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					           You will learn…
                                          “The best
                                          contraceptive is the
                                          word no - repeated
                                          frequently.”
                                                      -Margaret Smith




Outcomes:
• The purpose of contraception
• Different contraceptive methods available
• The effectiveness of various contraceptive methods in preventing
  pregnancy and STD’s
What is Contraception?

        Contraception is:




Birth Control        Protection
                Birth Control
•   This refers to the ability of the contraceptive
    device to reduce the likelihood of fertilization
    occurring (pregnancy prevention).
•   All methods of contraception offer some level
    of birth control, although the range varies
    GREATLY by device and method. The “up to”
    statistics are for individuals who use the
    device correctly and consistently with each
    and every sexual contact.
                Protection
•   When contraception is referred to as
    protection, it is referring to protection from
    pregnancy and/or sexually transmitted
    diseases (STD)—there are only two out
    of the several methods of contraception
    available that will offer any protection from
    STD’s (male and female condom).
Categories of Contraception
•   Barrier methods
•   Hormonal methods
•   Surgical methods
•   Spermicides
•   Other
         Barrier Methods of
           Contraception
•   Barrier methods of contraception work by
    reducing the likelihood of sperm and egg
    from joining. Barrier methods create a
    “blockage” (barrier) between the sperm
    and egg.
•   Barrier methods include:
    • Condoms (male and female)
    • Diaphragm
    • Cervical Cap
                           Condoms
•   Male condom: Barrier method of contraception where a latex or
    polyurethane sheath is placed over the penis. One of only two methods of
    contraception that will also offer some protection against STD’s. When
    used correctly and consistently, male condoms can be up to 97%
    effective in preventing pregnancy. The effectiveness in preventing STD is
    undetermined, but is rated as “highly effective” by NIH.
• Female condom: Barrier method of
  contraception where a polyurethane
  sheath lines the vagina. One of only
  two methods of contraception that
  will also offer some protection
  against STD’s. When used correctly
  and consistently, female condoms
  can be up to 82% effective in
  preventing pregnancy.
     Diaphragm/Cervical Cap
•   A diaphragm is a rubber disc filled with spermacide
    is placed in the vagina and covers the cervix
    blocking sperm from entering the uterus. Must be
    prescribed by a doctor (in order to get the right
    size). Can be up to 84% effective in preventing
    pregnancy. Offers no protection from STD’s.

•   A cervical cap is similar to a diaphragm, but
    smaller and uses suction to stay secure over the
    cervix. Can be up to 86% effective in preventing
    pregnancy. Offers no protection from STD’s.
        Hormonal Methods of
           Contraception
•   Hormonal methods of contraception work by
    preventing ovulation, changing the cervical mucus so
    that sperm cannot penetrate it and/or altering the
    uterine lining so that implantation cannot occur.
•   Hormonal methods are currently only available for
    females, and can reduce or regulate the menstrual
    cycle.
•   Range in effectiveness for preventing pregnancy from
    zero (if not taken properly) to 99%.
•   Offers no protection from STD’s.
         Hormonal Methods of
        Contraception Include:
•   Birth control pills
•   Pill Mini Pill
•   Implants
•   Injections (such as
    Depo-Provera)
•   Nuva ring ®
•   Seasonale ®
                                               Image from:
•   Patch                   http://students.sfu.ca/health/images/Nuvaring.jpg

•   Emergency Contraception: also known as the morning
    after pill or “Plan B”
Birth Control Pills/Mini pill
•   Birth control pills must be prescribed by a doctor.
•   Birth control pills are not effective until after an
    entire set (21 days) has been taken
•   If pills are not taken daily, the effective rate
    drops significantly
•   Birth control pills contain estrogen and
    progesterone; mini pills contain progesterone
    only
    Implants and Injections
•   Currently not used in the USA, implantable
    contraceptive devices are very popular in other
    countries and may find a place back in the USA
    soon.
•   Injections are very popular in the USA and are
    given once every three months
•   Potential side effects include weight gain and
    mood changes
•   Very high reliability rate for both (99% effective
    in preventing pregnancy)
•   Offers no protection from STD’s
Nuva ring, Seasonale, Patch
•   Nuva ring is inserted into the vagina up to the
    cervix and remains for 21 days, the female goes
    for one week without a nuva ring in place and a
    menstrual cycle occurs.
•   Patches are placed on the skin of the abdomen,
    buttocks, or other specific area; they must be
    replaced every week. Like the nuva ring, after
    three weeks no patch is used and the female
    has a menstrual cycle.
•   Seasonale is a type of birth control pill that is
    taken for 84 days and reduces the female to four
    menstrual cycles each year.
•   Offers no protection from STD’s.
Emergency Contraception
•   A series of pills for a woman that must be used
    within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse.
•   Should ONLY be used in an emergency
    situation.
•   Offers no protection from STD’s.




                                                 Image from:
                                      http://www.collegecandy.com/wp-
                                    content/uploads/2008/08/01/plan-b.jpg
         Surgical Methods of
           Contraception
•   Surgical methods of contraception work by
    surgically altering the reproductive system
•   Vasectomy: the vas deferens are cut and
    cauterized causing sterilization for the male
•   Tubal Ligation: the fallopian tubes are cut and
    cauterized causing sterilization for the female
•   Neither offer protection from STD’s.
•   Although close (99.7%), still not 100% effective
    in preventing pregnancy.
                Spermicide
•   This method of contraception is designed to kill
    or disable sperm.
•   This method of contraception should not be
    used alone (it does not offer enough protection
    alone); it should be used with another method of
    contraception such as a condom, diaphragm,
    cervical cap, etc.
•   Spermicides come in gel, foam, film, cream and
    suppositories.
•   Offer no protection from STD’s
         Other methods of
          contraception:
•   IUD (intrauterine device): a plastic “T”
    shaped device is inserted into the uterus.
•   Work by preventing the egg and sperm
    from uniting or implanting on the lining of
    the uterus
•   Can be left in place for 1-10 years
•   Up to 99% reliable
•   Offers no protection from STD’s.
 Additional Information
It should be noted that aside from
abstinence, there is no method of
contraception that is 100% effective in
preventing pregnancy and/or STD
transmission.
It should also be noted that without the
use of contraception, the likelihood that a
pregnancy would occur within one year of
engaging in unprotected sexual
intercourse is 90%.
              Summary
There are several methods of contraception
available including barrier, hormonal, surgical,
spermicides, and “other” methods. The range of
effectiveness in preventing pregnancy ranges
from zero (when not used properly) to 99.7%.
Two methods (male and female condom) can
also offer some protection against sexually
transmitted diseases. Abstinence is the only
100% effective way to avoid STD and
pregnancy.

				
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