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General Science Detailed Breakdown

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					Quarter 1- Earth Science
                                         Chapter 11: Astronomy and Your Community
Activities Summaries                                                                                       Earth Science Principles
Activity 1: The history and Scale of the Solar System                                                       Astronomical distance and time
To develop an understanding of the size of our solar system, students make models of the solar system        (astronomical units, light yrs, parsecs)
using different scales.                                                                                     Nebular Theory, birth of the planets
                                                                                                            Relationship of our solar system in the
                                                                                                             milky way galaxy.

Activity 2: The Earth Moon System                                                                           Lunar phases
Students complete an exercise to understand what causes the different lunar phases. They observe the        Formation on the moon
lunar phases for one month. Students examine data on tides and lunar phases to understand the               Tides
relationship between the tides and phases of the moon. They complete calculations to determine how
the moon has influenced the length of the year on earth

                                               Chapter 12: Climate Change in Your Community
Activity 1: Present-Day Climate in Your Community                                                             Climate, local and global
Students examine data on temperature and precipitation to describe the climate of their community.            Weather
They look at a local topographic map to determine what physical features in their community might             Factors affecting climate:
influence climate. Students then compare the climate of their community to that of a different                Latitude
community.                                                                                                    Elevation
                                                                                                              Geography
Activity 2: Paleoclimates                                                                                   Paleoclimate
Students correlate changes in the appearance of tree rings to the little Ice Age to understand the          Evidence of climate change: fossil
significance of growth rings in trees as evidence for climate change. They create a model of sediment        pollen, ice cores, deep-sea sediments,
layers to understand how fossil pollen can be used to understand climate change through time.                glacial sediments, tree rings

Activity 4: How do plate Tectonics and Ocean Currents Affect Global Climate?                                  Ocean Circulation
Students build models to understand how the positions of the continents have affected ocean                   Ocean currents and global climate
circulation around Antarctica over the past 55 million years. They consider how changes in ocean              Plate tectonics and global climate
circulation affect climate.                                                                                   Pangea

Activity 5: How do Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in the Atmosphere Affect Global Climate?                   Atmospheric carbon dioxide
Students examine atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the last century and over the last           concentrations
160,000 years. They compare the data to global temperatures to find the relationship between the two.       Greenhouse gases and the greenhouse
Students then design and conduct an experiment to help them understand the greenhouse effect.                affect
                                                                                                            Carbon budget

                                                Chapter 13: Energy Resources and Your Community
Activity 1: Exploring Energy Resources Concepts                                                             Heat transfer process: convection,
Students cycle through a series of stations to investigate three processes of heat transfer: conduction,     radiation, and conduction
radiation, and convection. They answer questions based on a thought experiment to understand the            Kinetic and potential energy
conversion of mechanical energy into heat. Students learn about the Second Law of Thermodynamics            Power and work
and investigate how it is related to the generation of electricity.                                         Second Law of Thermodynamics

Activity 5: Environmental Impacts and Energy Consumption                                                    Acid rain
Students examine a map that shows the acidity of rainfall across the United States, and correlate the       Carbon cycle
pattern of rainwater pH to the distribution of coal-producing regions. Students complete an experiment      CO2 concentrations and the greenhouse
to understand how different types of rocks can neutralize the acidity of rainwater. They consider how        effect
this relates to environmental impacts of acid rain.                                                         Advantages and disadvantages of
                                                                                                             energy resources

                                                   Chapter 14: Volcanoes and Your Community
Activity 1: Where are the Volcanoes?                                                                          Volcanism
Students begin the chapter by examining a map and searching for and describing patterns in the global         Mid-ocean ridge
distribution of volcanoes. They plot the latitude and longitude of the volcanoes closest to their             Hot-spot volcanism
community and make inferences about possible locations of future volcanic activity.                           Mercator projection

