lbnl-5047e-data

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					Data behind figures in:
Barbose, Galen, Naïm Darghouth, Ryan Wiser, and Joachim Seel. 2011. An Historical Sum
    LBNL-5047E. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA.

All capacity-related numbers are DC-STC, and dollar values are real 2010$.

Percentages may not add to 100% due to rounding.
011. An Historical Summary of the Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2010.


eal 2010$.
tates from 1998 to 2010.
Figure 1. Data Sample Compared to Total U.S. Grid-Connected PV Capacity
Units: MW

                                     U.S. Annual Capacity     U.S. Cumulative
                       Year
                                           Additions             Capacity
                       1998                   1.9                   11.3
                       1999                   2.8                   14.2
                       2000                   3.9                   18.1
                       2001                  11.4                   29.5
                       2002                  22.8                   52.2
                       2003                  45.5                   97.7
                       2004                  57.8                  155.5
                       2005                  79.3                  234.8
                       2006                 104.8                  339.7
                       2007                 169.4                  509.0
                       2008                 309.6                  818.6
                       2009                 435.5                 1,254.1
                       2010                 883.2                 2,137.3

Data sources for U.S. grid-connected PV capacity additions: Larry Sherwood (Interstate Renewable
Energy Council) and SEIA/GTM. 2011. U.S. Solar Market Insight 2010 Year in Review.
            Data Sample Annual      Data Sample
            Capacity Additions   Cumulative Capacity
                    0.2                  0.2
                    0.8                  1.1
                    1.0                  2.1
                    5.5                  7.5
                   16.0                 23.6
                   34.0                 57.6
                   53.1                110.7
                   62.5                173.2
                   91.0                264.1
                  154.8                418.9
                  256.2                675.1
                  363.4               1,038.6
                  646.3               1,684.8

ood (Interstate Renewable
Year in Review.
Figure 2. Behind-the-Meter PV Sample Distribution among States

    Total Behind-the-Meter PV Capacity in Data Sample


        State         MW        % of Sample
         CA          859.0        61.3%
         NJ          201.7        14.4%
         AZ           67.9         4.9%
         PA           47.0         3.4%
        MA            45.5         3.2%
         CT           26.6         1.9%
         NY           25.6         1.8%
     Other States    126.9         9.1%

    2010 Behind-the-Meter PV Capacity Additions in Data Sample


        State        MW         % of Sample
         CA          189.7        40.7%
         NJ           84.5        18.1%
         PA           43.5         9.3%
         AZ           34.4         7.4%
        MA            25.3         5.4%
         CO           13.7         2.9%
         NY           11.7         2.5%
     Other States     63.7        13.7%
Figure 3. Behind-the-Meter PV Sample Distribution by System Size
Units: Percent of data sample

            Size Range    No. of
                                   Capacity
                (kW)     Systems
                  ≤2       7.5%      0.9%
                  2-5     45.3%     12.8%
                 5-10     34.6%     19.8%
                10-30      8.7%     10.5%
               30-100      2.2%      9.4%
              100-250      0.8%     10.8%
              250-500      0.4%     11.5%
             500-1000      0.2%     10.9%
               >1000       0.1%     13.3%
Figure 4. Utility-Sector PV Sample Distribution among States (Total Capacity)


         State         MW         % of Sample
          FL           54.0         19.0%
          CA           41.9         14.7%
         NM            34.4         12.1%
          NJ           29.4         10.3%
          CO           28.3          9.9%
          NV           26.8          9.4%
      Other States     69.9         24.5%
Figure 5. Utility-Sector PV: Data Sample Distribution by PV System Size
Units: Percent of data sample

            Size
                     No. of
           Range              Capacity
                    Systems
           (kW)
             ≤1      16.1%      1.3%
             1-5     32.3%     10.3%
            5-10     12.9%     10.8%
           10-20     25.8%     39.8%
            >20      12.9%     37.8%
Figure 6. Average Installed Cost over Time for Behind-the-Meter PV
Units: 2010$/W

