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					Questionnaire Frame

Language : Japanese

Interviewer : Shinichiro Ishihara

Informant : Shinichiro Ishihara

Date & Place : 2004, Golm


PART 1 :   Grammatical Background
PART 2 :   Universal Question Set
PART 3 :   Set of Questions to be Prepared
PART 4 :   Phonological Questionnaire




                                             1
                                             Part 0: Checklist.

2. General Properties of Splits
2.1 Can D/NUM/Q be fronted independent of the noun phrase?
2.1.1 wh-determiner
       How many has Peter bought chairs?
           'How many chairs has Peter bought?'
Canonical
[EX]    Taro-wa          isu-o           iku-tu(*-no)                  katta              no?\\
        Taro-TOP         chair-ACC       how.many-CLF(-GEN) buy.PST                       Q\\


Split
[EX]    iku-tu(*-no)              Taro-wa        isu-o             katta          no?\\
        how.many-CLF(-GEN) Taro-TOP              chair-ACC buy.PST                Q\\


[COM]Comment (Informant): No stress on chairs, or on Taro is possible. Why do you split? Context: Taro bought
some chairs, and you ask how many.[COM]


Split
[EX]    1-tu-mo          Peter-wa        isu-o        kawa-nakat-ta.\\
        1-CLF-NPI        Peter-TOP       chair-ACC buy-NEG-PST \\
        „Peter has bought no chairs.‟ (Peter didn´t get even a single chair.)


[COM]Comment (Informant): Japanese doesn‟t have a quantifier that corresponds to „no‟. They use Negative
Polarity Item -mo with a negation (“mo” means “even,also”).[COM]


Split
[EX]    Peter-wa          isu-o          kawa-nakat-ta                 (yo),              1-tu-mo.\\
        Peter-TOP        chair-ACC       buy-NEG-PST                   (PTC)              1-CLF-NPI\\
        „Peter has bought no chairs.‟


No Split
[EX]    *Peter-wa        isu-o           katta               no,       ikutu?\\
           Peter-TOP      chair-ACC         buy.PST          Q             how.many\\
[COM] This is OK if produced as two question sentences. “Did Peter buy a chair?” “(If yes,) how many?”[COM]


                                                         2
2.1.2 quantifiers/numerals [if focused or topicalized elements can go to the left]
        Three has Mary got chairs.
         'Mary has bought three chairs.'
Canonical
[EX]    Hanako-wa       isu-o          3-tu(*-no)           katta.\\
        Hanako-TOP      chair-ACC      3-CLF(-GEN) buy.PST\\


Split
[EX]    3-tu(*-no)      Hanako-wa      isu-o                katta.\\
        3-CLF(-GEN) Hanako-TOP         chair-ACC            buy.PST\\


[COM]Comment (Informant): It is known that she bought 3 something and 4 something…No split : but stress can
be subject or object.[COM]


[EX]    *?Hanako-wa             3-tu       isu-o            katta        4-tu       teeburu-o   katta.\\
        Hanako-TOP              3-CLF chair-ACC              buy.PST      4-CLF table-ACC       buy.PST\\


[EX]    Hanako-wa       isu-o          3-tu        to       teeburu-o    4-tu      katta.\\
        Hanako-TOP chair-ACC               3-CLF and         table-AcC    4-CLF buy.PST\\


Split
[EX]    Naomi-wa        isu-o          katta                (yo),        3-tu.\\
        Naomi-TOP       chair-ACC      buy.PST              (PTC)        3-CLF\\
        „Mary has got chairs three.‟


[COM]Comment (Informant): You add something, kind of afterthought, maybe you can focus that, or at least it can
be new information, though not contrastive.[COM]


         Many has Mary got chairs.
         'Mary has got many chairs.'
Split
[EX]    takusan(*-no) Mary-wa              isu-o            katta.\\
        many(-GEN)      Mary-TOP           chair-ACC         buy.PST\\


Split
[EX]    Mary-wa         isu-o          katta                (yo),        takusan.\\

                                                        3
        Mary-TOP         chair-ACC        buy.PST             (PTC)         many\\


[COM]Adjective moved:[COM]
Split
[EX]    Bill-wa          isu-o            katta               (yo),        atarasii-no-o.\\
        Bill-TOP         chair-ACC        buy.PST             (PTC)        new-NMLZ-ACC\\


[COM]Comment (Informant): new = addition[COM]



2.5     Can a noun be moved rightward independent of the noun phrase?
        Book, Peter has read an interesting.
        'Peter has read an interesting book.'
Split
[EX]    hon-wa           Peter-ga         omosiroi*(-no-o)                 yonda.\\
        book-TOP         Peter-NOM       interesting(-NMLZ-ACC)            read.PST\\


[COM]Comment (Informant): As for the book, Peter read an interesting one. Or we are talking about interesting)
Book is contrastive topic ,,,, Peter read an interesting magazine[COM]


[COM]‟Interesting Mary has read a book‟.
No split possible[COM]
[EX]    *omosiroi        Mary-wa          hon-o               yonda.\\
        interesting      Mary-TOP         book-ACC            read.PST\\
        „Mary has read an interesting book‟


[COM] „Mary read an interesting yesterday book‟
No split possible[COM]
[EX]    *Mary-wa         kinoo            omosiroi-no-o                    yonda (yo),        hon-o\\
        Mary-TOP         yesterday        interesting-NMLZ-ACC             read    (PTCP)     book-ACC\\
        'Mary read an interesting book, yesterday.'


         Books, Peter has read many
         “Peter has read many books”




                                                          4
                               PART 1: Grammatical Background


PART 1 :          Grammatical Background
PART 2 :          Universal Question Set
PART 3 :          Set of Questions to be Prepared
PART 4 :          Phonological Questionnaire

0. The Structure of the Language
Information concerning the basic aspects of the grammar of the language must be obtained before the interview from
reference grammars or similar sources. Normally, the information is not obtained from the informant
Indicate the sources of your information here:

---




0.1 Structure of the Noun Phrase
0.1.1 Which different parts of speech exist in the NP?
A positive answer should be given only if there are clear formal (not semantic) grounds for distinguishing the following
categories from the noun, such as word order or morphology. Indicate the reasons for having separate categories very
briefly, (if you think it is necessary, you might give references)
        Noun                                yes
        Adjective                           yes
        Numeral                             yes
        Quantifier, Determiner.             yes
        Article                             no

How does N differ from A grammatically?
A has inflection while N doesn‟t.




How does Num differ from A?

Num behaves more as N (no inflection).

It can also be separated from the N it modifies (floating Num).



                                                           5
What is the difference (if any) between Q, Num, Det, Art and Adj?
Adj has inflection while others don‟t.
Also, they cannot be separated from the modifying N (unlike Num/Q).


0.1.2 Obligatoriness of Heads in the NP
Is the noun obligatory in the NP?                                 yes / no
That is: can one say something like I saw a red and refer to some red object contextually given? Or does one have to insert
a nominal dummy (such as in I saw a red one) or use a special morphology for the adjective not used when it appears in an
NP with a noun?

If N is not obligatory, are there any changes we observe in the syntax & morphology of the NP?
---

If a nominal element is obligatory, what morpheme is used for this pro-from? (like one in English, no in Japanese)
Nominalizer no.

Is there an obligatory definite or indefinite determiner for singular or plural noun phrases? If so, is the determiner
obligatory in all syntactic positions (subject vs. object, etc.).
(Ex.: in German, each singular count noun must be accompanied by an article)
No.

Are there other categories that have to be obligatorily present in the noun phrase?
No.



0.1.3 Other Elements
How are possessors expressed? As adjectives? As noun phrases with a “possessive” syntax?
with the genitive Case-marker -no.
E.g., Taro-no hon „Taro‟s book‟


How are complements of nouns (such as in president of Germany, introduction to linguistics) expressed?
with the genitive Case-marker -no.
E.g., Doitu-no daitooryoo „president of Germany‟

How are local and temporal adjuncts expressed in the noun phrase?
with the genitive Case-marker -no.
E.g., kinoo-no sinbun „yesterday‟s paper‟

How are relative clauses expressed?
The relative clause is followed by the head N, with no overt relative pronoun.

