC 2146




           Aerospace                                      Aerospace Engineers research, design    school followed by completion of a
                                                          and develop aircraft, spacecraft,       bachelor’s degree in aerospace
           Engineer                                       missiles, aerospace systems and their   engineering or in an appropriate
                                                          components. They may also be            related engineering discipline.
                                                          required to test and analyze the        Aerospace engineers require a
                                                          performance of aircraft and aircraft    university degree and related job
                                                          components.                             experience. Certain licensing and
           INTRODUCTION                                                                           regulatory requirements may exist
                                                                                                  depending on job title and functions.
           Aerospace Engineers work in all                MAIN DUTIES                             Transport Canada imposes rigorous
           aerospace-related firms that design,                                                   education and work experience
           manufacture, repair and overhaul               • Design tooling & fixtures for the     requirements on engineers who seek
           aeronautical products, including                 manufacturing of components           delegated authority from the Crown.
           complete aircraft, engines,                    • Develop manufacturing processes
           components, systems and sub-                     and manufacturing method              • Grade 12 High School Diploma
           systems. Aerospace Engineers may                 improvements to reduce cost and       • Bachelor’s Degree in Aerospace
           specialize in a number of fields that            increase productivity                   engineering or related discipline
           include mechanics, electrical/                 • Evaluate and manage projects          • Registration as a professional
           electronics, chemical, industrial,               related to processing and               engineer
           metallurgy, petroleum,                           manufacturing                         • Accredited educational program –
           manufacturing and computer.                    • Design structures and machinery         professional practice examination
                                                            including repair design                 including 2 years of appropriate
                                                                                                    work experience




             Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector         APPENDICES                         45
                                                                                                                                                                RETURN to INDEX PAGE




     WORKING CONDITIONS                                          CAREER PATH

     Aerospace Engineers work in                                 Progression to positions such as
     production related departments of                           Production Engineer, Supervisor,
     aircraft and spacecraft                                     Manager or positions in other related
     manufacturers, aerospace specific                           areas of aerospace engineering, are
     engineering firms, air transport                            career opportunities for those in this                                         Aerospace
     industry, research institutions and                         profession. This progression is
     the high-tech machining industry.                           possible with additional education                                             Engineer
     Aerospace Engineers are expected                            and work experience.
     to work in a multidisciplinary work
     environment.
                                                                 WAGES

     PERSONAL QUALITIES                                          Salaries in the aerospace industry
                                                                 are higher than the national average
     • Good conceptual skills                                    for the overall Canadian labour
     • Continuously up-to-date with new                          force. The salary range can vary
       technology                                                widely depending on the size and
     • Adapts to new processes                                   structure of the company and
     • Detail oriented                                           experience of the employee.
     • Open to new ideas
     • Excellent problem-solving skills                          The wage for an Aerospace
     • Works well with others or                                 Engineer in the Niagara Aerospace
       unsupervised                                              Industry, ranges from $24.00 to                          Sources of Information
                                                                 $36.00 per hour. Aerospace
                                                                 Engineers in positions that involve
                                                                                                                          • PATHWAY TO FLIGHT, Spring, 2002,
     TRAINING AVAILABILITY                                       supervision, management or
                                                                                                                            available through the NAPL website.
                                                                 inspection can earn from $34.00
     • Carleton University, Ottawa                               to $44.00 per hour.                                      • Canadian Aviation Maintenance Coun-
       www.carleton.ca                                                                                                      cil (CAMC) www.camc.ca

     • McGill University, Montreal                                                                                         • Aerospace Industries Association
       www.mcgill.ca                                                                                                         of Canada (AIAC) www.aiac.ca

     • Ryerson Polytechnical Institute,                                                                                   • Issue Priorities for 2001,
       Toronto                                                                                                              Aerospace Industries Association of
       www.ryerson.ca                                                                                                       Canada (AIAC)

     • University of Toronto, Toronto                                                                                     • National Occupation Classification
       www.utoronto.ca                                                                                                      (NOC), Occupational Descriptions–
                                                                                                                            Human Resources Development
                                                                                                                            Canada



                                                                                                                              Find Out More
                                                                                                                              by accessing the
                                                                                                                              Niagara Aerospace
                                                                                                                              Partnership for Learning
                                                                                                                              web site at:
                                                                                                                              www.napl.ca



     This communiqué has been complied by Niagara College for the Niagara Training and Adjustment Board (NTAB), December, 2001.

     Project funded by the Niagara Aerospace Partnership for Learning (NAPL) and Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC).




46                               APPENDICES                           Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector
                                                                                                                                       RETURN to INDEX PAGE




           AEROSPACE
           OCCUPATIONAL


           Profile
                                                                                                   • Inspect parts, subassemblies and
                                                                                                     finished products
                                                                                                   • Operate or tend automated
                                                                                                     assembling equipment, such as ro-
                                                                                                     botics and fixed automation equipment
                                                                                                   • Operate small cranes to transport
                                                                                                     or position parts.


                                                                                                   EDUCATION AND CERTIFICATION

                                                                                                   Entry level to this trade requires
                                                                                                   completion of secondary school
                                                                                                   followed by completion of a four
                                                                                                   year apprenticeship program.

