VSS2004-FaludiMaloney Carr

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					  D31
                                               Visual Performance Fields and Motor Control
                                               Robert Faludi, Laurence Maloney & Marisa Carrasco - New York University


Introduction                                                                                       • Are HVA and VMA present in visually
                                                                                                     guided pointing responses?
                                                                                                                                                                                 Results
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Percent Correct by Location                                                       Reaction Time (ms) by Location
• The ability to perceive objects is not                                                           • Are responses affected by transient                                                                                                                  1                                                                                   1


  evenly distributed across the visual field.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1 0 0%                                                                              70 m s


                                                                                                     covert attention?                                                                                   AM                                                                                AM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1                                                                                     1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 0 0%                                                                                70 m s

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        60 m s


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     60 m s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   90%


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  90%
                                                                                                                                                                                                              8                2                                                                    8                2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   80%                                                                                  50 m s

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   70%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   60%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           8                   2                                        40 m s

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        30 m s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 8                2
                                                                                                                                                                                                          7                        3                                                            7       20 m s           3


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     50 m s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   50%


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80%
                                                                                                                                                                                                              6                4                                                                    6                4


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     40 m s

• Performance field:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  70%                                                            5



                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1                                                                                     1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 0 0%                                                                                70 m s

                                                                                                                                                                                                         DS                                       60%                                      DS                                        30 m s




                                                                                                   Trial Sequence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   90%                                                                                  60 m s
                                                                                                                                                                                                              8                2                                                                    8                2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   80%                                                                                  50 m s

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   70%                                                                                  40 m s




                                                                                                                                                                                    Keyboard              7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   60%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   50%             3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       7          50%                 3                         7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        30 m s

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        20 m s           3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             7       20 m s           3

  Horizontal-vertical anisotropy (HVA)                                                                                                                                                                        6                4                                                                    6                4




  Superior discrimination and detection along the horizontal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           5                                                                                     5



                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1                                                                                     1

                                                                                                                                                                                                         KM       1 0 0%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   90%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           KM           70 m s

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        60 m s
                                                                                                                                                                                                              8                2                                                                    8                2




  than vertical axis.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   80%                                                                                  50 m s

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   70%                                                                                  40 m s

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   60%                                                                                  30 m s

                                                                                                                                                                                                          7        50%             3                                                            7       20 m s           3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           6                   4                                                                 6                4
                                             Rijsdik et al. (1980); Rovamo & Virsu (1979)                                                                                                                     6                4                                                                    6                4




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Neutral
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           5                                                                                     5




                                                                                                                                                  Neutral cue   Peripheral cue                                                                            5                                                                                   5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Peripheral
  Vertical meridian asymmetry (VMA)                                                                     Fixation point                                                                                                                           1 0 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     90 m s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1


  Impairment in performance at locations directly above                                                    (536 ms)                                                                                      AM
                                                                                                                                                                                                              8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 0 0%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   90%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1




                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  90%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           AM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        90 m s


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 m s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     80 m s

  fixation in contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution tasks.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   80%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   70%                     8                    2                                       70 m s


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        60 m s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 8                2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   60%



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80%
                                                                                                                                                                                                          7        50%             3                                                            7       50 m s           3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     70 m s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  70%
                                                                                                                                                                                                              6                4                                                                    6                4




                                                                                                                         Precue                                      Feature
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           5


                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 5


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     60 m s
  Heterogeneities more pronounced with increasing spatial
                                                                                                                                                                                                         DS       1 0 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           DS           90 m s

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   90%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  60%                                                   80 m s



                                                                                                                         (67 ms)
                                                                                                                                                                                                              8                2                                                                    8                2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   80%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        70 m s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   70%




                                                                                                                                                                                 Touch Screen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        60 m s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   60%




  frequency, set size and eccentricity.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          7        50%             3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       7          50%                    3                      7       50 m s           3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             7       50 m s           3

                                                                                                                                     ISI                                                                      6




                                                                                                                                                                                                                           5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               4                                                                    6