                      Capacity-
      Installation                  Simple Average   Std. Dev. of
                      Weighted
         Year                            Cost            Cost
                     Average Cost
         1998            11.0            12.4            3.9
         1999            10.8            11.9            3.7
         2000             9.7            11.2            4.2
         2001            10.0            10.7            2.7
         2002             9.9            10.6            2.3
         2003             8.7             9.5            2.1
         2004             8.4             8.7            1.7
         2005             7.9             8.4            1.6
         2006             7.9             8.5            1.6
         2007             7.9             8.6            1.6
         2008             7.6             8.3            1.7
         2009             7.5             8.1            1.9
         2010             6.2             7.0            1.9
Figure 7. Average Installed Costs in the CSI Program: 2010 vs. the First-Half of 2011
Units: 2010$/W


    Installation Year All System Sizes (Capacity-Wtd. Avg.)           (Simple Average)
                                                              ≤ 10 kW 

           2010                           6.4                             7.3
      2011 (Jan-Jun)                      5.7                             6.8
10-100 kW (Simple Average)   >100 kW(Simple Average)
             6.4                        6.2
             6.1                        5.2
Figure 8. Average Installed Cost, Module Price Index, and Implied Non-Module Costs over Time for Behind-t

                          Total Installed Cost
    Installation Year                               Global Module Price Index
                        (Behind-the-Meter PV)
          1998                    11.0                         4.8
          1999                    10.8                         4.8
          2000                     9.7                         4.7
          2001                    10.0                         4.3
          2002                     9.9                         3.9
          2003                     8.7                         3.6
          2004                     8.4                         3.8
          2005                     7.9                         4.0
          2006                     7.9                         4.2
          2007                     7.9                         4.1
          2008                     7.6                         3.7
          2009                     7.5                         2.8
          2010                     6.2                         2.4

   Notes: "Implied Non-Module Cost (plus module cost lag)" is calculated as the reported Total Installed Cost minus
   Navigant Consulting's Global Module Price Index.
plied Non-Module Costs over Time for Behind-the-Meter PV

              Implied Non-Module Cost
                (plus module cost lag)
                         6.1
                         6.0
                         4.9
                         5.7
                         6.0
                         5.1
                         4.6
                         3.8
                         3.7
                         3.7
                         3.9
                         4.7
                         3.8

ated as the reported Total Installed Cost minus
Figure 9. Installer-Reported Component-Level Costs over Time for Behind-the-Meter PV


      Installation Year Module (Reported)*          Inverter (Reported)*       Other (Calculated)
             2007                 4.5                         0.6                      2.9
             2008                 4.1                         0.5                      2.9
             2009                 4.1                         0.6                      3.1
             2010                 3.2                         0.6                      2.5
    * may include installer mark-up

    Notes: The figure is based on those systems for which PV incentive program administrators provided installer-reported module and in
    all behind-the-meter systems in the data sample installed from 2007-2010. “Other” costs are calculated as the difference between the
    system and the reported module and inverter costs. Installer-reported module and inverter cost data presented here should not be int
    prices for those components at the time of project installation, as these data likely include some mark-up and/or may reflect wholesale
    installation contract was signed (rather than at the time the project was installed).
ded installer-reported module and inverter cost data, consisting of 52% of
ulated as the difference between the reported total installed cost for each
ata presented here should not be interpreted to represent the wholesale
ark-up and/or may reflect wholesale component prices at the time that the
Figure 10. Installed Cost Trends over Time for Behind-the-Meter PV, by PV System Size
Units: 2010$/W

      Installation
                         ≤5 kW           5-10 kW        10-100 kW       100-500 kW         >500 kW
         Year
         1998             12.4                              12.2
         1999             12.1              9.9             10.9
         2000             11.6              9.7              9.2
         2001             10.8             10.3             10.4
         2002             10.8             10.1             10.2             9.1
         2003             9.7               9.2              9.2             8.3              7.1
         2004             8.9               8.4              8.5             8.1              7.5
         2005             8.6               8.1              8.1             7.8              6.8
         2006             8.7               8.2              8.0             8.0              7.0
         2007             8.8               8.4              8.3             7.6              6.8
         2008             8.5               8.1              8.0             7.6              7.0
         2009             8.5               7.7              7.7             7.6              7.3
         2010             7.6               6.6              6.6             5.9              5.3

    Notes: Averages shown only if five or more observations were available for a given size category in a given year. For
    sample sizes, refer to Table B-1 in the Appendix.
category in a given year. For
Figure 11. Variation in Installed Cost According to PV System Size
Behind-the-Meter PV Installed in 2010
Units: 2010$/W