                                                                                                   • Grade 12 High School Diploma
                                                                                                   • Mechanical Apprenticeship (Air
                                                                                                     Frame Mechanic, Machinist etc.)
                                                                                                   • 5 years of on-the-job training or
                                                                                                     experience
NOC 7316




                                                          related to the assembly function and     • 2-3year College program in
                                                          perform hydraulic and electrical           Aircraft manufacturing or general
           Aircraft                                       work on an aircraft structure.             fabrications is required for aircraft
                                                                                                     engine fitters
           Assembly Fitter                                                                         • A certification in a related trade
                                                          MAIN DUTIES                                may be required

           INTRODUCTION                                   • Perform a wide variety of
                                                            assembly functions including           WORKING CONDITIONS
           Aircraft Fitters assemble and build              drilling, sealing, riveting,
           light and heavy aircraft structures,             fastening, trimming, shimming and      Those who are in this trade are found
           for both military and civilian                   countersinking.                        working in an industrial or
           applications. They are generally               • Perform minor repairs and rework       manufacturing plant environment or
           employed in industrial                           in assembly                            working on aircraft in an airport setting.
           manufacturing industries and                   • Perform burnishing and scratch
           airports. This occupation can also               removal
           be referred to as Sheet Metal Fitter.          • Perform hydraulic and electrical       PERSONAL QUALITIES
                                                            work on an aircraft structure
                                                          • Assist and operate the autoclaves      • Strong communication skills
           JOB DESCRIPTION                                • Assemble, fit and install pre-         • Work with a minimal amount
                                                            fabricated parts to close tolerances     of supervision
           Employees engaged in this                        according to blueprints to form        • Good physical well-being
           classification assemble, using a wide            subassemblies or finished products     • Be able to train others
           variety of techniques, both pre-               • Position, align and adjust parts for   • Perform well under stress
           fabricated and composite material.               proper fit and assembly                • Possess good problem-solving skills
           They perform machining operations              • Fasten parts together                  • Well organized




             Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector           APPENDICES                            47
                                                                                                                                                                RETURN to INDEX PAGE




     TRAINING AVAILABILITY                                       CAREER PATH

     Training for this occupation can be                         With additional education and
     obtained from most community                                experience, Aircraft Assembly
     colleges that have apprenticeship                           Fitters may progress to positions
     programs.                                                   such as Technician, CNC
                                                                 Programmer, Production Engineer                                                Aircraft
     • Canadore College, North Bay                               or Supervisor.
       www.canadorec.on.ca                                                                                                                      Assembly Fitter
     • Centennial College, Scarborough
                                                                 WAGES
       www.centennialcollege.ca
     • Conestoga College, Kitchener                              Salaries in the aerospace industry
       www.conestogac.on.ca                                      are higher than the national average
                                                                 for the overall Canadian labour
     • Durham College, Oshawa
                                                                 force. The salary range can vary
       www.durhamc.on.ca
                                                                 widely depending on the size and
     • Fanshawe College, London                                  structure of the company and
       www.fanshawec.on.ca                                       experience of the employee.
     • Niagara College Canada, Niagara-
                                                                 The wage for an Aircraft Assembly
       on-the-Lake
                                                                 Fitter in the Niagara Aerospace
       www.niagarac.on.ca
                                                                 Industry, ranges from $18.00 to
     • St. Clair College, Windsor                                $22.00 per hour.
       www.stclairc.on.ca                                                                                                 Sources of Information
     • St. Lawerence College
       Kingston                                                                                                           • PATHWAY TO FLIGHT, Spring, 2002,
       www.sl.on.ca                                                                                                         available through the NAPL website.

     • Sault College, Sault St. Marie                                                                                     • Canadian Aviation Maintenance Coun-
       www.saultc.on.ca                                                                                                     cil (CAMC) www.camc.ca

     • Seneca College, King City                                                                                           • Aerospace Industries Association
       www.senecac.on.ca                                                                                                     of Canada (AIAC) www.aiac.ca

     • Sir Sandford Flemming College,                                                                                     • Issue Priorities for 2001,
       Peterborough                                                                                                         Aerospace Industries Association of
       www.flemingc.on.ca                                                                                                   Canada (AIAC)

                                                                                                                          • National Occupation Classification
                                                                                                                            (NOC), Occupational Descriptions–
                                                                                                                            Human Resources Development
                                                                                                                            Canada



                                                                                                                              Find Out More
                                                                                                                              by accessing the
                                                                                                                              Niagara Aerospace
                                                                                                                              Partnership for Learning
                                                                                                                              web site at:
                                                                                                                              www.napl.ca



     This communiqué has been complied by Niagara College for the Niagara Training and Adjustment Board (NTAB), December, 2001.

     Project funded by the Niagara Aerospace Partnership for Learning (NAPL) and Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC).




48                               APPENDICES                           Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector
                                                                                                                                     RETURN to INDEX PAGE




           AEROSPACE
           OCCUPATIONAL


           Profile
                                                                                                   technician to certify the work of
                                                                                                   other technicians and certify the
                                                                                                   airworthiness of avionics systems.