Activity 4: Volcanic Hazards: Airborne Debris                                                               Volcanic Explosively Index
In this activity, students interpret maps and data tables to develop a concept of the varying scale of      Volcanic particle types
volcanic eruptions and determine that volcanic ash affects a larger area than lava. They connect            Airborne hazards
magma composition to volcanic explosivity to better understand why volcanoes vary in size, eruptive
style, and potential hazard.
                                                  Chapter 15: Plate Tectonics and Your Community
Activity 3: What drives the Plates?                                                                          Earth’s layered structure
Students use a variety of liquids to investigate the effects of density on how a material moves and what     Thermal convection as the driving
effects temperature can have on the density of the material. Students then develop a method to                force of plate tectonics
determine the density of a variety of rocks. Students complete an experiment to determine the forces         Subduction of plates
that cause the subduction of lithospheric plates.
Activity 1: Read Only: Lithospheric Plates                                                                   Lithospheric plate movement
                                                                                                             Sea-floor Spreading
Activity 2: Read Only: Plate Boundaries and Plate Interactions                                               Divergent Plate Boundaries
                                                                                                             Convergent Plate Boundaries
                                                                                                             Transform Plate Boundaries
Activity 4: Effects of Plate Tectonics                                                                       Oceanic trenches
Students use maps to discover the relationship between plate tectonics and earthquakes and volcanoes.        Volcanism at plate boundaries
Students model the rise of magma through the earth using honey and vegetable oil                             Hot-Spot volcanism
                                                                                                             Continental accretion
                                                                                                             Earthquakes and plate tectonics
Activity 5: The Changing Geography of Your Community                                                         Paleogeography
Students create a series of maps showing how the position of continents has changed over time and            Development of the plate tectonic
also how they may appear 250 million years into the future.                                                   theory
                                                                                                             Paleomagnetism
Quarter 2- Biology
                                                           Chapter 9: A Vote for Ecology
Activities Summaries                                                                                        Biology Principles
Activity 1: Diversity in Living Things                                                                       Structure determines the function
Students observe a variety of living organisms, as well as preserved slides to introduce them to the         Biodiversity is important to the
incredible diversity in the animal kingdom and to examine the relationship between structure and              stability of an ecosystem
function.
Activity 2: Who Eats Whom?                                                                                   Food chains and food webs
The activity introduces students to food chains and food webs to gain a sense of how dependent               Producers, consumers, and
organisms are to each other.                                                                                  decomposers
                                                                                                             Autotrophs and heterotrophs
                                                                                                             Herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores
Activity 3: Energy Flow in Ecosystems                                                                        Laws of thermodynamics
Students record and graph the temperatures in 3 containers of water. One container is left alone while       Transfer of energy in a food chain
a student puts a moving hand in the 2nd container and a still hand in the 3rd. Students infer from the       Energy is lost in the form of heat
data that heat is dissipated from the body.                                                                  Pyramids of biomass, of numbers, and
                                                                                                              of energy
                                                                                                             Trophic levels
Activity 4: Factors Affecting Population Size                                                                Carrying capacity
Students compare the growth of a reindeer population on an island near Alaska and the human                  Doubling time
population. They examine the roles played by carrying capacity, doubling time, and the 4 rates that          Birth rate, death rate, immigration, and
determine a population’s size – birthrate, death rate, immigration, and emigration.                           emigration
                                                                                                             Open and closed populations
Activity 5: Competition Among Organisms                                                                      Competition
Students observe the difference in the growth of plants when they must compete for space and                 Nonnative species
nutrients. They also observe what happens when different species compete. They then design and               Invasive
carry out an experiment to study competition under different conditions.
Activity 6: Succession in Communities                                                                          Primary and secondary succession
Students do a visual scrutiny of a diagram on the changes that occurred along the coastal areas and in         Pioneer community
the inland areas after two volcanoes erupted on the island of Krakatau. This activity hones the                Seral community
students’ observational skills as they investigate the sequence of changes that take place in succession.      Climax community
Activity 7: The Water Cycle                                                                                    Water cycle
Students conduct an experiment to measure the rate of transpiration as they learn about the water cycle.       Evaporation, condensation,
They also investigate factors that could affect experimental results as well as possible experimental           precipitation, transpiration
errors.
Activities 8: Photosynthesis Respiration                                                                       Photosynthesis
The activity shows the role of sunlight in photosynthesis. With the use of chemical iodine, the students       Respiration
are allowed to figure out whether or not starch is produced. This would lead them to answer whether            Carbon cycle
or not photosynthesis occurred. Using petroleum jelly, they are encouraged to examine what part of             Oxygen cycle
the leaf allows for gas exchange – (carbon dioxide is taken in and oxygen is released) which is crucial
for photosynthesis and respiration to happen.