                                                              6
E.g., Taro-ga t katta hon „The book Taro bought‟.

 How are complement clauses of nouns (the claim that he loves Mary) expressed?
[ … Complement clause … ] to iu „(literary) that said‟


0.1.4 Morphology
Which elements realize the grammatical features of the noun phrase morphologically (i.e.: which elements bear overt Case
or number marking, specificity, definiteness, etc.). The noun? The adjective?
Noun.
E.g., Taro-ga „Taro-NOM‟

Under what conditions could such a marking be suppressed? (E.g..: marking is optional on all elements but the head – on
all elements but the first one.
NOM and ACC may optionally dropped.

Do Det, Art, Q and N always agree with respect to their grammatical features? Or can they enter other relations of
morphological dependency (as in Slavic: numerals (over 5) combine with genitive rather than agreeing nouns).
Num is always followed by a classifier, which is determined according to the properties of the things N refers to.
Other categories show no agreement.

Are there morphological regularities that may be important for the splitting of noun phrases (Material that can only/cannot
appear at the left/right periphery of a noun phrase. Material that can only appear in the second position of a noun phrase,
etc.) ?
Japanese has floating numeral quantifiers.



0.1.5 Word Order
What are the serialization possibilities for Det, Q, Art, Adj, N, PP-complements, PP-adjuncts, possessors and for
focus/topic particles in the noun phrase?
(1) {Det, Q-no, Adj, PP-comp, PP-adjuncts, poss, Num-no} N-foc/top.
E.g., sono 3-satu-no omosiroi Taro-no hon-wa
     „those 3 interesting Taro‟s books-TOP‟


(2) {Det, Q-no, Adj, PP-comp, PP-adjuncts, poss} N Num-foc/top.
E.g., sono omosiroi Taro-no hon 3-satu-wa
      (those interesting Taro‟s book 3-CLF-TOP)
      „those 3 of Taro‟s interesting books-TOP‟


(3) {Det, Q-no, Adj, PP-comp, PP-adjuncts, poss} N-foc/top Num

                                                             7
E.g., sono omosiroi Taro-no hon-wa 3-satu
      (those interesting Taro‟s book-TOP 3-CLF)


Is there a canonical order?
No.

What function does reordering relative to this canonical order fulfil?
Reordering creates a scope difference.

0.1.6 Other Aspects
 Are there any other properties that may be of interest for splits? Factors such as: the existence of double determiners in
 Greek, etc.
---



0.2 Structure of the Prepositional Phrase
Do prepositions appear at the left or at the right part of the preposition phrase?
Japanese is a post-position language.

 Does the preposition have any important influence on the structure of the noun phrase?
(don‟t understand the question.)


0.3 Clausal Structure
0.3.1 What is the canonical position of Subject, Verb, and Object in the language. Or, to put it differently, what is the
        canonical position of the verb, the agent and the undergoer/theme in a standard transitive sitution?
SOV, strictly head-final language.


What is the canonical position of the verb and the argument in a simple intransitive construction,
if the argument(subject) is an agent
SV

if the a argument(subject) is a patient/undergoer.
SV


0.3.2 Does the Language have free word order/scrambling
Yes.



0.3.3 How are constituent questions formed (movement to left/right)
Either wh-in-situ or pied-piping.

                                                                8
0.3.4 How does the language mark (contrastive) topics? Are there special topic positions?
With the contrastive topic marker -wa + intonation.


0.3.5 How does the language mark focus? Are there special focus positions?
Usually by intonation.
In special cases, with focus particles -koso.
No special syntactic focus position.

0.3.6 What is the case and agreement system of the language?
Case: NON-ACC language.
Agr: Honorification, Num classifiers.

0.3.7 Does the language have noun incorporation? To what extent is the language polysynthetic?
No.

0.3.8 Does the language have classifiers?
Yes (for Numerals).

0.3.8 Does the language have adverbial quantifiers
Yes.




                                                         9
                                  PART 2: Universal Question Set

PART 1 :          Grammatical Background
PART 2 :          Universal Question Set
PART 3 :          Set of Questions to be Prepared
PART 4 :          Phonological Questionnaire

1 General Aspects of noun phrase (prep phrase) discontinuity
1.1 Operator movement leaving NP/PP
1.1.1 wh-Questions

1.1.1.1 Themes of transitive verbs (objects)
About whom have you bought a book? / Who have you bought a book about?
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]   *dare-ni-tuite-no           anata-wa           hon-o             katta             no?\\
       who-DAT-about-GEN you-TOP                      book-ACC          buy.PST           Q\\


[EX]   *dare-ni           atana-wa          tuite-no           hon-o              katta            no?\\
        who-DAT           you-TOP           about-GEN          book-ACC            buy.PST         Q\\



1.1.1.2 Themes of intransitive verbs (subjects-objects)
About what has a book appeared? / About what does a book please you? / What has a book appeared about?
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]   nani-ni-tuite(*-no)                  (kinoo)            hon-ga             deta            no?\\
       what-DAT-about(-GEN)                 (yesterday)        book-NOM           appear.PST      Q\\


[COM]Comment (Informant): This is OK only if the preposed PP is interpreted as an adjunct of the verb, not as the
modifier of the noun.[COM]


[EX]   nani-ni-tuite(*-no)        (kinoo)             hon-ga            anata-o           yorokob-ase-ta      no?\\
       what-DAT-about(-GEN)yesterday                  book-NOM          you-ACC           be.pleased-CAUS-PST Q\\


[COM]Comment (Informant): This is OK only if the preposed PP is interpreted as an adjunct of the verb, not as the
modifier of the noun. E.g., the answer can be “About its price. (=this person was pleased because it was
cheap.)”[COM]

                                                          10
[EX]    *nani-ni         (kinoo)          hon-ga            tuite   deta              no?\\
        what-DAT         (yesterday)       book-NOM         about   appear.PST        Q\\




1.1.1.3 Agents of transitive verbs (subjects)
Of whom did the mother read a book? (meaning: whose mother)
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]    *dare-no         (kinoo)          hahaoya-ga    hon-o              yonda              no?\\
        who-GEN          (yesterday)      mother-NOM book-ACC              read.PST           Q\\


1.1.1.4 Causes of transitive verbs (subjects)
About what did a book annoy everyone?
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]    nani-ni-tuite(*-no)               (totemo)      hon-ga             minna-o            nayamaseta   no?\\
        what-DAT-about(-GEN)              very.much     book-NOM           everyone-ACC annoy.PST          Q\\


[COM]Comment (Informant): This is OK only if the preposed PP is interpreted as an adjunct of the verb, not as the
modifier of the noun. E.g., “About its printing cost.”[COM]



1.1.1.5 Goals of ditransitive verbs
about what did you award a book __ a prize
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]    nani-ni-tuite(*-no)               anata-wa      hon-ni             syoo-o             ataeta       no?\\
        what-DAT-about(-GEN)              you-TOP       book-DAT           prize-ACC          give.PST     Q\\



                                                       11
[COM]Comment (Informant): This is OK only if the preposed PP is interpreted as an adjunct of the verb, not as the
modifier of the noun. E.g., “About its cover design.”[COM]



1.1.1.6 Goals of ditransitive verbs
of which bus did you show the driver __ the way to the city?
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]    *dono-basu-no              anata-wa        doraibaa-ni    mati-e-no         miti-o        osieta       no?\\
        which-bus-GEN              you-TOP         driver-DAT     city-to-GEN       way-ACC tell.PST           Q\\




1.1.2 Left branch wh-extraction
1.1.2.1 Themes of transitive verbs (objects)
Whose have you seen ___ mother [=whose mother have you seen]
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]    *dare-no         anata-wa         hahaoya-ni       atta             no?\\
        who-GEN          you-TOP          mother-DAT       see.PST          Q\\


1.1.2.2 Agents of transitive verbs (subjects)
whose has _mother invited you [whose mother has invited you]
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]    *dare-no         kinoo            hahaoya-wa/ga           anata-o           shootaisita        no?\\
        who-GEN          yesterday        mother-TOP/NOM          you-ACC           invite.PST         Q\\



1.1.2.3 Themes of intransitive verbs (subjects-objects)
Whose has ___ book come out? [=whose book as come out]
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]    *dare-no         (kinoo)          hon-ga           deta             no?\\
        who-GEN          (yesterday)      book-NOM         come.out.PST Q\\


1.1.2.4 Causes of transitive verbs (subjects)
Whose did __ book annoy everyone (whose book annoyed everyone)
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]    *dare-no         (totemo)         hon-ga           minna-o                  nayamaseta         no?\\
        who-GEN          (very.much)      book-NOM         everyone-ACC             annoy.PST          Q\\