                                                                                                   MAIN DUTIES

                                                                                                   • Avionics equipment installation
                                                                                                   • Electrical harness fabrication and
                                                                                                     installation.
                                                                                                   • Aircraft function testing
                                                                                                   • Repair of avionics equipment
                                                                                                   • Engineering design liaison
                                                                                                   • Avionics trouble shooting


                                                                                                   EDUCATION AND CERTIFICATION

                                                                                                   Entry level to this trade requires
                                                                                                   completion of secondary school
                                                                                                   followed by completion of a two or
                                                          JOB DESCRIPTION                          three year college program in avionics
                                                                                                   or electronics, or completion of a four
NOC 2244




           Avionics                                       It is the avionics maintenance           year apprenticeship program.
                                                          technician who is primarily
           Maintenance                                    involved in ‘first Line’ (working on     • Grade 12 High School Diploma
                                                          aircraft in the hangar or on flight      • 2– 3 Year College Diploma
           Technician                                     line) installation, troubleshooting      • 2 year Avionics Apprenticeship
                                                          and maintenance of electrical and          approved by Transport Canada
                                                          electronic systems for com-              • Aircraft Maintenance Engineer “E”
           INTRODUCTION                                   munications, navigation, fuel              license from Transport Canada
                                                          monitoring, environmental control
           This occupational profile provides a           and electrical distribution. This
           brief summary of an Avionics                   position requires an understanding of    WORKING CONDITIONS
           Maintenance Technician’s job.                  electrical and electronic systems, and
           Modern aircraft have a number of               the ability to interpret technical       Most work is program and project
           electrical and electronic systems.             manuals, drawings and wiring             oriented requiring the team approach.
           These complex systems and                      diagrams for a variety of aircraft       Avionics Technicians work in a
           components are installed, tested,              systems and components. The qualified    manufacturing or plant environment.
           calibrated and maintained by                   technician must also be able to          Performing “first line” maintenance
           Avionics Technicians. Another                  identify, diagnose and fix a problem.    on the aircraft in the hangar or on the
           branch of this trade work in repair                                                     flight line may also be required.
           facilities overhauling electrical and          An experienced technician in this        Another branch of this trade works in
           electronic components.                         trade with approved courses can          repair facilities in large companies or
                                                          qualify for a Transport Canada “E”       smaller supplier shops, overhauling
                                                          category license that authorizes the     electrical and electronic components.




             Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector           APPENDICES                          49
                                                                                                                                                               RETURN to INDEX PAGE




     PERSONAL QUALITIES                                          WAGES

     • Good conceptual skills and/or                             Salaries in the aerospace industry
       manual skills                                             are higher than the national average
     • The ability to keep up-to-date with                       for the overall Canadian labour
       new technology                                            force. The salary range can vary
     • The ability to adapt to new                               widely depending on the size and                                              Avionics
       management processes                                      structure of the company and
     • Computer literacy                                         experience of the employee.                                                   Maintenance
     • Good written and verbal
       communications                                            The wage for an Avionics                                                      Technician
     • Willingness to learn                                      Maintenance Technician in the
     • Good problem-solving skills                               Niagara Aerospace Industry, ranges
                                                                 from $17.50 to $24.19 per hour.
                                                                 Avionics Maintenance Technicians
     TRAINING AVAILABILITY                                       in positions that involve
                                                                 supervision or inspection can earn
     Three Ontario Colleges offer the                            from $28.00 to $31.20 per hour.
     Transport Canada approved
     Avionics Maintenance/Technician
     certification program.

     • Canadore College, North Bay
       www.canadorec.on.ca
     • Centennial College, Scarborough                                                                                    Sources of Information
       www.centennialcollege.ca
                                                                                                                          • PATHWAY TO FLIGHT, Spring, 2002,
     • Seneca College, Toronto
                                                                                                                            available through the NAPL website.
       www.senecac.on.ca
                                                                                                                          • Canadian A viation Maintenance Coun-
                                                                                                                            cil (CAMC) www  .camc.ca

     CAREER PATH                                                                                                           •Aerospace Industries Association
                                                                                                                            of Canada (AIAC) www  .aiac.ca
     With additional education and
                                                                                                                          • Issue Priorities for 2001,
     experience, Avionics Maintenance
                                                                                                                            Aerospace Industries Association of
     Technicians may progress to
                                                                                                                            Canada (AIAC)
     positions such as Inspector, Liaison/
     Design Engineer or Supervisor.                                                                                       • National Occupation Classification
                                                                                                                            (NOC), Occupational Descriptions–
                                                                                                                            Human Resources Development
                                                                                                                            Canada



                                                                                                                              Find Out More
                                                                                                                              by accessing the
                                                                                                                              Niagara Aerospace
                                                                                                                              Partnership for Learning
                                                                                                                              web site at:
                                                                                                                              www.napl.ca



     This communiqué has been complied by Niagara College for the Niagara Training and Adjustment Board (NTAB), December, 2001.

     Project funded by the Niagara Aerospace Partnership for Learning (NAPL) and Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC).




50                               APPENDICES                           Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector
                                                                                                                                      RETURN to INDEX PAGE




              AEROSPACE
              OCCUPATIONAL


              Profile
                                                                                                       precision measuring instruments
                                                                                                     • Compute dimensions and
                                                                                                       tolerances, and measure and layout
                                                                                                       work pieces


                                                                                                     EDUCATION AND CERTIFICATION

                                                                                                     Entry level to this trade requires
                                                                                                     completion of secondary school
                                                                                                     followed by a combination of
                                                                                                     apprenticeship and on-the-job
                                                                                                     training. This may be supplemented
                                                                                                     with industry specific or community
                                                                                                     college courses as required.