                                              Standard
                              Average
       System Size Range                    Deviation of
                           Installed Cost
                                            Intalled Cost
             ≤2 kW              9.8               3.2
             2-5 kW             7.3               1.9
            5-10 kW             6.6               1.4
            10-30 kW            6.6               1.7
           30-100 kW            6.4               1.7
          100-250 kW            6.0               1.7
          250-500 kW            5.6               1.4
         500-1000 kW            5.4               1.7
           >1000 kW             5.2               1.4
Figure 11. Variation in Installed Cost of Behind-the-Meter PV According to System Size (≤10 kW)
Behind-the-Meter PV Installed in 2010
Units: 2010$/W

                                              Standard
                              Average
       System Size Range                    Deviation of
                           Installed Cost
                                            Intalled Cost
            ≤1 kW               9.5               5.6
            1-2 kW              9.8               3.2
            2-3 kW              7.7               2.2
            3-4 kW              7.3               1.7
            4-5 kW              6.9               1.5
            5-6 kW              6.7               1.5
            6-7 kW              6.7               1.4
            7-8 kW              6.6               1.4
            8-9 kW              6.5               1.4
           9-10 kW              6.6               1.3
e (≤10 kW)
Figure 13. Behind-the-Meter PV System Size Trends over Time



    Installation Year Average Size (kW)   <=5 kW   5-10 kW    10-100 kW   100-500 kW

         1998                5.5          34.2%     8.1%       57.7%         0.0%
         1999                4.5          41.9%    10.2%       33.6%        14.3%
         2000                4.6          40.1%    15.7%       21.7%        22.6%
         2001                4.1          55.1%    19.4%       10.9%        14.5%
         2002                6.3          31.6%    18.0%       18.3%        21.5%
         2003                9.5          19.4%    17.8%       20.8%        26.4%
         2004                 8           22.3%    23.5%       27.3%        15.6%
         2005               11.2          15.1%    18.9%       23.9%        30.2%
         2006               10.4          17.2%    20.6%       20.1%        22.7%
         2007               10.3          17.8%    21.6%       19.2%        20.9%
         2008               16.5          10.9%    12.5%       13.9%        29.9%
         2009               12.1          13.7%    20.7%       18.5%        18.3%
         2010                13           10.8%    22.3%       22.9%        21.0%
>500 kW

 0.0%
 0.0%
 0.0%
 0.0%
 10.6%
 15.6%
 11.3%
 11.9%
 19.4%
 20.5%
 32.8%
 28.7%
 23.0%
Figure 14. Comparison of Average Installed Costs (Pre-Sales Tax/VAT) for small residential PV Systems in G


                       Average Installed        Cumulative Grid-
                            Cost             Connected PV Capacity
    Country              (2010$/W)            through 2010 (MW)
    Germany                            4.2                      17,320
    Japan                              6.4                       3,519
    United States                      6.9                       2,137

    Notes: Data for Germany and Japan are based on the most-recent respective country reports prepared for
    the International Energy Agency Cooperative Programme on Photovoltaic Power Systems. The German
    and U.S. cost data are for 2-5 kW systems, while the Japanese cost data are for 3-5 kW systems. The
    German cost data represents the average of reported year-end installed costs for 2009 ($4.7/W) and 2010
    ($3.7/W).
l residential PV Systems in Germany, Japan and the United States
Figure 15. Variation in Installed Costs of Behind-the-Meter PV Systems <= 10 kW Installed in 2010 among U.
Units: 2010$/W

                  Average Pre-Sales Tax
        State                                  Sales Tax        Standard Deviation
                      Installed Cost
        NH                 $6.3                  $0.0                 $1.7
        TX                 $6.2                  $0.2                 $1.7
        NV                 $6.2                  $0.3                 $1.7
        AR                 $6.2                  $0.2                 $1.8
        MD                 $6.5                  $0.0                 $1.3
        AZ                 $6.6                  $0.0                 $1.7
        VT                 $6.6                  $0.0                 $1.5
        OR                 $6.7                  $0.0                 $1.4
        PA                 $6.6                  $0.2                 $1.1
        MA                 $6.9                  $0.0                 $1.4
        NJ                 $7.1                  $0.0                 $1.8
        NM                 $7.2                  $0.0                 $2.2
        FL                 $7.2                  $0.0                 $1.6
        CA                 $7.0                  $0.3                 $2.1
        CT                 $7.4                  $0.0                 $0.9
        NY                 $7.4                  $0.0                 $1.5
        IL                 $7.4                  $0.3                 $2.5
        DC                 $7.5                  $0.3                 $2.4
        WI                 $7.9                  $0.0                 $1.8
        MN                 $8.0                  $0.0                 $2.4
        OH                 $8.0                  $0.3                 $2.0
        UT                 $8.1                  $0.3                 $2.7
= 10 kW Installed in 2010 among U.S. States
Figure 16. Reported Installed Costs of Customer-Owned vs. Third Party-Owned Behind-the-Meter PV System
Behind-the-Meter PV Installed in 2010
Units: 2010$/W