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     4




                                                                                                                                   (54 ms)                                                               KM       1 0 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           KM           90 m s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1




  Spatial performance fields determined by visual, not
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   90%
                                                                                                                                                                                                              8                2                                                                    8   80 m s       2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   80%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        70 m s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   70%




                                                                                                         Time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        60 m s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   60%

                                                                                                                                                                                                          7        50%             3                                                            7       50 m s           3




  attentional, constraints. Attention increases threshold,                                                                              Display                                                               6                4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           6                    4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6                4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 6                4


  but performance fields remain constant.                                                                                               (54 ms)                                                                            5                                                                                     5




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5                                                                                   5       n=3

      Carrasco, Talgar & Cameron (2001); Cameron, Tai & Carrasco (2002)                                                                  Response
                                                                                                                                       2000 ms max.
             Talgar & Carrasco (2002); Carrasco, Williams & Yeshurun (2002)
                                                                                                                                                                                 • Accuracy and reaction time VMA & HVA are present in both
   neutral                                                                                                                                                                         response paradigms.
   cue                                                                                             * Stimulus contrast varied for each observer to attain accuracy of ~82%

                 N                                                                                                                                                               • Attention modifies motor-response-generated
                                                                                                                                                                                   performance fields.

                                                                                                   Methods
       W                   E


                100%
                 S
                                       100%                        100%             100%

                                                                                                    •     2AFC detection task
                                                                                                                                                                                 Future Research…
   peripheral                                                                                       •     3 observers
   cue                                                                                              •     Target: 2º, 4 cpd, 30º tilted Gabor, present or absent                    Investigate modifications of three-dimensional response trajectory
                       Visual performance fields (% accuracy) along meridians
                                                                                                    •     Target at 1 of 8 isoeccentric locations, at 9˚ eccentricity, with
                                                                                                          distracters
                                                                                                                                                                                    evoked by transient covert attention using Optotrak motion
                                                                                                    •     Peripheral cue adjacent to potential target location                      measurement system
                                                                                                    •     Neutral cue at fixation
                                                                                                    •     Elo Entuitive 1525C 15" CRT Desktop Touchmonitor
• Visually guided motor response:                                                                   •     Keyboard response: press one of two buttons to indicate target

  Spatial attention modifies both visually guided manual and                                        •
                                                                                                          present or absent
                                                                                                          Direct motor response: touch target’s location on the monitor if       References
                                                                                                          detected, or touch fixation if no target perceived. Pointing
  occular motor responses.                                                                                                                                                          Cameron, E, Tai, J, Carrasco, M (2002). Vision Research 42, 949-967.
                         Sheliga, Craighero, Riggio & Rizzolatti (1996); Lee (1999)                       movements started from a fixed location (keyboard spacebar)               Carrasco, M, Talgar, C, and Cameron, EL (2001). Spatial Vision 15(1), 61-75.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Carrasco, M, Williams, P, and Yeshurun, Y (2002). Journal of Vision 2, 467-479.                                                              Adam Moss
  Motor responses can be used to quantify covert attention.                                                                                                                         Danckert, J, and Goodale, M (2001). Experimental Brain Research 137, 303-308.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 contributed to this
                                                          Peterson, Kramer & Irwin (in press)                                                                                       Lee, D, (1999). Cognitive Brain Research 8, 143-156.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Peterson, MS, Kramer, AF, and Irwin, DE (in press).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 project as part of the
  Upper and lower visual asymmetry present in visually                                                                                                                              Sheliga, BM, Craighero, L, Riggio, L, and Rizzolatti, G (1997). Experimental Brain Research 114, 339-351.                                    Intel Science Talent
  guided pointing responses.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Rovamo, J and Virsu, V (1979). Experimental Brain Research 20, 495-510.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Search (semifinalist)
                                                                                                                                                                                    Rijsdijk, JP, Kroon, JN, and van der Wilt, GJ (1980). Vision Research 20, 235-241.
                                                                       Danckert & Goodale (2001)
                                                                                                                                                                                    Talgar, C and Carrasco, M (2002). Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 9(4), 714-722.

				
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