                                                                                                     • Grade 12 High School Diploma
                                                                                                     • Apprenticeship – 4 year program
                                                                                                     • 4 – 5 years experience in the trade
                                                                                                     • Computerized Numerical Control
                                                                                                       Certificate at the college level
NOC 7 2 3 1




                                                             shape metal to exacting standards
                                                             and close tolerances. Other
              CNC Machinist                                  responsibilities are the set up and     WORKING CONDITIONS
                                                             operation of CNC machining centers
                                                             and turning centers to manufacture      People who are in this important
                                                             precision components.                   trade are predominately found in
                                                                                                     parts/components manufacturing,
              INTRODUCTION                                                                           and large repair and overhaul
                                                             MAIN DUTIES                             organizations. CNC Machinists may
              The aviation Computerized                                                              work in small machine shops that are
              Numerical Control (CNC) Machinist              • Read and interpret blueprints,        suppliers to these larger
              specializes in the manufacture of                charts and tables                     organizations.
              parts and components used to build,            • Load CNC machining centers with
              modify or repair aircraft. The                   CNC programs to perform
              machinist position is critical to the            precision machining operations        PERSONAL QUALITIES
              manufacturing process. Machinists              • Ensuring the correct cutting tools
              also work in supplier industries,                are selected and are performing       • Excellent math skills
              aircraft manufacturers, airlines and             efficiently                           • Attention to detail and precision
              large maintenance operations.                  • Manufacture and utilize fixtures to   • Excellent mechanical reasoning
                                                               hold components during                • Problem-solving skills
                                                               manufacturing process                 • Computer literacy
              JOB DESCRIPTION                                • Perform dimensional inspection of     • Good written and verbal
                                                               components                              communications
              The CNC Machinist uses complex                 • Verify dimensions of products for     • Good conceptual skills and/or
              procedures and machine tools to                  accuracy and conformance using          manual skills




                Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector          APPENDICES                         51
                                                                                                                                                                RETURN to INDEX PAGE




     TRAINING AVAILABILITY                                       CAREER PATH

     Training for this occupation can be                         With additional education and
     obtained from most community                                experience, CNC Machinists may
     colleges that have apprenticeship                           progress to positions such as
     programs. Some additional CNC                               Machine Setter, CNC Programmer,
     courses can be taken through                                QC Inspector, Technician or                                                    CNC
     continuing education departments of                         Supervisor.
     most colleges that offer industrial or                                                                                                     Machinist
     manufacturing technology programs.
                                                                 WAGES
     • Canadore College, North Bay
       www.canadorec.on.ca                                       Salaries in the aerospace industry
                                                                 are higher than the national average
     • Centennial College, Scarborough
                                                                 for the overall Canadian labour
       www.centennialcollege.ca
                                                                 force. The salary range can vary
     • Conestoga College, Kitchener                              widely depending on the size and
       www.conestogac.on.ca                                      structure of the company and
                                                                 experience of the machinist.
     • Durham College, Oshawa
       www.durhamc.on.ca
                                                                 The wage for a CNC Machinist in
     • Fanshawe College, London                                  the Niagara Aerospace Industry,
       www.fanshawec.on.ca                                       ranges from $15.00 to $21.00
                                                                 per hour. CNC Machinists in
     • Niagara College Canada, Niagara-
       on-the-Lake
                                                                 positions that involve supervision                       Sources of Information
                                                                 or inspection can earn from $25.00
       www.niagarac.on.ca
                                                                 to $30.90 per hour.
                                                                                                                          • PATHWAY TO FLIGHT, Spring, 2002,
     • St. Clair College, Windsor
                                                                                                                            available through the NAPL website.
       www.stclairc.on.ca
                                                                                                                          • Canadian Aviation Maintenance Coun-
     • St. Lawerence College, Kingston
                                                                                                                            cil (CAMC) www.camc.ca
       www.sl.on.ca
                                                                                                                           • Aerospace Industries Association
     • Sault College, Sault St. Marie
                                                                                                                             of Canada (AIAC) www.aiac.ca
       www.saultc.on.ca
                                                                                                                          • Issue Priorities for 2001,
     • Seneca College, King City
                                                                                                                            Aerospace Industries Association of
       www.senecac.on.ca
                                                                                                                            Canada (AIAC)
     • Sir Sandford Flemming College,
                                                                                                                          • National Occupation Classification
       Peterborough
                                                                                                                            (NOC), Occupational Descriptions–
       www.flemingc.on.ca
                                                                                                                            Human Resources Development
                                                                                                                            Canada



                                                                                                                              Find Out More
                                                                                                                              by accessing the
                                                                                                                              Niagara Aerospace
                                                                                                                              Partnership for Learning
                                                                                                                              web site at:
                                                                                                                              www.napl.ca



     This communiqué has been complied by Niagara College for the Niagara Training and Adjustment Board (NTAB), December, 2001.

     Project funded by the Niagara Aerospace Partnership for Learning (NAPL) and Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC).




52                               APPENDICES                           Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector
                                                                                                                                   RETURN to INDEX PAGE




           AEROSPACE
           OCCUPATIONAL


           Profile
                                                                                                  MAIN DUTIES

                                                                                                  • Develop and analyze CAD models
                                                                                                    from engineering drawings or CAD
                                                                                                    files, using computer software
                                                                                                  • Design manufacturing processes,
                                                                                                    including cutting tools, fixtures and
                                                                                                    operations
                                                                                                  • Develop CAM programs using
                                                                                                    CAM software to produce
                                                                                                    components to drawing/blueprint
                                                                                                    specifications.
                                                                                                  • Develop production processes, quality
                                                                                                    assurance programs, plans and
                                                                                                    schedules in a particular industrial
                                                                                                    area such as metal fabrication