                                      Avg Cost
                        3rd Party-
     All System Sizes                   $6.5
                        Owned
     (Capacity-Wtd.
                        Customer-
          Avg.)                         $6.2
                        Owned
                        3rd Party-
                                        $7.2
                        Owned
        ≤ 10 kW
                        Customer-
                                        $7.2
                        Owned
                        3rd Party-
                                        $6.9
                        Owned
       10-100 kW
                        Customer-
                                        $6.4
                        Owned
                        3rd Party-
                                        $6.3
                        Owned
        > 100 kW
                        Customer-
                                        $5.9
                        Owned
Owned Behind-the-Meter PV Systems
Figure 17. Variation in Installed Costs across Host Customer Sectors
Behind-the-Meter PV Installed in 2010
Units: 2010$/W

                                     Avg Cost     Std. Dev.
                Res.                   6.6           1.4
       5-10 kW  Com.                   6.8           1.6
                Tax-Exempt             6.8           1.3
                Res.                   6.5           1.4
      10-100 kW Com.                   6.7           1.8
                Tax-Exempt             7.1           2.2
                Com.                   5.8           1.6
     100-500 kW
                Tax-Exempt             6.2           2.0
Figure 18. Comparison of Installed Costs for Residential Retrofit vs. New Construction
CSI and NSHP Systems Installed in 2010
Units: 2010$/W

                      2010 CSI Residential Systems              2010 NSHP Systems

                                                                                             Residential New
                         $/W              Std Dev              $/W              Std Dev      Construction (%
                                                                                               of Systems)

        1-2 kW           10.9                3.1               9.5                1.2              9.2%
        2-3 kW            8.5                2.6               7.8                0.8             44.0%
        3-4 kW            7.2                1.7               7.3                0.8             12.9%
        4-5 kW            6.9                1.5               6.6                1.1             10.5%
        5-6 kW            6.7                1.3               6.7                1.4              5.0%
        6-7 kW            6.6                1.3               6.8                1.1              3.7%
        7-8 kW            6.5                1.4               6.4                1.7              3.4%
        8-9 kW            6.5                1.4               6.9                1.3              3.6%
       9-10 kW            6.5                1.3               6.1                1.7              1.3%
       >10 kW             6.4                1.5               6.6                1.3              6.3%

    Notes: Values shown for residential retrofits are based residential PV systems installed through CSI, and values shown
    for residential new construction are based on systems funded through NSHP. The data sample for the figure consists
    of 15,336 residential retrofit systems and 697 residential new construction systems installed in 2010.
 CSI, and values shown
or the figure consists
Figure 19. Installed Cost of Residential Retrofit vs. New Construction
2-3 kW CSI and NSHP Systems Installed in 2010
Units: 2010$/W

                                                                 Average Installed   Standard Deviation
                                                                      Cost             of Intalled Cost
          Residential Retrofit      All Systems (Rack-Mounted)         8.5                    2.6
                                           All Systems                  7.8                 0.8
     Residential New Construction         Rack-Mounted                  7.0                 1.0
                                              BIPV                      8.0                 0.7
Figure 20. Installed Costs of Crystalline vs. Thin-Film Behind-the-Meter Systems
Behind-the-Meter PV Installed in 2010 (excluding BIPV and tracking systems)
Units: 2010$/W

                                                                    Standard
                                Crystalline or      Average
               Size Range                                          Deviation of
                                 Thin-Film       Installed Cost
                                                                  Installed Cost
                              Crystalline             7.0               2.0
                 ≤ 10 kW
                              Thin-Film               7.4               1.9
                              Crystalline             6.4               1.5
               10-100 kW
                              Thin-Film               7.3               1.7
                              Crystalline             5.6               1.6
                >100 kW
                              Thin-Film               5.4               1.4