Activity 9: The nitrogen and Phosphorous Cycles                                                                Nitrogen cycle
Students conduct an experiment to measure the effect of lawn fertilizer and detergent on the growth of         Phosphorous cycle
algae.                                                                                                         Nitrogen fixation
                                                                                                               Denitrification
                                                     Chapter 10: A Highway Through the Past
Activity 1: Adaptations                                                                                       Adaptation
Students begin the chapter by looking at photographs of different types of adaptations. These                 Structural and behavioral adaptations
observations help them understand the importance of adaptation to a species survival. The student will        Body symmetry
also learn two types of adaptation; structural and behavioral.                                                Plant and Animal adaptations

Activity 2: Is it Heredity or the Environment?                                                              Heredity
To understand the influence of the environment to the inherited traits, the students will observe how       Law of dominance
the absence of light might effect the color of the leaf of the tobacco plant. The reading explains how      Genotype and phenotype
traits are transmitted from parents to offspring.

Activity 3: Natural Selection                                                                               Natural selection and evolution
Students simulate predation in a particular environment. They will also study the effect of a four-lane     Theory and hypothesis
highway to a moth population. The students will learn how the process of natural selection occurs
from this activity

Activity 4: The fossil record                                                                                 Fossilization
The students will model how fossils are formed. The reading explains the different types of fossils and       Body, index, trace fossils
how some fossils are used as index to divide the fossil records into geologic era.                            Fossil record
                                                                                                              Geologic time periods

Activity 5: Mass Extinction and Fossil Records                                                                Mass extinction
The students will analyze graphs of fossil data to identify periods of mass extinction and adaptive           Adaptive radiation
radiation.                                                                                                    Geologic time periods
                                                                                                              Ecological niches

Quarter 3- Chemistry
                                                         Chapter 6: Movie Special Effects
Activity 1: Elements and Compounds                                                                            Electrolysis
Students learn the basic concept of what matter is and how we can dissociate compounds back into              Chemical Reaction
elements. Also, simple tests are used to identify the properties of hydrogen and oxygen gas.                  Chemical elements
                                                                                                              Compounds
                                                                                                              Chemical properties

Activity 2: States of Matter: Solid, Liquid, Gas                                                              Heating curves
The students develop a heating curve of water as it goes through the three physical states of a solid,        Kinetic energy
liquid, and gas. From the understanding of phase changes, the students develop animation to represent         Potential energy
each phase.                                                                                                   Physical states of matter
                                                                                                              Molecular motion
                                                                                                              Sublimation
Activity 3: Solutions, Suspensions, and Colloids                                                              Tyndall effect
Students learn that different materials can combine to make new materials when mixed together. They           Filtration
also learn how to classify a material as a solution, colloid, and suspension. Tyndall affect is used to       Homogeneous mixture
help differentiate the different types of mix                                                                 Heterogeneous mixture

 Activity 4: Properties of Matter                                                                           Physical Properties
Students learn how to use modeling dough to illustrate macro structures at a smaller scale. They also       Composites
compare the properties of emulsions to those of a composite. Finally students learn how composites          Emulsions
are used in industrial applications.
                                                           Chapter 7: The Periodic Table
Activity 1: Organizing a Store                                                                              Periodicity
Students organize a store by categorizing the different items that are contained in a store and discover    Trends
what to do with new items that had not been accounted for.