                                                          12
1.1.2.5 Goals of ditransitive verbs
whose did you award __ book the prize
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]    *dare-no           anata-wa           hon-ni            shyoo-o              ataeta     no?\\
        who-GEN            you-TOP            book-DAT          prize-ACC            give.PST   Q\\



1.1.2.6 Goals of ditransitive verbs
whose did you show ___ driver the way to the center?
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]    *dare-no           anata-wa           doraibaa-ni       sentaa-e-no          miti-o     osieta     no?\\
        who-GEN            you-TOP            driver-DAT        center-to-GEN way-ACC           tell.PST   Q\\



1.1.3 Preposition phrases
1.1.3.1 Possessor out of PP
whose did you laugh [about _joke]
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]    *dare-no           anata-wa           zyoodan-de        waratta              no?\\
        who-GEN            you-TOP            joke-at           laugh.PST            Q\\


1.1.4 Focus movement

1.1.4.1 Themes of transitive verbs (objects)
You have bought a book about BIRDS
Canonical
[EX]    anata-wa           tori-ni-tuite-no             hon-o             katta.\\
        you-TOP            bird-DAT-about-GEN book-ACC                    buy.PST\\


Movement
[EX]    tori-ni-tuite-no           hon-o                anata-wa          katta.\\
        bird-DAT-about-GEN book-ACC                     you-TOP           buy.PST\\


Split
[EX]    tori-ni-tuite              anata-wa             hon-o             katta.\\

                                                             13
        bird-DAT-about              you-TOP           book-ACC             buy.PST\\


[COM]Comment (Informant): The focus intonation on tori „bird‟ is obligatory.[COM]




1.1.4.2 Themes of intransitive verbs (subjects-objects)
A book about BIRDS appeared
[EX]    tori-ni-tuite-no           hon-ga             deta.\\
        bird-DAT-about-GEN book-NOM                   appear.PST\\


[COM]Comment (Informant): The focus intonation on tori „bird‟ is obligatory.
Comment (Interviewer): Check again whether birds and book can be separated! Applies to 1.1.4.2 –
1.1.4.13[COM]


1.1.4.3 Agents of transitive verbs (subjects)
The mother of JOHN read a book
[EX]    John-no            hahaoya-ga         hon-o             yonda.\\
        John-GEN           mother-NOM book-ACC                  read.PST\\


1.1.4.4 Causes of transitive verbs (subjects)
A book about BIRDS annoyed everyone
[EX]    tori-ni-tuite-no           hon-ga             minna-o                    nayamaseta.\\
        bird-DAT-about-GEN book-NOM                   everyone-ACC               annoy.PST\\



1.1.4.5 Goals of ditransitive verbs
You awarded a book about BIRDS a prize
[EX]    anata-wa           tori-ni-tuite-no           hon-ni           syoo-o           atleta.\\
        you-TOP            bird-DAT-about-GEN book-DAT                 prize-ACC        give.PST\\



                                                            14
1.1.4.6 Goals of ditransitive verbs
You showed the driver of a BUS the way to the center.
[EX]    anata-wa         basu-no           doraibaa-ni       sentaa-e-no       miti-o       osieta.\\
        you-TOP          bus-GEN           driver-DAT        center-to-GEN way-ACC          tell.PST\\


1.1.4.7 Left branch : Themes of transitive verbs (objects)
you have seen BILL‟s mother [=whose mother have you see]
[EX]    anata-wa         Bill-no           hahaoya-o         mita.\\
        you-TOP          Bill-GEN          mother-o          see.PST\\


1.1.4.8 LB: Agents of transitive verbs (subjects)
BILL‟s mother has invited you
[EX]    Bill-no          hahaoya-ga        anata-o           syootai-sita.\\
        Bill-GEN         mother-NOM you-ACC                  invitation-do.PST\\


1.1.4.9 Themes of intransitive verbs (subjects-objects)
BILL‟S book has come out? [=whose book as come out]
[EX]    Bill-no          hon-ga            deta              no?\\
        Bill-GEN         book-NOM          come.out.PST Q\\

1.1.4.10 Causes of transitive verbs (subjects)
BILL‟s book annoyed everyone
[EX]    Bill-no          hon-ga            minna-o                     nayamaseta.\\
        Bill-GEN         book-NOM          everyone-ACC                annoy.PST\\


1.1.4.11 Goals of ditransitive verbs
you awarded BILL‟s book a prize
[EX]    anata-wa         Bill-no           hon-ni            syoo-o            atleta.\\
        you-TOP          Bill-GEN          book-DAT          prize-ACC         give.PST\\


1.1.4.12 Goals of ditransitive verbs
you showed BILL‟s driver the way to the center
[EX]    anata-wa          Bill-no           doraibaa-ni        sentaa-e-no      miti-o       osieta.\\
        you-TOP          Bill-GEN          driver-DAT          center-to-GEN way-ACC         tell.PST\\




                                                          15
1.1.4.13 Possessor out of PP
you laughed [about BILL‟S joke]
[EX]    anata-wa           Bill-no         zyoodan-ni        baratta.\\
        you-TOP            Bill-GEN        joke-DAT          laugh.PST\\



1.1.5 Topicalization

1.1.5.1 Themes of transitive verbs (objects)
[Talking about Germany… ] Bill has bought a book about this country/ Berlin and other cities
[doitu-to ie-ba]
Germany-that say-if
„Speaking about Germany…‟


[EX]    Bill-ga            kono-kuni-ni-tuite-no             hon-o              katta.\\
        Bill-NOM           this-country-DAT-about-GEN book-ACC                  buy.PST\\


[EX]    Bill-wa            Berlin-to       so-no             hoka-no             tosi-ni-tuite-no\\
        Bill-TOP          Berlin-and      that-GEN         other-GEN             city-DAT-about-GEN\\
[EXc] hon-o                katta.\\
        book-ACC           buy.PST\\



1.1.5.2 Themes of intransitive verbs (subjects-objects)
[Let‟s talk about Germany ] A book about this country/ Berlin and other cities Berlin appeared
[COM] doitu-no             hanasi-o        si-yoo
        Germany-GEN talk-ACC               do-let‟s [COM]


[EX]    kono       kuni-ni-tuite-no                 hon-ga            deta.\\
        this       country-DAT-about-GEN            book-NOM          appear.PST\\


[EX]    Berlin-to          so-no           hoka-no           tosi-ni-tuite-no              hon-ga     deta.\\
        Berlin-and         that-GEN         other-GEN          city-DAT-about-GEN book-ACC            appear.PST\\


1.1.5.3 Agents of transitive verbs (subjects)
[Let‟s talk about this man] The mother of this man read a book

                                                          16
Canonical
[EX]    kono    otoko-ni-tuite              hanasi-o           si-yoo.\\
        this    man-DAT-about               talk-ACC           do-let‟s\\


Split
[EX]    kono    otoko-no           hahaoya-ga          hon-o                yonda.\\
        this    man-GEN            mother-NOM          book-ACC             read.PST\\


1.1.5.4 Causes of transitive verbs (subjects)
[Let‟s talk about Germany] A book about this country/ Berlin and other cities annoyed everyone
[COM]           Doitu-ni-tuite              hanasi-o           si-yoo
                Germany-DAT-about talk-ACC                     do-let‟s         [COM]


[EX]    kono    kuni-ni-tuite-no                    hon-ga                minna-o                      iradataseta.\\
        this    country-DAT-about-GEN               book-NOM              everyone-ACC                 annoy.PST\\


[EX]    Berlin-to        so-no              hoka-no             tosi-ni-tuite-no                        hon-ga\\
        Berlin-and       that-GEN           other-GEN           city-DAT-about-GEN                      book-NOM\\
[EXc] minna-o                      iradataseta.\\
        everyone-ACC               annoy.PST\\


1.1.5.5 Goals of ditransitive verbs
[Let‟s talk about Germany] You awarded a book about this country/ Berlin and other cities a prize
[EX]    anata-wa         kono-kuni-ni-tuite-no                 /Berlin-to             so-no            hoka-no\\
        you-TOP          this-country-DAT-about-GEN /Berlin-and                       that-GEN         other-GEN\\
[EXc] tosi-ni-tuite-no             hon-ni           syoo-o                atleta.\\
        city-DAT-about-GEN book-ACC                 prize-ACC                         give.PST\\