                                                                                                  EDUCATION AND CERTIFICATION

                                                                                                  Entry level to this occupation requires
                                                          JOB DESCRIPTION                         completion of secondary school
NOC 2253




                                                                                                  followed by completion of a two or
           CNC                                            CNC Programmers develop                 three year college program and may
                                                          computer applications for the control   include completion of a four year
           Programmer                                     of numerical control machines,          apprenticeship program.
                                                          manufacturing processes and
                                                          operations. CNC programming             • Grade 12 High School Diploma
           INTRODUCTION                                   concepts and machine operation          • 2–3 year College program in
                                                          require a technical knowledge of          Industrial Engineering Technology
           Computerized Numerical Control                 many interdependent disciplines,          or Mechanical Engineering
           (CNC) Programmers may work                     mainly machining practices,               Technology, Numerical Control
           independently or provide technical             blueprint reading, shop mathematics,    • Mechanical Apprenticeship as a
           support and services in the                    cutting tools, speeds and feeds, work     Machinist
           development of production methods,             holding and many others.                • CNC college program certificate
           facilities and systems, and the                Understanding a CNC program             • 3–5 years of on-the-job training or
           planning, estimating, measuring and            printout or display on the screen,        experience
           scheduling of work. This occupation            interpreting the coding and making      • Post secondary courses in computer
           can also be referred to as a                   appropriate changes, are                  programming
           CAD/CAM Programmer.                            important parts of the CNC
                                                          programmers’ responsibilities.




             Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector          APPENDICES                         53
                                                                                                                                                                RETURN to INDEX PAGE




     WORKING CONDITIONS                                          • Humber College, Toronto
                                                                   www.humberc.on.ca
     This occupation is usually found in
                                                                 • Niagara College Canada, Niagara-
     production related departments in
                                                                   on-the-Lake
     manufacturing plants, engineering
                                                                   www.niagarac.on.ca
     firms and high tech machining
     industry.                                                   • St. Clair College, Windsor                                                   CNC
                                                                   www.stclairc.on.ca
                                                                                                                                                Programmer
                                                                 • St. Lawerence College
     PERSONAL QUALITIES
                                                                   Kingston
                                                                   www.sl.on.ca
     • Good conceptual skills and/or
       manual skills                                             • Seneca College, King City
     • The ability to keep up-to-date with                         www.senecac.on.ca
       new technology
                                                                 • Sir Sandford Flemming College,
     • The ability to adapt to new
                                                                   Peterborough
       processes
                                                                   www.flemingc.on.ca
     • Attention to detail
     • Open to new ideas
     • Excellent problem-solving skills
     • Work well with others or                                  CAREER PATH
       unsupervised
                                                                 With additional education and
                                                                 experience, CNC Programmers may
     TRAINING AVAILABILITY                                       progress to positions such as                            Sources of Information
                                                                 Production Engineer or Production
     Training for this occupation can be                         Supervisor.
                                                                                                                          • PATHWAY TO FLIGHT, Spring, 2002,
     obtained from most community
                                                                                                                            available through the NAPL website.
     colleges that have technical,
     mechanical and apprenticeship                               WAGES                                                    • Canadian Aviation Maintenance Coun-
     programs.                                                                                                              cil (CAMC) www.camc.ca
                                                                 Salaries in the aerospace industry
                                                                                                                           • Aerospace Industries Association
     • Cambrian College, Sudbury                                 are higher than the national average
                                                                                                                             of Canada (AIAC) www.aiac.ca
       www.cabrianc.on.ca                                        for the overall Canadian labour
                                                                 force. The salary range can vary                         • Issue Priorities for 2001,
     • Centennial College, Scarborough
                                                                 widely depending on the size and                           Aerospace Industries Association of
       www.centennialcollege.ca
                                                                 structure of the company and                               Canada (AIAC)
     • Conestoga College, Kitchener                              experience of the employee.
                                                                                                                          • National Occupation Classification
       www.conestogac.on.ca
                                                                                                                            (NOC), Occupational Descriptions–
                                                                 The wage for a CNC Programmer
     • Durham College, Oshawa                                                                                               Human Resources Development
                                                                 in the Niagara Aerospace Industry,
       www.durhamc.on.ca                                                                                                    Canada
                                                                 ranges from $15.00 to $32.00 per
     • Fanshawe College, London                                  hour. CNC Programmers in
       www.fanshawec.on.ca                                       positions that involve supervision                           Find Out More
                                                                 or inspection can earn from $25.00
     • George Brown College, Toronto                                                                                          by accessing the
                                                                 to $30.90 per hour.
       www.gbrownc.on.ca                                                                                                      Niagara Aerospace
     • Georgrian College, Barrie                                                                                              Partnership for Learning
       www.georgianc.on.ca                                                                                                    web site at:
                                                                                                                              www.napl.ca



     This communiqué has been complied by Niagara College for the Niagara Training and Adjustment Board (NTAB), December, 2001.

     Project funded by the Niagara Aerospace Partnership for Learning (NAPL) and Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC).