             Notes: The figure is derived from those systems for which module technology type could be readily determined
             module manufacturer and model data provided by PV incentive program administrators, representing 76% of a
             behind-the-meter systems in the data sample installed in 2010 (excluding BIPV and tracking systems).
could be readily determined from
rators, representing 76% of all
d tracking systems).
Figure 21. Variation in Total Installed Cost by Module Efficiency
Behind-the-Meter PV Installed in 2010 (excluding BIPV and tracking systems)
Units: 2010$/W

                                                                    Standard
                                Efficiency      Installed Cost     Deviation of
                                                                  Installed Cost
                             ≤12%                          7.6                  1.5
                             12-13%                        7.3                  2.0
                             13-14%                        7.5                  2.2
                             14-15%                        7.0                  2.0
                 ≤10 kW
                             15-16%                        6.9                  1.7
                             16-17%                        7.4                  1.2
                             17-18%                        7.1                  1.2
                             >18%                          7.6                  1.7
                             ≤12%                          8.2                  1.9
                             12-13%                        6.7                  1.7
                             13-14%                        6.7                  1.8
                             14-15%                        6.2                  1.3
               10-100 kW
                             15-16%                        7.0                  1.8
                             16-17%                        7.2                  0.9
                             17-18%                        7.1                  1.6
                             >18%                          7.1                  1.2



             Notes: The figure is derived from those systems for which rated module efficiency could be readily determined
             module manufacturer and model data provided by PV incentive program administrators, representing 66% of
             behind-the-meter systems in the data sample installed in 2010 and within the size ranges depicted in the figure
             (excluding BIPV and tracking systems).
ciency could be readily determined from
dministrators, representing 66% of all
 e size ranges depicted in the figure
Figure 22. Installed Costs of Tracking vs. Fixed-Tilt Behind-the-Meter Systems
Behind-the-Meter PV Installed in 2010 (excluding BIPV)
Units: 2010$/W

                                                Avg Cost Std. Dev.
                              Tracking            8.6       2.4
                  ≤10 kW
                              Fixed               7.2       2.0
                              Tracking            7.5       2.4
                10-100 kW
                              Fixed               6.5       1.5

              Notes: The figure is derived from those systems for which data were available indicating whether or not track
              equipment was used, representing 68% of all behind-the-meter systems in the data sample installed in 2010 (e
              BIPV) and within the size ranges depicted in the figure.
ndicating whether or not tracking
ata sample installed in 2010 (excluding
Figure 23. Capacity-Weighted Average Pre-Tax State/Utility Cash Incentives for Behind-the-Meter PV
Units: 2010$/W
                                                             Capacity-Wtd. Average Pre-Tax Cash Incentive
             Installation Year Residential (Total Sample) Commercial (Total Sample)
                    1998                    3.3                      3.3
                    1999                    3.4                      3.3
                    2000                    3.3                      2.8
                    2001                    4.4                       4
                    2002                    4.6                      4.9
                    2003                    4.3                      4.2
                    2004                    3.8                      3.9
                    2005                    3.7                      3.6
                    2006                    3.2                      3.4
                    2007                    2.7                      2.8
                    2008                    2.4                      2.5
                    2009                    2.1                      2.1
                    2010                    1.6                      1.8

        Notes: We assume that all systems ≤10 kW are residential and all systems >10 kW are commercial, unless indentifie
entives for Behind-the-Meter PV

td. Average Pre-Tax Cash Incentive
            Residential (CA Only)      Commercial (CA Only)
                         3.3                      3.3
                         3.3                      3.3
                         3.2                      2.8
                         4.4                      3.9
                         4.6                      4.9
                         4.2                      4.1
                         3.5                      3.8
                         2.9                      3.5
                         2.6                      3.2
                         2.3                      2.7
                          2                       2.4
                         1.7                      1.9
                         1.2                      1.6