1.1.5.6 Goals of ditransitive verbs
[Let‟s talk about this vehicle] you showed the driver of a this vehicle the way to the center.
[EX]    kono    kuruma-ni-tuite             hanais-o           si-yoo.\\
        this    car-DAT-about               talk-ACC           do-let‟s\\


[EX]    anata-wa         kono      kuruma-no        doraibaa-ni           sentaa-e-no         miti-o             osieta.\\
        you-TOP          this      car-GEN             driver-DAT           center-to-GEN way-ACC                tell.PST\\



                                                           17
1.1.5.7 Left branch : Themes of transitive verbs (objects)
[Let‟s talk about this man] you have seen this man‟s mother [=whose mother have you see]
[EX]   kono     otoko-ni-tuite            hanasi-o           si-yoo..\\
       this     man-DAT-about             talk-ACC           do-let‟s\\


[EX]   anata-wa         kono     otoko-no         hahaoya-o           mita.\\
        you-TOP          this    man-GEN             mother-ACC           see.PST.\\



1.1.5.8 LB: Agents of transitive verbs (subjects)
[Let‟s talk about this man] This man‟s mother has invited you
[EX]   kono     otoko-no         hahaoya-ga       anata-o             syootai-sita.\\
       this     man-GEN          mother-NOM you-ACC                   invitation-do.PST\\


1.1.5.9 Themes of intransitive verbs (subjects-objects)
[Let‟s talk about this man] This man‟s book has come out
[EX]   kono     otoko-no         hon-ga           deta.\\
       this     man-GEN          book-NOM         appear.PST\\


1.1.5.10 Causes of transitive verbs (subjects)
[Let‟s talk about this man] This man‟s book annoyed everyone
[EX]   kono     okoto-no         hon-ga           minna-o             iradataseta.\\
       this     man-GEN          book-NOM         everyone-ACC annoy.PST\\


1.1.5.11 Goals of ditransitive verbs
[Let‟s talk about this man] you awarded thus man‟s book a prize
[EX]   anata-wa         kono     otoko-no         hon-ni              syoo-o            atleta.\\
       you-TOP          this     man-GEN          book-DAT            prize-ACC                     give.PST\\


1.1.5.12 Goals of ditransitive verbs
[Let‟s talk about this man] you showed this man‟s driver the way to the center?
[EX]   anata-wa         kono     otoko-no         doraibaa-ni         sentaa-e-no       miti-o             osieta.\\
       you-TOP          this     man-GEN          driver-DAT          center-to-GEN way-ACC                tell.PST\\




                                                        18
1.1.5.13 Possessor out of PP
[Let‟s talk about this man] you laughed [about this man‟s joke]
[EX]    antata-wa        kono     otoko-no          zyoodan-ni       baratta.\\
        you-TOP          this     man-GEN           joke-at          laugh.PST\\


1.1.6 Scrambling

1.1.6.1 Nobody has read a book about this man
Split
[EX]    kono     otoko-ni         tuite-*no/wa                 dare-mo        hon-o          yonde-nai.\\
        this     man-DAT          about-GEN/TOP                who-NPI        book-ACC       read-NEG\\


        John said that nobody has read a book about this man
Split
[EX]    kono     otoko-ni         tuite-*no/wa                 John-wa        dare-mo        hon-o\\
        this     man-DAT          about-GEN/TOP                John-TOP       who-NPI        book-ACC\\
[EXc] yonde-nai          to       itta.\\
        read-NEG         that     say.PST\\


1.1.6.3 Nobody has read the president‟s book
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]    *daitooryoo-no/wa         dare-mo           hon-o            yonde-nai.\\
        president-GEN/TOP         who-NPI           book-ACC         read-NEG\\


1.1.6.4 John said that nobody has read the president‟s book
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]    *daitooryoo-no/wa         John-wa           dare-mo          hon-o            yonde-nai        to\\
        president-GEN/TOP         John-TOP          who-NPI          book-ACC         read-NEG         that\\
[EXc] itta.\\
        say.PST\\




1.2 Non-Operator movement Movement
1.2.1 PP-Extraposition
        Mary read a book about a famous doctor in Greece.-

                                                          19
        Mary read a book in Greece about a famous doctor.
Canonical
[EX]    Mary-wa          girisya-de        yuumeina           isya-ni           tuite-no           hon-o\\
        Mary-TOP         Greece-LOC        famous             doctor-DAT        about-GEN          book-ACC\\
[EXc] yonda.\\
        read.PST\\


[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]    *Mary-wa         yuumeina          isya-ni            tuite-no             girisya-de       hon-o\\
        Mary-TOP          famous           doctor-DAT             about-GEN        Greece-LOC       book-ACC\\
[EX]    yonda.\\
        read.PST\\




3 Simple Typology of Split Constructions

3.1 Simple splits?
3.1.1 Are simple splits okay for wh-questions
        How many has Mary seen chairs?
        'How many chairs has Mary seen?'
Split
[EX]    ikutu-*(no)                Mary-wa           isu-o               mita              no?\\
        how.many-GEN               Mary-TOP          chair-ACC           see.PST           Q\\


[COM]This could be simply a wh-phrase for a floating quantifier, not a real split wh-phrase.[COM]


        IF SO: is it possible for ALL wh-determiners, or only for some?
Only ikutu „how many‟ seems to allow it (if the sentence above counts as a split sentence).
[If you could show us the list of wh-determiners you want to check, it would help a lot.]



3.1.2 Are simple spits okay for quantifiers/numerals/determiners
        Many has Peter seen chairs.
        'Peter has seen many chairs.'




                                                             20
Split
[EX]      takusan(*-no) Peter-wa               isu-o                mita.\\
          many(-GEN)        Peter-TOP          chair-ACC            see.PST\\


          IF SO, for which elements of Q and Num is it okay?
All numerals are OK. Quantifiers seem OK as well.
[If you could show us the list of quantifiers you want to check, it would help a lot.]


3.1.3 Are simple splits okay for adjectives
          Red has Peter bought cars.
          'Peter has bought red cars.'
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]      *akai    Peter-wa              kuruma-o        katta.\\
          red      Peter-TOP             car-ACC         buy.PST\\




3.1.4     Are simple splits okay for nouns?
3.1.4.1

          Mary has shown books about plants to John.         Books has Mary shown about plants to John
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]      *hon-o            Mary-wa            syokubutu-ni         tuite(-no)    John-ni        miseta.\\
          book-ACC          Mary-TOP           plants-DAT           about(-GEN)   John-DAT       show.PST\\



3.1.4.2 PPs


Books has Peter shown __ by Bill about plants to John.
'Peter has shown books about plants by Bill to John.'
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]      *hon-o            Peter-wa           Bill-ni              yoru          shokubutu-ni   tuite-no\\
          book-ACC          Peter-TOP          Bill-DAT             attributed    plants-DAT     about-GEN\\
[EXc] John-ni               miseta.\\
          John-DAT          show.PST\\


3.1.4.3 Relative Clauses

                                                               21
        Books has Mary shown __ which Bill wrote to John.
        'Mary has shown books which Bill wrote to John.'
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]   *hon-o           Mary-wa           Bill-ga           kaita             John-ni      miseta.\\
       book-ACC         Mary-TOP         Bill-NOM           write.PST         John-DAT     show.PST\\
         „Books has Mary shown __ which Bill wrote to John.‟


[COM] Comment: I used a different relative clause because the direct translation of „which are expensive‟ will be
identical to the simple adjective case.[COM]




3.2 Pied Piping
3.2.1 DET
        How many good have you read books
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]   *nan-satu-no              yoi      anata-wa          hon-o             yonda        no?\\
       how.many-CLF-GEN good              you-TOP           book-ACC          read.PST     Q\\


        Three good have I read books
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]   *3-satu-no       yoi      watasi-wa          hon-o              yonda.\\
       3-CLF-GEN        good     I-TOP              book-ACC           read.PST\\


[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]   *3       watasi-wa        hon-o              satu    yonda.\\
        3       I-TOP             book-ACC          CLF         read.PST\\



3.2.2 ADJ
        new good have I read books
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]   *atarasii        yoi               watasi-wa         hon-o             yonda.\\
       new              good              I-TOP             book-ACC          read.PST\\




                                                           22
        Goods books have I read about birds yesterday
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]    *yoi     hon-o             watasi-wa          kinoo             tori-ni           tuite-no    yonda.\\
        good     book-ACC          I-TOP              yesterday         bird-DAT          about-GEN   read.PST\\