Activity 3: Atoms and Their Masses                                                                            Atomic mass
Students show why they believe in atoms and how the elements of different atoms interact with each            Single-displacement reaction
other in a single-displacement reaction.                                                                      Law of Definite Proportions
                                                                                                              Quantitative analysis
                                                                                                              Measurements
                                                                                                              mole
Activity 4: (Read Only) Are Atoms Indivisible?                                                                Cathode rays
                                                                                                              Properties of electrons
                                                                                                              Location of proton
                                                                                                              Nucleus
                                                                                                           Dalton’s Atomic Theory


Activity 7: How Electrons Determine Chemical Behavior                                                        Electron Configuration
Students learn how to write the electron configuration for all of the elements. They also discover how       Noble gases
the electron configuration can be used to show why families of elements behave the same with other           Valence electrons
compounds or elements                                                                                        Chemical families

Activity 8: How Atoms Interact with Each Other                                                               Octet rule
Students learn why atoms combine in certain proportions by transferring or sharing electrons from one        Ionic bonds
atom to another. Students also learn the difference between an ionic and covalent bond.                      Covalent bonds
                                                                                                             Chemical formulas
                                                                                                             Binary compounds
Activity 9: What Determines and Limits an Atom’s Mass                                                        Atomic mass
The students learn how to determine the atomic mass of an element and how the average atomic mass            Isotopes
is determined from the common isotopes of an element. The activity also leads them through the               Nucleons
factors that determine nuclear stability and how fission and fusion differ.                                  Radioactivity
                                                                                                             Binding energy
                                                                                                             Electrostatic forces
                                                                                                             Strong, nuclear force
                                                                                                             Nuclear fission
                                                                                                             Nuclear fusion
                                                         Chapter 8: Cool Chemistry Show
Activity 1: Chemical and Physical Changes                                                                  Chemical change
Students learn what conditions are necessary in order to determine whether the process is a physical or    Physical change
chemical change.                                                                                           Chemical reaction

Activity 2: More Chemical Changes                                                                            Chemical tests
Students learn what characteristics are used to identify a chemical reaction taking place. How               Acid-Base indicators
indicators are used to identify acids and bases, and some tests used to identify gases                       Precipitates
Activity 3: Chemical Names and Formulas                                                                      Chemical symbols
Students learn how to use symbols from the periodic table and how to write the correct formulas of           Chemical formulas
compounds. In addition to writing formulas they will also learn how to name compounds.                       Chemical compounds
                                                                                                             Chemical names
Activity 4: Chemical Equations                                                                               Chemical equations
Students practice writing chemical changes by using word equations and chemical equations. In                Balancing chemical equations
addition to learning how to express an equation they will also study single-replacement and double-          Single-replacement reactions
replacement reactions.                                                                                       Double-replacement reactions
                                                                                                             Synthesis
                                                                                                             Decomposition
                                                                                                             Metal-activity series
                                                                                                             Solubility rules
Activity 5: Chemical Energy (Endothermic / Exothermic)                                                       Heat energy
Students learn how to use chemical thermodynamics to produce products that use endothermic                   Endothermic reactions
and exothermic reactions                                                                                     Exothermic reactions
                                                                                                             Conservation of Energy

Quarter 4- Physics
                                                           Chapter 1: Physics in Action
Activity 1: A Running start and Frames of Reference                                                       
Activity 7: Concentrating on Collisions                                                                   
Activity 8: Conservation of Momentum                                                                      
                                                                 Chapter 2: Safety
Activity 2: Speed and Following Distance                                                                  
                                                                                                          
                                                        Chapter 3: Let Us Entertain You
Activity 1: Making Waves                                                                                  
Activity 2: Sounds in Strings                                                                             
Activity 4: Reflected Light                                                                               
Activy                                                                                                    

				
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