ems >10 kW are commercial, unless indentified otherwise.
Figure 24. Average Federal ITC/Treasury Grant and Average Total After-Tax Incentives for Behindthe-Meter
Units: 2010$/W
                                              Capacity-Weighted Average After-Tax Incentive
                                                                            Residential       Commercial
                                  Residential (total    Commercial
                                                                             (federal          (federal
                Installation Year     after-tax        (total after-tax
                                                                           ITC/Treasury      ITC/Treasury
                                     incentive)           incentive)
                                                                              grant)            grant)
                      1998                      3.3                  3.1               0.0              1.1
                      1999                      3.4                  3.0               0.0              1.0
                      2000                      3.3                  2.5               0.0              0.8
                      2001                      5.1                  3.5               0.0              0.8
                      2002                      5.2                  4.1               0.0              0.9
                      2003                      4.8                  3.5               0.0              0.8
                      2004                      4.0                  3.3               0.0              0.8
                      2005                      3.9                  3.0               0.0              0.8
                      2006                      3.7                  4.3               0.5              2.3
                      2007                      3.2                  3.9               0.5              2.2
                      2008                      2.9                  3.7               0.5              2.1
                      2009                      3.9                  3.5               1.8              2.2
                      2010                      3.2                  2.9               1.6              1.8

Notes: We assume that all systems ≤10 kW are residential and all systems >10 kW are commercial, unless indentified
otherwise. See Appendix C for the assumptions used to calculate the after-tax value of state/utility cash incentives,
state ITCs, and the federal ITC/Treasury cash grant.
tives for Behindthe-Meter PV (Calculated)




 ial, unless indentified
ity cash incentives,
Figure 25. Net Installed Cost of Residential PV (Calculated)
Units: 2010$/W

                                                       Federal  State/Utility
                                         Gross                                Net Installed
                 Installation Year                  ITC/Grant &   Incentive
                                     Installed Cost                           Cost w/ ITC
                                                      State ITC  (after-tax)
                       1998               11.3           0.0         3.3           7.9
                       1999               11.2           0.0         3.4           7.8
                       2000               10.6           0.0         3.3           7.3
                       2001               10.5           0.6         4.4           6.1
                       2002               10.5           0.6         4.6           5.9
                       2003                9.4           0.5         4.3           5.1
                       2004                8.6           0.2         3.8           4.8
                       2005                8.2           0.2         3.7           4.6
                       2006                8.4           0.5         3.2           5.2
                       2007                8.5           0.6         2.6           5.8
                       2008                8.2           0.6         2.3           5.9
                       2009                7.8           1.8         2.0           5.8
                       2010                6.8           1.7         1.5           5.3

Notes: We assume that all systems ≤10 kW are residential unless identified otherwise. See Appendix C for the
assumptions used to calculate the after-tax value of state/utility cash incentives, state ITCs, and the federal
ITC/Treasury cash grant.
endix C for the
d the federal
Figure 26. Net Installed Cost of Commercial PV (Calculated)
Units: 2010$/W

                                                  Federal                     Net
                                      Gross                State/Utilit
                                                 ITC/Grant                  Installed
                 Installation Year   Installed             y Incentive
                                                  & State                    Cost w/
                                       Cost                (after-tax)
                                                    ITC                       ITC
                       1998            10.8          1.1       2.0             7.7
                       1999            10.4          1.0       2.0             7.4
                       2000            8.4           0.8       1.6             5.9
                       2001            8.4           1.2       2.4             4.8
                       2002            9.2           1.2       2.9             5.2
                       2003            8.3           1.0       2.5             4.9
                       2004            8.2           0.9       2.3             5.0
                       2005            7.6           0.9       2.2             4.6
                       2006            7.6           2.3       2.0             3.3
                       2007            7.4           2.2       1.7             3.5
                       2008            7.2           2.2       1.5             3.5
                       2009            7.4           2.3       1.2             3.9
                       2010            6.0           1.9       1.1             3.0

Notes: We assume that all systems >10 kW are commercial unless identified otherwise. See Appendix C for the
assumptions used to calculate the after-tax value of state/utility cash incentives, state ITCs, and the federal
ITC/Treasury cash grant.
dix C for the
e federal
Figure 27. Comparison of Incentive Levels and Net Installed Cost across States for Residential PV Systems Ins
Units: 2010$/W (Capacity-Weighted Average)