3.3 Inverted splits?

3.3.1 Noun
        Books has Mary read many interesting.
        'Mary has read many interesting books.'
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]    *hon-o            Mary-wa            takusan-no         omosiroi          yonda
        book-ACC          Mary-TOP           many-GEN           interesting       read.PST


3.3.2 Are inverted splits okay for adjectives?
        Red has Peter seen many.
        'Peter has seen many red.' (e.g. talking about cars)
Split
[EX]    akai-no-o                  Peter-wa           takusan(*-no) mita.\\
        red-NMLZ-ACC               Peter-TOP          many(-GEN)        see.PST\\




3.4 Pied Piping

3.4.1 Noun
        Good books has he read many
Split
[EX]    yoi      hon-o             kare-wa            takusan(*-no) yonda.\\
        good     book-ACC          he-TOP             many(-GEN)        read.PST\\


[COM]Comment (Informant): Scrambling, no topic, no focus.[COM]



Split
[EX]    yoi      hon-o             kare-wa            nan-satu          yonda             no?\\

                                                               23
         good     book-ACC           he-TOP            what-CLF           read.PST          Q\\


[COM]Comment (Informant): how many must be stressed[COM]




         Good books has he read new
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]     *yoi     hon-o              kare-wa           atarasii           yonda.\\
         good     book-ACC           he-TOP            new                read.PST\\


3.4.2    ADJ
         Good new has he read many
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]     *yoi     atarasii           kare-wa           takusan            yonda.\\
         good     new                he-TOP            many               read.PST\\
[COM]Comment (Informant): What‟s the original sentence without splitting? Is this supposed to be „Good new
books has he read many‟?[COM]


3.5 Intermediate heads
         Red has Mary seen three books.
         'Mary has seen three red books.'
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]     *akai-(no)-o                Mary-wa           3-satu-no          hon-o             katta.\\
         red-(NMLZ)-ACC              Mary-TOP          3-CLF-GEN          book-ACC          buy.PST\\


-    Does the fronting of intermediate heads lead to split constellations ...X ...Y ... in which XY would not constitute a well
     formed noun phrase in the language in question?
No




3.6 Can splits arise when constituents dominating the noun phrase are moved?

                                                              24
3.6.1 VP-Preposing or VP-Extraposition
       [Books read] Mary has many interesting.
       'Mary has read many interesting books.'
[COM]Split uncertain[COM]
[EX]   ?*[hon-o          yomi]-wa          Mary-wa             takusan           omosiroi-no-o             sita.\\
       [book-ACC         read]-TOP         Mary-TOP            many              interesting-NMLZ-ACC do.PST\\


[COM]Comment (Informant): Very strange, but I‟m not sure I can say it‟s totally ungrammatical[COM].


       Interesting read Mary has many books.
       'Mary has read many interesting books.'
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]   *[omosiroi-no-o                     yomi]-wa            Mary-wa           takusan-no      hon-o        sita.\\
       [interesting-NMLZ-ACC               read]-TOP           Mary-TOP          many-GEN        book-ACC do.PST\\


[COM]Comment (Informant): This is clearly out[COM]


       Many read Mary has interesting books.
       'Mary has read many interesting books.'
[COM]Split uncertain[COM]
[EX]   [takusan?*(*-no-o)          yomi]-wa          Mary-wa             omosiroi        hon-o           sita.\\
       [many-(NMLZ-ACC)              read]-TOP       Mary-TOP            interesting     book-ACC        do.PST\\


3.6.2 PP-Preposing
       In which he will go town? (simple split, P fronted) (In which town will he go)
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]   *dono-ni          kare-wa           mati      iku                 no?\\
       which-DAT         he-TOP            town      go.NPST             Q\\


       Which he will go in town? (simple split, P stranded)
       'In which town will he go?'
[COM]Split uncertain[COM]
[EX]   ??dono            kare-wa           mati-ni             iku               no?\\
       which             he-TOP            town-DAT            go.NPST           Q\\


       In town he will go nice? (inverted split, P fronted)

                                                              25
        'Will he go in a nice town?'
[COM]Split uncertain[COM]
[EX]    ?mati-ni-wa                 kare-wa/ga       sutekina-no-ni            iku               no?\\
        town-DAT-TOP                he-TOP/NOM nice-NMLZ-DAT                   go.NPST           Q\\


        Town he will go in nice? (inverted split, P stranded)
        'Will he go in a nice town?'
Split
[EX]    mati-wa           kare-wa           sutekina-no-ni              iku            no?\\
        town-TOP          he-TOP            nice-NMLZ-DAT               go.NPST        Q\\


   In what respects do PP and NP-splits differ?
There seems no difference.




2.9 Can a split constructions be formed if the noun phrase is part of a prepositional phrase? If
   so, are there any differences to splits not involving PPs?
2.9.1 independently fronted Det/Num/Q


wh-determiner
       How many has Peter talked about paintings?
        'Peter has talked about how many paintings?'
[COM]Split uncertain[COM]
[EX]    ??iku-mai-no                        Peter-wa            e-ni           tuite   hanasi-o          sita   no?\\
        ??how.many-CLF-GEN                  Peter-TOP           painting-DAT about talk-ACC              do.PST Q\\


quantifiers/numerals
        Three has Mary talked about paintings.
        'Mary has talked about three paintings.'
[COM]Split uncertain[COM]
[EX]    ??3-mai-no        Mary-wa           e-ni                tuite   hanasi-o       sita.\\
        3-CLF-GEN         Mary-TOP          painting-DAT about talk-ACC                do.PST\\



        Many has Mary talked about paintings.
        'Mary has talked about many paintings.'
                                                           26
[COM]Split uncertain[COM]
[EX]   ??takusan-no      Mary-wa            e-ni               tuite   hanasi-o         sita.\\
       many-GEN          Mary-TOP           painting-DAT about talk-ACC                 do.PST\\


       No has Peter talked about paintings.
       'Peter has talked about no paintings.'
Canonical
[EX]   Mary-wa           dono     e-ni                  tuite-mo       hanasi-o          si-nakat-ta.\\
       Mary-TOP          which painting-DAT about-NPI                   talk-ACC         do-NEG-PST\\


[COM]Split uncertain[COM]
[EX]   ??dono Mary-wa             e-ni                  tuite-mo       hanasi-o          si-nakat-ta.\\
       which Mary-TOP              painting-DAT about-NPI               talk-ACC         do-NEG-PST\\



2.9.2 Independent rightward movement of Det/Num/Q

wh-determiner
       Peter has talked about paintings how many?
        'Peter has talked about how many paintings?'
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]   *Peter-wa         e-ni                   tuite   hanasi-o        sita      no,    nan-mai-no?\\
       Peter-TOP         painting-DAT about talk-ACC                   do.PST Q         how.many-CLF-GEN\\

quantifiers/numerals
       Mary has talked about paintings three.
       'Mary has talked about three paintings.'
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]   *Peter-wa         e-ni               tuite       hanasi-o       sita,            3-mai-no.\\
       Peter-TOP         painting-DAT about talk-ACC                   do.PST           3-CLF-GEN\\


       Mary has talked about paintings many.
       'Mary has talked about many paintings.'
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]   *Peter-wa         e-ni               tuite       hanasi-o       sita,            takusan-no\\
       Peter-TOP         painting-DAT about talk-ACC                   do.PST           many-GEN\\



                                                             27
[COM]Comment (Informant): Could be due to the fact that takusan-no „many-GEN‟ can ambiguously modify
hanasi „talk‟.[COM]


        Peter has talked about paintings no.
        'Peter has talked about no paintings.'
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]    *Peter-wa         e-ni                  tuite-mo        hanasi-o          si-nakat-ta,     dono.\\
        Peter-TOP         painting-DAT about-NPI                talk-ACC          do-NEG-PST       which\\


2.9.3 independently fronted adjective
        Interesting Peter has read a book.
        'Peter has read an interesting book.'
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]    *omosiroi         Peter-wa              hon-o           yonda.\\
        interesting       Peter-TOP             book-ACC        read.PST\\


2.9.4 adjective moved to the right
        Peter has talked about chairs new.
        'Peter has talked about new chairs.'
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]    *Peter-wa         isu-ni                tuite   hanasi-o         sita,            atarasii.\\
        Peter-TOP         chair-DAT             about talk-ACC           do.PST           new\\


2.9.5 independently fronted noun
        Book, Peter has talked about an interesting.
        'Peter has talked about an interesting book.'
Split
[EX]    hon-(*o)/wa                  Peter-wa           omosiroi-no-ni                    tuite    hanasi-o sita.\\
        book-(ACC)/TOP               Peter-TOP          interesting-NMLZ-DAT              about talk-ACC do.PST\\


2.9.6 independent rightward movement of a nou
        Peter has talked about an interesting yesterday book.
        'Peter has talked about an interesting book, yesterday.'