54                               APPENDICES                           Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector
                                                                                                                                                                            RETURN to INDEX PAGE


        AE RO S PAC E |I N DU S T RY|N I AG AR A |R E G I ON
           ROS




&RPPXQLTXp
Introduction                                                                                                                           Points of Interest
                                                                                                                                       Include…
For more than 75 years Niagara’s aerospace industry has contributed to Canada’s
growing aerospace sector. Today, regional manufacturers continue to produce a wide                                                     ‡ $QQXDO VDOHV IRU UHJLRQDO
range of quality products for virtually all segments of the industry, including the civil,                                               DHURVSDFH PDQXIDFWXUHUV
commercial, defence, satellite, and radar industries. Delivered products also reflect                                                    H[FHHG  PLOOLRQ
the breadth of the industry, for they include helicopters, wing panels, flaps and                                                      ‡ 5HJLRQDOO\ WKH DHURVSDFH
ailerons, flight instrumentation and diagnostic systems, and precision machined                                                          LQGXVWU\ HPSOR\V RYHU 
parts. Their combined sales exceed $125 million annually, and they are planning for                                                      SHRSOH
long-term growth. This brief snapshot presents a summary of the key issues the                                                         ‡ 7KH UHJLRQDO LQGXVWU\ LQFOXGHV
industry must address to achieve its growth plans, and the crucial employment and                                                        PDQXIDFWXUHUV DLUSRUWV IOLJKW
                                                                                                                                         WUDLQLQJ FHQWUHV UHSDLU
training needs on which growth so pivotally rests.                                                                                       VHUYLFHV IOLJKW VHUYLFH
                                                                                                                                         FHQWHUV DHULDO WRXUV ILOPLQJ
Survey Findings                                                                                                                          SKRWRJUDSK\ DQG VXUYHLOODQFH
                                                                                                                                         DQG FKDUWHU VHUYLFHV
Regionally there are six companies employing a total of 840 people in the manufacturing
                                                                                                                                       ‡ 2YHU  MREV DUH SURMHFWHG WR
of aerospace craft and components. Four of the six employers1, representing 92% of
                                                                                                                                         DULVH RYHU WKH QH[W WHQ \HDUV LQ
the sector’s employees, recently expressed the following key employment related issues                                                   WKH PDQXIDFWXULQJ VHJPHQW RI
as having the greatest negative impact upon their growth plans:                                                                          WKH UHJLRQDO DHURVSDFH VHFWRU
• a shortage of qualified, skilled labour for selected aerospace occupations; and                                                      ‡ :DJH UDWHV IRU WKH WRS 
• a lack of aerospace specific courses and programs within the Niagara Region.                                                           SURMHFWHG MRE FOXVWHUV UDQJH
    In excess of 500 jobs are projected to arise over the next ten years. Approximately                                                  IURP ± \HDU
one quarter (142) are projected to arise by 2006, with the majority (369), of the                                                        ZLWK DQ DYHUDJH RI 
projected jobs to arise by 2011. Fifty-five percent (55%) of the projected jobs are in                                                   \HDU
response to the need to replace retiring personnel and 45% reflect anticipated growth
needs. Nine (9) occupational clusters account for 97% of the projected jobs. Chart 1
illustrates the number of jobs projected by sample participants across core
occupational clusters.

Chart 1 – illustrates the 10 occupations in the most demand, to the year 2011, by the number
of projected job opportunities (511).

                     14 Production/Material Planners
           12 Quality Technicians              24 Administrators/Managers
24 Engineers/Technologists
                                                     18 Other
26 Licensed Trades

103 Sheet Metal                                                                          61 Trainees/
    Workers                                                                                 Machinists


64 Composite                                                                             165 Assembly Fitters
   Lay-up & Tool
   Workers


   Wages in the aerospace industry are higher than the regional average across all
industries. The annual wages across all of the projected occupations ranges from
$26,000 to $80,000, with the average across all occupations close to $40,000
annually. Chart 2 illustrates the annual wages for the top nine occupational clusters.


               1
                   Participating aerospace manufacturers include: aero-safe technologies inc., Eurocopter Canada Limited, Fleet Industries Ltd., and McDonco Machine Ltd.


          Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector                                             APPENDICES                                  55
                                                                                                                                                                        RETURN to INDEX PAGE



