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Adulthood

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					Adulthood
                     Physical changes
•   Aging=normal wear and tear of cells
•   Present biological clock
•   Physical peak between 18-30
•   Appearances change
    –   Hair loss
    –   Skin is dry and inelastic
    –   Wrinkles
    –   Shorter
• Senses
    – 40’s difficulty seeing distant object
    – Gradual or sudden loss of hearing
    – Reaction time slows
              Health problems
• Three most common causes of death
  – Heart disease
  – Cancer
  – Corrhosis of the liver
• Causes of early morbidity
  – Drug use
  – Inadequate diet
  – Effects of violence-society
                Menopause
• Between ages of 45-50
• Biological event in which a woman’s
  production of sex hormones is sharply
  reduced
• Stops ovulating, can’t conceive children
• Side effects exagerated
         Marriage and divorce
• 40-60 percent of marriages end in divorce
• What makes marriages last
  – How couples handle conflicts
  – How often couples share intimate moments
• Happily married argue just as much but argue
  more constructively
• Unhealthy ways of conflict include ignoring,
  denying conflict, exaggerating issues
            Cognitive changes
• People continue to expand vocaularies, think
  flexibly
• True if…
  – Had higher education
  – Live in a stimulating environment
  – Work in an intellectually challenging environment
• Reach peak at 40’s science or the arts
• Reach peak at 60’s in history,, foreign
  languages
  Social and personality development
• Individuals character is stable over time
• Personality is flexible
• Self haters, passive, confident
        Levinson’s Theory of Male
              development
• Entering the adult world
• 22-28-not fully established as a man but no
  longer and adolescent
  – Conflict between need to explore the options of
    adulthood and need to establish a stable life structure
• The Age-Thirty crisis-28-30 major transitional
  period
  – Reconsider choices we made, must make changes
    now before its too late
             Levinson continued
• Settling down-Made firm choices about life
• Carving out a niche
• BOOM phase- 36-40
   – Become fully independent
• The middle transition-40-45
   – Midlife transition begins
   – Questions life “what have I accomplished?”
• Generativity-the desire, in middle age, to use ones
  accumulated wisdom to guide future generations.
• Stagnation-discontinuation of development and a
  desire to recapture the past
            Levinson Continued
•   Middle adulthood-late 40’s
•   True adulthood achieved
•   If finds satisfactory solutions to problems
•   Balance between privacy and friends
•    Didn’t find solutions
•   Frsutration and unhappiness
•   stagnation
           Female Development
•   Less conflict in midlife
•   More personal freedom
•   Reenter workforce, going back to college
•   Time of opportunity
•   Research does not support existence of
    midlife crisis in women
           Females continued
• Empty nest syndrome
  – Last child leaving home
  – Not necessarily traumatic
  – Reorganize lives and take new interests
  – Transition depends on marriage
• Depression in midlife
  – Most common among middle aged women
  – Sense of loss and personal worthlessness
  – View themselves as child bears then useless
                      Old Age
• Fear of growing old….
• Attitudes toward aging
• Decremental model of aging
  – Idea that progressive physical and mental decline are
    inevitable with age
  – Physical and mental decline is inevitable
• Ageism
  – Prejudice or discrimination against the elderly
  – Stereotypes
  – They do nothing, poor health, live in poverty, senile
                 Changes in health
• Physical strength and senses decline 1%/year
• Good health carries on throughout life
• 40% of elderly have one chronic disease
   –   Heart disease
   –   Hypertension
   –   Diabetes
   –   Arthritis
• Causes of death
   – Heart disease
   – Cancer
   – Strokes
• Poor health care
       Changes in Life Situations
• Transitions in late adulthood are negative
• Retirement, widowhood
• Depression
  – Loss, life challenges, health
• Symptoms
  – Weight changes, feelings of worthlessness, sadness,
    inability to concentrate, thoughts of death or suicide
• Causes
  – Genetic, unhealthy lifestyle, poor nutrition, loneliness,
    stress
             Adjusting to old age
•   Loss of control over environment
•   Self-image and quality of life suffers
•   Physical and external circumstances
•   Health, loss of a spouse
   Changes in mental functioning
• Physical health, vision, hearing, coordination
  impact scores on intellectual tests
• Two types of intelligence
• Crystalized
   – Ability o use accumulated knowledge in appropriate
     situations
• Fluid
   – Solve abstract relational problems
• Fluid intelligence declines as nervous systems
  declines
                Senile Dementia
• Senile Dementia
• Decreases in mental abilities experienced by
  some people in old age
• Alzheimers disease-most common form
   – Condition that destroys a persons ability to think,
     remember, relate to others and care for themselves
   – Neurological disease marked by deterioration of
     cognitive functioning.
• Early signs
   – Forgetting, poor judgment, irritability, social
     withdrawal
                 Dying and death
•   Adjusting to death
•   Thanatology
•   Study of dying and death
•   5 stages of psychological adjustment
    –   Denial
    –   Anger
    –   Bargaining
    –   Depression
    –   accept
Hospice

				
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