                                                             28
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]    *Peter-wa          omosiroi            kinoo            hanasi-o           sita,   hon-ni           tuite.\\
        Peter-TOP          interesting         yesterday        talk-ACC           do.PST book-DAT          about\\


[EX]    *Peter-wa          omosiroi-no-ni                       tuite      hanasi-o        sita,            hon-o.\\
         Peter-TOP          interesting-NMLZ-DAT                   about   talk-ACC         do.PST,        book-ACC\\




4 Distance of the parts of a split

4.1 Intervention of negation

4.1.1 How is negation expressed?
The negation morpheme -nai, which by itself behaves as an adverb in terms of inflection, attaches to V or A to
form a complex predicate.


4.1.2 Can negation intervene between the parts of a simple split?
If simple splits are possible, check whether one can insert a negation between its part.



-   wh phrase split.
                           How many did Peter not buy cars?
Split
[EX]    nan-dai(?*-no)                         Peter-wa         kuruma-o           kawa-nakat-ta            no?\\
        how.many-CLF(-GEN)                     Peter-TOP        car-ACC            buy-NEG-PST              Q\\


[COM]Comment (Informant): how many > NEG, NEG > how many[COM]



- focus/topic split
         Good Peter did not give his sister ___ books.
         (Peter did not give his sister interesting books.)
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]    *omosiroi-no-wa                        Peter-ga         imooto-ni          hon-o            age-nakat-ta.\\
        interesting-NMLZ-TOP                   Peter-NOM        sister-DAT         book-ACC         give-NEG-PST\\




                                                              29
-   PP split
        About famous Peter did not talk about poets.
        (Peter did not talk about famous poets.)
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]    *yuumeina-no(-ni-tuite)-wa                     Peter-wa          sizin-ni-tuite           hanas-anakat-ta.\\
        famous-NMLZ(-DAT-about)-TOP                    Peter-TOP         poet-DAT-about           talk-NEG-PST\\




4.1.3 Can negation intervene between the parts of an inverted split?
-   Focus-topic split
        Books Peter did not give his sister interesting __ .
        (Peter did not give his sister interesting books.)
Split
[EX]    hon-wa            Peter-ga            imooto-ni         omosiroi-no-o                       age-nakat-ta.\\
        book-TOP           Peter-NOM          sister-DAT            interesting-NMLZ-ACC            give-NEG-PST\\


-   PP split
        (about) Poets Peter did not talk about famous.
        (Peter did not talk about famous poets.)
Split
[EX]    sizin(?-ni-tuite)-wa        Peter-wa           yuumeina-no-ni-tuite-wa                    hanas-anakat-ta.\\
        poet(-DAT-about)-TOP Peter-TOP                 famous-NMLZ-DAT-about-TOP                  talk-NEG-PST\\




4.2 Intervention of a quantifier
4.2.1 Can a quantifier intervene between the parts of a simple split?
        Which did nearly every man / only John buy car
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]    *dono hotondo-dono-hito-mo /John-dake-wa                         kuruma-o         katta            no?\\
        which almost-which-man-MO /John-only-TOP                         car-ACC          buy.PST          Q\\


[COM]Comment (Informant): wh-phrase + MO = universal quantifier „every men‟[COM]


        How many does nearly every woman / only Mary own cars



                                                               30
Split
[EX]    nan-dai(*-no)                          hotondo-dono-zyosee-mo        /?Mary-dake-wa             kuruma-o\\
        how.many-CLF(-GEN)                     almost-which-woman-MO          /Mary-only-TOP             car-ACC\\
[EXc] motteiru                       no?\\
        have.PROG                    Q\\


         Many does nearly every child / only Mary own toys
Split
[EX]    takusan(*-no) hotondo-dono-kodomo-mo                 /Mary-dake-wa           omotya-o           motteiru.\\
        many(-GEN)        almost-which-child-MO                /Mary-only-TOP         toy-ACC            have.PROG\\



4.2.2 Can a quantifier intervene between the parts of an inverted split?
         Cars does nearly every one/ only Bill buy expensive new .
Split
[EX]    kuruma-wa         hotondo-dono-hito-mo /Bill-dake-wa                 takai           atarasii-no-o\\
        car-TOP           almost-which-man-MO /Bill-only-TOP                  expensive       new-NMLZ-ACC\\
[EXc] katta.\\
        buy.PST\\




4.3 Intervention of a sentential boundary
4.3.1 Infinitives: simple/inverted
         How many does he promise to buy cars
Split
[EX]    nan-dai(*-no)                kare-wa         kuruma-o        kau             to      yakusoku-sita\\
        how.many-CLF(-GEN) he-TOP                    car-ACC         buy.NPST        that    promise-do.PST\\
[EXc] no?\\
        Q\\


         Many he promises to buy cars
Split
[EX]    takusan(*-no) kare-wa                  kuruma-o      kau             to      yakusoku-sita.\\
        many(-GEN)        he-TOP               car-ACC       buy.NPST        that    promise-do.PST\\


        Cars he promises to buy new

                                                          31
Split
[EX]    kuruma-wa        kare-wa             atarasii-no-o              kau               to     yakusoku-sita.\\
        car-TOP          he-TOP              new-NMLZ-ACC               buy.NPST          that   promise-do.PST\\



4.3.2 Indicatives: simple/inverted
        how many, Mary thinks that he bought cars / simple
Split
[EX]    nan-dai(*-no)                        Mary-wa          kare-ga             kuruma-o       katta              to\\
        how.many-CLF(-GEN)                   Mary-TOP         he-NOM              car-ACC        buy.PST            that\\
[EXc] omotteru           no?\\
        think            Q\\


        Many, Mary believes that he bought cars / simple
Split
[EX]    takusan(*-no) Mary-wa                kare-ga          kuruma-o            katta          to\\
        many(-GEN)       Mary-TOP            he-NOM           car-ACC             buy.PST        that\\
[EXc] sinziteru.\\
        believe.PROG.NPST\\


        Cars, Mary believes that he buys many / inverted
Split
[EX]    kuruma-wa        Mary-wa             kare-ga          takusan(*-no) kau                  to\\
        car-TOP          Mary-TOP            he-NOM           many(-GEN)          buy.NPST       that\\
[EXc] sinziteru.\\
        believe.PROG.NPST\\



4.3.3 Relatives
        how many, Mary knows a man who owns :: cars
[COM]No split possibile[COM]
[EX]    *nan-dai(-no)                Mary-wa           kuruma-o         motteru                  hito-o\\
        how.many-CLF(-GEN) Mary-TOP                    car-ACC          have.PROG.NPST           man-ACC\\
[EXc] sitteru                        no?\\
        know.PROG.NPST               Q\\



                                                             32
        Many, Mary knows a man who owns __ cars
[COM]No split possible[COM]
[EX]    *takusan(-no) Mary-wa               kuruma-o       motteru                      hito-o\\
        many(-GEN)       Mary-TOP           car-ACC        have.PROG.NPST               man-ACC\\
[EXc] sitteru.\\
        know.PROG.NPST\\


        Cars, Mary knows a man who owns many ___
[COM]Split uncertain [COM]
[EX]    ??kuruma-o       Mary-wa            takusan(*-no) motteru                       hito-o\\
        car-ACC          Mary-TOP           many(-GEN)     have.PROG.NPST               man-ACC\\
[EXc] sitteru.\\
        know.PROG.NPST\\




5 Grammatical function of the split XP
5.1 Simple splits
5.1.1 Theme/patient of a transitive verb


How many did you buy books
Split
[EX]    nan-satu(*-no)                      anata-wa       hon-o                katta              no?\\
        how.many-CLF(-GEN)                  you-TOP           book-ACC           buy.PST            Q\\


Many he bought books
Split
[EX]    takusan(*-no)             kare-wa          hon-o             katta.\\
        many(-GEN)                he-TOP           book-ACC          buy.PST\\