Chart 2
                                                                                                                                      Find Out More by
                                                                                                                                      accessing the
                                                                                                                                      following…
                                                                                                                                      ‡ 1LDJDUD $HURVSDFH
                                                                                                                                        3DUWQHUVKLS IRU /HDUQLQJ
                                                                                                                                        ZHE VLWH DW
                                                                                                                                        ZZZQDSOFD
                                                                                                                                      ‡ 7KH FRPSOHWH UHSRUW
                                                                                                                                        HQWLWOHG 3DWKZD\ WR
                                                                                                                                        )OLJKW DYDLODEOH WKURXJK
                                                                                                                                        WKH IROORZLQJ ZHE VLWHV
                                                                                                                                        1LDJDUD 7UDLQLQJ DQG
                                                                                                                                        $GMXVWPHQW %RDUG DW
                                                                                                                                        ZZZQWDERUJ +XPDQ
                                                                                                                                        5HVRXUFHV &HQWUH RI
                                                                                                                                        &DQDGD DW
                                                                                                                                        KWWS
                                                                                                                                        KUFFEHFRQRUJKUFF
                                                                                                                                        RU 1LDJDUD &ROOHJH DW
Labour Adjustment and Cyclical Swings                                                                                                   ZZZQLDJDUDFRQFD
                                                                                                                                        LQIRUHVHDUFK
The aerospace industry is more sensitive to cyclical swings than many other industries                                                ‡ &DQDGLDQ $YLDWLRQ
particularly because of its global integration, relatively long lead-time for project orders,                                           0DLQWHQDQFH
and weak linkages with non-aerospace sectors. The current global economic slowdown will                                                 &RXQFLO &$0& DW
lead to a short-term decline of 217 jobs in the regional aerospace manufacturing industry.                                              ZZZFDPFFD
Regional employers are optimistic about the future, and for good reason; the opportunity to                                           ‡ $HURVSDFH ,QGXVWULHV
grow business is there. Canada’s share of world aerospace production has more than tripled                                              $VVRFLDWLRQ RI &DQDGD
since 1976. More recently, between 1993-2001, Canadian sales have grown by 250% and                                                     $,$& DW ZZZDLDFFD
employment by 150%. And as for the future, the world’s leading manufacturers have                                                     ‡ 2QWDULR $HURVSDFH
forecasted annual average growth rates in passenger and cargo traffic of 5.1% and 6.7%                                                  &RXQFLO 2$& DW
                                                                                                                                        ZZZRQWDHURRUJ
globally, and 3% for the North American market, over the next twenty years. The challenge
for the Niagara industry is to advance its capacity to co-ordinate business growth while
simultaneously nourishing a vital advantage – the development of a highly innovative and
skilled workforce.2                                                                                                                 Sources of Information
                                                                                                                                    • Canadian Aviation Maintenance
Human Resource Challenges and the                                                                                                     Council (CAMC) at www.camc.ca
Niagara Aerospace Partnership for Learning                                                                                           • Aerospace Industries Association
The regional aerospace industry’s projected shortage of skilled labour is further magnified                                            of Canada (AIAC) at www.aiac.ca
by the increasing cross-sector competition for skilled workers and the lack of regionally                                           • Issue Priorities for 2001,
accessible aerospace-specific training. An industry-led team, composed of employers,                                                  Aerospace Industries Association of
government representatives, and trainers and educators, was established in 2001 to                                                    Canada (AIAC)
coordinate an industry-wide response to their workforce development needs. The
mandate of the Niagara Aerospace Partnership for Learning (NAPL) is to:                                                             • Aerospace Capability Profile, Fort
•promote the aerospace industry in the Niagara Region,                                                                                Erie Economic Development and
                                                                                                                                      Tourism Corporation, 2001
•project and assess workforce demand requirements and labour force supply issues, and
•expand on effective school-to-work initiatives and build local training capacity to ensure                                         • Aerospace Sector Survey, Niagara
 the industry is able to attract, develop and retain Niagara’s best and brightest.                                                    College, 2001

Since its inception, partnership (NAPL) initiatives have included a joint open house; an all-
                                                                                                                                    This communiqué has been compiled by Niagara College
day, three-plant career fair for high school students; and the development of five                                                  for the Niagara Training and Adjustment Board (NTAB),
occupational profiles to promote career awareness within the sector. A web site, namely                                             February 2002. Project funded by the Niagara Aerospace
www.napl.ca, is also now up and running. It provides information about and access to                                                Partnership for Learning (NAPL) and Human Resources
                                                                                                                                    Development Canada (HRDC).
industry employers, job and co-op opportunities, and direct links to the national industry.


2
    Sources: Aerospace…Innovation in Action: Annual Report 2001, Aerospace Industries Association of Canada, 2001;
Industry Profiles–The Canadian Aerospace Sector, Human Resources Development Canada, 2002; and Civil Aerospace – The Outlook, Rolls-Royce Canada Limited, 2001

56                                         APPENDICES                         Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector
                                                                                                  RETURN to INDEX PAGE


Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector   APPENDICES




Appendix C – Survey
Participants

Aero-safe technologies inc., Mark Waring
Devco Aviation Ltd., Gabe Devenyi
District School Board of Niagara,
Kevin Graham and Ola Tkaczyk
Eurocopter Canada Limited, Lynn Currie
Fleet Industries Ltd., Tony Claroni,
International Association of Machinists, Mike Foster
McDonco Machine Ltd., Jeff Doneff
Niagara Air Tours, Ross Pulford,
Niagara District Catholic School Board, Howard Barry and
Alice Gregoire
Niagara Helicopters Limited, Anna Pierce
Welland/Port Colborne Airport, Bruce MacRitchie




                                                                           57
                                                                                                                                    RETURN to INDEX PAGE




Industry Members               Education Members                     Government Members                          Community Members
Aero-Safe Technologies Inc.    District School Board of Niagara      Human Resources                             Niagara Training & Adjustment Board
Eurocopter Canada Limited      Niagara Catholic                      Development Canada                          City of Fort Erie, Ontario
Fleet Industries Ltd.          District School Board                 Ministry of Economic                        Niagara Economic
                               Niagara College                       Development & Trade                         and Tourism Corporation
Ontario Aerospace Council