                                                            Federal
                                     Gross Installed
                                                          ITC/Treasury          State ITC
                                         Cost
                                                             Grant
                    DC                             7.0                1.3                   0.0
                    MA                             6.7                1.4                   0.1
             SREC   NJ                             7.3                1.7                   0.0
            Markets PA                             6.6                1.4                   0.0
                    NH                             6.0                1.3                   0.0
                    MD                             6.2                1.6                   0.0
                    FL                             7.2                1.2                   0.0
                    NY                             7.3                1.4                   0.6
                    OR                             6.6                1.5                   1.2
                    CT                             7.2                2.0                   0.0
                    UT                             8.0                1.9                   0.5
                    AZ                             6.5                1.2                   0.1
           Non-SREC IL                             7.3                1.5                   0.0
            Markets TX                             6.2                1.2                   0.0
                    AR                             6.3                1.9                   0.0
                    MN                             7.7                1.8                   0.0
                    WI                             7.5                1.7                   0.0
                    NV                             6.2                1.3                   0.0
                    VT                             6.4                1.5                   0.0
                    CA                             6.9                1.8                   0.0

         Notes: We assume that all systems ≤10 kW are residential unless identified otherwise. Ohio is excluded from the
         figure due to an insufficient sample size. See Appendix C for the assumptions used to calculate the after-tax value o
         state/utility cash incentives, state ITCs, and the federal ITC/Treasury cash grant.
States for Residential PV Systems Installed in 2010 (Calculated)




             State/Utility Cash
                  Incentive      Net Installed Cost
                 (after-tax)
                             2.7                3.1
                             2.1                3.1
                             1.6                4.0
                             1.8                3.4
                             1.7                3.0
                             0.8                3.8
                             3.5                2.4
                             2.6                2.7
                             1.7                2.2
                             2.3                2.9
                             1.8                3.8
                             2.5                2.6
                             2.2                3.5
                             2.3                2.7
                             1.6                2.8
                             1.7                4.2
                             1.7                4.1
                             2.0                2.9
                             1.5                3.5
                             1.1                4.0

d otherwise. Ohio is excluded from the
ons used to calculate the after-tax value of
h grant.
Figure 28. Comparison of Incentive Levels and Net Installed Cost across States for Commercial PVSystems In
Units: 2010$/W (Capacity-Weighted Average)


                                                          Federal
                                  Gross Installed
                                                        ITC/Treasury           State ITC
                                      Cost
                                                           Grant
                      OH                6.4                 1.9                    0.0
           SREC       MA                6.1                 1.8                    0.0
           Markets    PA                5.7                 1.7                    0.0
                      NJ                6.2                 1.9                    0.0

                   FL                   9.4                  2.8                   0.0
                   CT                   7.6                  2.3                   0.0
                   OR                   6.7                  2.0                   1.8
                   NV                   5.6                  1.7                   0.0
                   IL                   11.0                 3.3                   0.0
          Non-SREC
                   NY                   7.2                  2.2                   0.0
           Markets
                   AZ                   6.8                  2.0                   0.1
                   MN                   7.5                  2.3                   0.0
                   WI                   7.1                  2.1                   0.0
                   TX                   5.5                  1.6                   0.0
                   CA                   5.5                  1.6                   0.0
                   VT                   5.7                  1.7                   0.0


         Notes: We assume that all systems >10 kW are commercial unless identified otherwise. NH is excluded from the fig
         because all systems in the data sample are residential; and AR, MD, and DC are excluded due to insufficient samp
         size. Results shown for NJ exclude systems in the SREC Registration Program that did not receive a rebate through
         the CORE or REIP incentive programs; similarly, results for MA exclude systems in the MA SREC program that di
         not receive a cash incentive through one of MassCEC’s incentive programs. See Appendix C for the assumptions u
         to calculate the after-tax value of state/utility cash incentives, state ITCs, and the federal ITC/Treasury cash grant.
 States for Commercial PVSystems Installed in 2010 (Calculated)




              State/Utility Cash
                   Incentive       Net Installed Cost
                  (after-tax)
                      1.5                 2.9
                      1.4                 2.9
                      0.8                 3.2
                      0.6                 3.8

                     2.1                  4.5
                     2.4                  2.9
                     0.7                  2.3
                     2.5                  1.4
                     0.7                  7.0
                     1.7                  3.3
                     1.3                  3.3
                     0.9                  4.4
                     1.0                  4.0
                     1.3                  2.5
                     0.9                  2.9
                     0.7                  3.3


 ified otherwise. NH is excluded from the figure,
 d DC are excluded due to insufficient sample
 ogram that did not receive a rebate through
de systems in the MA SREC program that did
 ams. See Appendix C for the assumptions used
s, and the federal ITC/Treasury cash grant.

				
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