5.1.2 Themes of intransitive verbs (subjects-objects)


How many did books appear




                                                         33
Split
[EX]    nan-satu(*-no)                        (kyonen)           hon-ga             deta            no?\\
        how.many-CLF(-GEN)                    (last.year)        book-NOM           appear.PST      Q\\


Many did books appear
Split
[EX]    takusan(*-no)               (kyonen)            hon-ga            deta.\\
        many(-GEN)                  (last.year)         book-NOM          appear.PST\\



5.1.3 Agents of transitive verbs (subjects)


How many did students buy a book?
Split
[EX]    nan-nin(*-no)                         (kinoo)            gakusei-ga         hon-o           katta           no?\\
        how.many-CLF(-GEN)                    (yesterday)        student-NOM book-ACC               buy.PST         Q\\


Many did students buy a book
Split
[EX]    takusan(*-no) (kinoo)                 gakusei-ga         hon-o              katta.\\
        many(-GEN)        yesterday           student-NOM book-ACC                  buy.PST\\



5.1.4 Causes of transitive verbs (subjects)
How many did students annoy that teacher yesterday?
Split
[EX]    nan-nin(*-no)               (kinoo)             gakusei-ga/*wa              sono-sensei-o           komaraseta\\
        how.many-CLF(-GEN) (yesterday)                  student-NOM/TOP             that-teacher-ACC        annoy.PST\\
[EXc] no?\\
        Q\\


Many, students annoyed that teacher yesterday.
Split
[EX]    oozei(*-no)       (kinoo)             gakusei-ga/wa               sono-sensei-o             komaraseta.\\
        many(-GEN)        (yesterday)         student-NOM/TOP             that-teacher-ACC          annoy.PST\\



                                                             34
5.1.5 Goals of ditransitive verbs


How many did you award _ books a prize
Split
[EX]    nan-satu(*-no)                      anata-wa        hon-ni          syoo-o              ageta               no?\\
        how.many-CLF(-GEN)                  you-TOP         book-DAT        prize-ACC           give.PST            Q\\


Many you awarded _ books a prize
Split
[EX]    takusan(*-no) anata-wa              hon-ni          syoo-o          ageta.\\
        many(-GEN)       you-TOP            book-DAT        prize-ACC       give.PST\\




5.1.6 Goals of ditransitive verbs


How many did you show _ drivers the way to the center
[COM]Split uncertain [COM]
[EX]    ?nan-nin(*-no)              anata-wa         doraibaa-ni     sentaa-e-no       miti-o           osieta\\
        how.many-CLF(-GEN) you-TOP                   driver-DAT      center-to-GEN way-ACC              tell.PST\\
[EXc] no?\\
        Q\\


Many you showed __ drivers the way to the center
[COM]Split uncertain [COM]
[EX]    ??oozei(*-no)               anata-wa         doraibaa-ni     sentaa-e-no       miti-o           osieta.\\
        many(-GEN)                  you-TOP          driver-DAT      center-to-GEN way-ACC              tell.PST\\




5.2 Inverted splits
5..2.1 Theme/patient of a transitive verb


Books he bought many.


                                                          35
Split
[EX]    hon-o/wa                    kare-wa             takusan(*-no-o)            katta.\\
        book-ACC/TOP                he-TOP              many(-GEN-ACC )            buy.PST\\


5.2.2 Themes of intransitive verbs (subjects-objects)
Books did many _ appear
Split
[EX]    hon-wa            (kyonen)            takusan          deta.\\
        book-TOP          (last.year)         many             appear.PST\\


5.2.3   Agents of transitive verbs (subjects)
Students did many read a book
Split
[EX]    gakuse-wa         (sensyuu)           ooku(*-no)-ga               hon-o               yonda.\\
        student-TOP       (last.week)         many(-GEN)-NOM              book-ACC            read.PST\\


5.2.4 Causes of transitive verbs (subjects)
Students, many annoyed that teacher last week.
Split
[EX]    gakuse-wa         (sensyuu)           ooku(*-no)-ga               sono-sensei-o                   komaraseta.\\
        student-TOP       (last.week)         many(-GEN)-NOM              that-teacher-ACC                annoy.PST\\


5.2.5 Goals of ditransitive verbs
Books, you awarded many ___ a prize
Split
[EX]    hon-wa            anata-wa/go                   ooku*(-ni)        syoo-o              ataeta.\\
        book-TOP          you-TOP/NOM                   many(-DAT)        prize-ACC           give.PST\\


5.2.6 Goals of ditransitive verbs
Drivers, you showed many the way to the center
Split
[EX]    doraibaa-wa       anata-wa            ooku(*-no)*(-ni)            sentaa-e-no         miti-o             osieta.\\
        driver-TOP        you-TOP             many(-GEN)(-DAT)            center-to-GEN way-ACC                  tell.PST\\




                                                             36
8 Morphology and Regeneration
8.3 „Regeneration“

8.3.1 PP splits
         in many has he lived in nice houses
         (He has lived in many nice houses.)
[COM]No split possible [COM]
[EX]    *takusan-no-wa               kare-wa             ookina ie-ni          sunda           koto-ga\\
        many-GEN-TOP                 he-TOP              big    house-LOC      live.PST        fact-NOM\\
[EXc] aru.\\
        exist.NPST\\


If so, under what conditions?



         In nice houses has he lived in many.
         (He has lived in many nice houses.)
[COM]No split possible [COM]
[EX]    *ookina           ie-ni-wa             kare-wa          takusan(*-no-ni)       sunda           koto-ga\\
        big               house-LOC            he-TOP           many(-GEN-LOC)         live.PST        fact-NOM\\
[EXc] aru.\\
        exist.NPST\\



If so, under what conditions?




8.3.2 Regeneration: Det/Num
Can a Det/a Num be repeated in a split construction?
         a car has he an American
         (He has an American car.)
N/A

Do the two determiners have to be identical?
         a car have I no American

                                                               37
           (I have no American car.)



-   Is det-doubling possible in general in the language in question (as it is in Greece)?




8..3.3 Can N be repeated/regenerated
-   Hyponymy - simple vs. inverted; PP-split

           birds he only knows canaries
Split
[EX]       tori-wa           kare-wa           kanaria-dake(-o)           sitteru.\\
           bird-TOP          he-TOP            canary-only(-ACC)          know.PROG:NPST\\

pro-from
                     birds he only knows blue ones
Split
[EX]       tori-wa           kare-wa/ga        aoi-no-dake(-o)                     sitteru.\\
           bird-TOP          he-TOP/NOM blue-NMLZ-only(-ACC)                       know.PROG.NPST\\

identity
                     birds he only knows small birds
Split
[EX]       tori-wa           kare-wa           tiisai   tori-dake(-o)              sitteru.\\
           bird-TOP          he-TOP            small    bird-only(-ACC)            know.PROG.NPST\\

subsection
                     toys he only knows blue balls
Split
[EX]       omotya-wa         kare-wa           aoi      booru-dake(-o)             sitteru.\\
           toy-TOP           he-TOP            blue     ball-only(-ACC)            know.PROG.NPST\\




How can such constructions be distinguished from hanging topics (In German: verb position ...)?
What is „hanging topics‟?


                                                              38
11 Combinatorics

11.1 Can the NP be split up in more than two parts
Inverted:

          books has he interesting probably yet never more than three read
          (He has probably never read more than three interesting books yet.)


Split
[EX]    hon-wa           kare-wa         omosiroi-no-o                   osoraku\\
        book-TOP         he-TOP          interesting-NMLZ-ACC            probably\\
[EXc] 3-satu-izyoo(*-o/wa)               yonde-na-i.\\
        3-CLF-more.than(-ACC/TOP) read-NEG-PRS\\


[COM]Comment: This is probably just a combination of topicalization, scrambling and a floating numeral
quantifier. The existence/absence of the topic marker on 3-satu-izyoo changes the scope relations between the
quantifier and the negation.[COM]
Simple:

          more than three has he interesting probably books never read
          (He has probably never read more than three interesting books yet.)




Mixed

          more than three has he books probably interesting never read
          (He has probably never read more than three interesting books yet.)