MISSION STATEMENT                                                          Memorandum of Understanding
The Niagara Aerospace Partnership for Learning will provide                As founding charter members of the Niagara Aerospace
opportunities to attract, develop and retain quality personnel,            Partnership for Learning, the organizations listed below agree
in order to ensure the global competitiveness of the growing               to participate in this joint initiative. This joint initiative is an
Niagara aerospace sector.                                                  effort to address the challenges outlined in Confronting the
                                                                           Jobs Challenge: A Niagara Human Resources Strategy
                                                                           specifically to help current and prospective employees gain
Short-term Objectives                                                      the necessary skills to pursue and/or upgrade careers in the
1. Promote the aerospace career opportunities to the                       aerospace industry.
   Niagara region.
                                                                           The Partnership’s mission is to provide opportunities to
2. Develop an awareness program, including a speakers' bureau.             attract, develop and retain quality personnel, in order to
                                                                           ensure the global competitiveness of the growing Niagara
3. Organize a career fair for Niagara high schools in                      aerospace sector.
   May 2001 in Fort Erie.
                                                                           The participants agree to contribute to the overall success of
4. Conduct a learning needs assessment and determine                       this initiative and the achievement of its objectives. In doing
   approaches to addressing them.                                          so the partners agree to:
                                                                           1. Work to develop the learning of potential employees in the
5. Inventory each company's specific needs and compare to
                                                                              aerospace and related industries.
   determine commonality.
                                                                           2. Contribute to the development of a relevant aerospace skills-
6. Develop program(s) to meet the common needs of the                         based curriculum that can be administered by the local
   collective group.                                                          district school boards, Niagara College and other educators.
7. Assist the firms with unique skill requirements to develop              3. Jointly contribute appropriate funding for the
   approaches to meeting them.                                                initiative’s success.

8. Commence an informal process of sharing employee                        4. Designate senior level representatives to participate in the
   resumes to assist the partner firms to fill vacant positions.              Partnership and its activities.
                                                                           5. Promote the aerospace career opportunities within the
Longer- term Objectives:                                                      Niagara community.

1. Make fuller use the resources available through the Ontario             The Partnership will be responsible for co-ordination of the
   Aerospace Council.                                                      initiative and liaison with participating local organizations, the
                                                                           Ontario Aerospace Council and the aerospace industry at large.
2. Establish permanent curricula in the high schools...
                                                                           This initiative will be subject to any additional terms and
                                                                           conditions as set out by the Partnership.

58                            APPENDICES             Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector
                                                                                                  RETURN to INDEX PAGE


Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector   APPENDICES




Appendix E – References
A Competitive Analysis of Niagara’s Business Opportunities
Associated with Adult Lifestyle: A Demographic Perspective,
Madison Avenue Demographics Group, 1999
A report on the Aerospace Sector in Fort Erie and the Niagara
region, WCM Consulting Inc., 2000
Aeronautics Act, Transport Canada – Safety and Security, Civil
Aviation – Regulatory Services, 1998
Aerospace Capability Profile, Fort Erie Economic Development
and Tourism Corporation, 2001
Aerospace Manufacturing Technology Centre, National Research
Council, 2001
Aerospace – meeting Canada’s innovation challenge, Aerospace
Industries Association of Canada, 2001
Aerospace Output, 1999, The European Association of
Aerospace Industries, 2000
Aerospace…Innovation in Action: Annual Report 2001,
Aerospace Industries Association of Canada, 2001
Assessment of the Skills and Training Situation in the Canadian
Aerospace Industry, Aerospace and Defence Branch, Industry
Canada, 1999
Canada’s aerospace industry – industry facts and figures,
Aerospace Industries Association of Canada, 2001
Civil Aerospace – The Outlook, Rolls-Royce Canada Limited,
2001
Confronting the Jobs Challenge: A Niagara Human Resources,
Niagara Economic and Tourism Corporation, 2000
Course Catalogue, Aerospace Industry Training Program,
Ontario Aerospace Council, 1999
Highlights in the History of Canadian Aviation, National
Aviation Museum, 2002
Industry Profiles- The Canadian Aerospace Sector, Human
Resources Development Canada, 2002
Industry Profiles- The Canadian Aerospace Sector, Human
Resources Development Canada, 1998




                                                                           59
                                                                                            RETURN to INDEX PAGE


APPENDICES   Pathway to Flight… a profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s Aerospace Sector




             Industry Profiles- The Canadian Aerospace Sector, Human
             Resources Development Canada, 1996
             Learning in the Workplace: The Case for Reflectivity and Critical
             Reflectivity, Adult Education Quarterly, volume 38, number 4,
             1988
             Making Waves: A profile of career opportunities in Niagara’s
             marine sector, Niagara College, 2000.
             Projection of Retirements by Occupations, Ontario, 1996-2010,
             Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities, 2000
             (unpublished document)
             School-to-Work Transition Programs, A Summary and Analysis,
             Business Education Council, unpublished draft 2002
             Science and Engineering Indicators, National Science
             Foundation, 2000
             Sector Competitiveness Frameworks: Aircraft and Aircraft Parts,
             Industry Canada- Aerospace and Defence Branch, 1996
             Sector Competitiveness Frameworks: Aircraft and Aircraft Parts,
             Industry Canada, 1999
             Technological Education Aerospace Career Path, District School
             Board of Niagara, 2001
             Technological Education Career Path, District School Board of
             Niagara, 2001
             Technology Diffusion: Tracing the Flows of Embodied R&D in
             Eight OECD Countries, Organization for Economic Co-
             operation and Development, 1993
             Technology Education and The Plastics Industry: Opportunity
             through holistic learning, Niagara College, 1994
             The Niagara region Economy: Prosperity in 2000 and Beyond,
             Bank of Montreal, 2000
             The Outlook – Civil aerospace and The Outlook – Defence
             aerospace, Rolls-Royce Canada Limited, 2002
             US Department of State FY 2001 Country Commercial Guide
             Vocational Education in Transition: A Seven-Country Study of
             Curricula for Lifelong Vocational Learning, Unesco Institute for
             Education, 1988
             Work in Niagara 1999-2003: A profile of Sectoral and
             occupational opportunities, Niagara College & HRDC, 1999




                 60
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Workforce Development




      ext. 4012

				
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