                                                         39
11.2 Can more than one NP be split up per clause?
        men have sonatas of Bach so far only few all perform could
        (So far only a few men could have performed all sonatas of Bach.)
Split
[EX]    gakusei-wa       bahha-no           sonata-wa       suu-nin(*-no)-ga               subete(*-no)-o \\
        student-TOP      Bach-GEN           sonata-TOP      some-CLF(-GEN)-NOM             all(-GEN)-ACC\\
[EXc] hikeru.\\
        can.play.PROG.NPST\\
        „Some students can play all sonata of Bach.‟




11.3 Can split types be combined?
        how many has chairs he expensive from France?
        (He has how many expensive chairs from France.)
Split
[EX]    ikutu(*-no)               kare-wa          isu-wa            takai     furansu-kara-no-o\\
        how.many(-GEN)            he-TOP           chair-TOP         expensive France-from-NMLZ-ACC\\
[EXc] motteru                     no?\\
        have.PROG.NPST          Q\\

             PART 3: Set of Questions to be Prepared


PART 1 :         Grammatical Background
PART 2 :         Universal Question Set
PART 3 :         Set of Questions to be Prepared
PART 4 :         Phonological Questionnaire




                                                          40
12 Matching
12.1 Identify the syntactic and morphological wellformedness restrictions on noun
     phrases, such as “every singular count noun must have a determiner” (German)
     or “the last element in a noun phrase must be inflected for case (Warlpiri), “a
     classifier must be used”
         Construct split sentences, in which the continuous noun phrase would fulfil the requirements,
         but not the parts in which it is split up. Identify the consequences, such as

         the noun phrase can be split up without any changes




         the noun phrase cannot be split up




         the morphology of the parts has to be adjusted




         the lexical composition of the parts is adjusted




12.2 Do the parts of a simple - an inverted split always agree with respect to features?
For Number
Try things such as
books I have read only one
N/A (no singlar/plural distinction in Japanese)

For Gender
                                                     41
girls.neuter knows the only intellgent.fem
Girl-neut know he only an.fem intelligent fem
N/A (no gender agreement in Japanese)


Classifiers
Try to find examples in which the classifier classifier is lexically determined rather than semantically. In case of a split NP:
does the semantically appropriate classifier replace the lexically determined sometimes?



Case
Is the Case in both parts of a split NP always the one you would get in a continuous NP? Or could one part simply bear the
most unmarked Case?
Topic-markers can replace Case-markers. It happens often for the preposed phrases.




12.3 Are there cases of split constructions, which, when linearized together, deliver
     ungrammatical word sequences?
Check for ordering restrictions involving focus or topic particles and search for examples similar to
   Nur Freunde hat er keine
   Only friends has he none
which could not be linearized accordingly in a non-split fashion
   *Er hat keine nur Freunde
   He has no only friends
Split
[EX]     yuuzin-dake-wa kare-wa                hitori-mo        i-nai.\\
         friend-only-TOP he-TOP                one.CLF-even exist-NEG\\
         „As for friend, he doesn‟t have any. (He has many in terms of relatives, siblings, etc.)‟

[EX]     kare-wa            yuujin-dake-wa              hitori-mo    i-nai.\\
         he-TOP             friend-only-TOP             one.CLF-even exist-NEG\\



12.4 Are there differences in the realization of features in split and continuous NPs?
 er hat keine polnischen Gänse. aber: polnische Gänse hat er keine
(No )

Are there features that may be realized only once in a NP, but appear twice in a split construction?
There is a constraint on the accusative Case-marker, called the double -o constraint, prohibiting for one clause to have two or
more accusative marked phrases. Topic markers may appear multiply, although at least one of them would have more contrastive
meaning.
                                                              42
12.5 Where are the morphologically visible features of the noun phrase (Case, number, etc.)
     realized in a continuous and a split construction (as a function of types)?
Continuous:

Feature(s) F realized on Det / ADJ / N

Case-particles after the NP in either case (unless they are replaced by a topic marker).


Do the features have to be realized in each part of the split?

No. In some case, it is banned (double -o constraint).




13 Function of the left element

13.1 Syntactic position

13.1.1 Simple splits
What syntactic positions may be occupied by the left element in a split construction?

-   Can it appear in a sentence-peripheral specifier position (if so, which ones).

It can. But it is too theory specific to determine where exactly it is.



-   Can it appear in a clause-internal adjunct position (scrambling). Can it appear in situ?
Yes (scrambling)
Yes (in-situ)



13.1.2 Inverted splits
-   Can it appear in a sentence-peripheral specifier position (if so, which ones).
Yes.


-   Can it appear in a clause-internal adjunct position (scrambling). Can it appear in situ?
Yes (scrambling)
Yes (in-situ)
                                                                 43
13.2 Semantics/pragmatics
-   What semantic/pragmatic functions may be fulfilled by the left part. In simple and inverted splits?

Simple:
(Focus)


Inverted:
(Topic)




14 Function of the right element

14.1 Syntactic position

14.1.1 Simple splits
What syntactic positions may be occupied by the right element in a split construction?

Can it appear in a sentence-peripheral specifier position (if so, which ones).

If the information is available for the language, describe if the right element may occupy Spec,CP, the Spec of a Focus
Phrase, a Left Dislocated Position, etc,
Right elements cannot occupy Spec,CP, as it appears on the left of the verbal complex.
Can it appear in a clause-internal adjunct position (scrambling). Can it appear in situ?
Yes.
Can it appear in situ,?
Yes (the question is repeated here.)


Does the position of the right part depend on the position of the left part?




14.1.2 Inverted splits
What syntactic positions may be occupied by the right element in a split construction?

                                                              44
Can it appear in situ, in a scrambled position, or in a specifier position?
Yes.
Does the position of the right part depend on the position of the left part?




14.2 Semantics/pragmatics
What semantic/pragmatic functions may be fulfilled by the right part? In simple and inverted splits?

Focus in both cases (in the sense that they are new, not contrastive)
Does the function of the left part have an influence on the function of the right part?




                                  PART 4: Phonological Questionnaire


PART 1 :           Grammatical Background
PART 2 :           Universal Question Set
PART 3 :           Set of Questions to be Prepared
PART 4 :           Phonological Questionnaire



1. Recordings

1.1 What is to be recorded

1.1.1. A few words and ten sentences
         0. Pronounce a few monosyllabic, disyllabic, trisyllabic and longer words in solation. If the language has lexical
         stress or tones, please give all possibilities of location of lexical stress, as well as all tones.

     1.An intransitive sentence: The child is laughing (or The woman slept or The man dances…)

         Focus-eliciting:


         1.1       Who is walking? Naoko is walking..

                                                                 45
[EX]            Náoko-ga/wa                arúiteiru\\
                Náoko-NOM/TOP              walk.PROG\\
                „Naoko is walking.‟
Play




              250

              200

              150
 Pitch (Hz)




              100

               50
                               Náoko-ga                          arúiteiru

                          Náoko-NOM/TOP                          is walking

                    0                                                         1.44834
                                                 Time (s)



1.2                 What does Naomi do? Naomi is laughing.

[EX]            Naomi-(*ga)/wa             waratteiru\\
                Naomi-NOM/TOP              laugh.PROG\\
                „Naomi is laughing.‟
Play




                                                            46
              250

              200

              150
 Pitch (Hz)




              100

               50
                           Naomi-ga/wa                             waratteiru

                         Naomi-NOM/TOP                             is laughing

                    0                                                                1.49281
                                                   Time (s)



1.3                 What happens? The child is laughing.

[EX]            Náoko-ga/wa                 arúiteiru\\
                Náoko-NOM/TOP               walk.PROG\\
                „Naoko is walking.‟
Play




              250

              200

              150
 Pitch (Hz)




              100

               50
                              Náoko-ga/wa                                arúiteiru

                            Náoko-NOM/TOP                               is walking

                    0                                                                   1.00351
                                                     Time (s)


                                                              47
                        Topic-eliciting:

        1.4             There is a child and a woman in the context. What do they do?

        (Answer with a contrastive topic:) Naoko is walking and Naomi is laughing.

        [EX] Náoko-wa                 arúiteite,      Naomi-wa waratteiru\\
                      Naoko-TOP walk.PROG Naomi-TOP laugh.PROG\\
                      „Naoko is walking, and Naomi is laughing.‟
        Play




                      250

                      200

                      150
         Pitch (Hz)




                      100

                       50
                                Náoko-wa            arúiteite              Naomi-wa       waratteiru

                                Naoko-TOP          is walking          Naomi-TOP          is laughing

                            0                                                                           3.5242
                                                                Time (s)

    1.A transitive sentence: The woman is drinking water (or The lion killed the antelope, or The dog chases
    the cat…)

                        Focus-eliciting:

        2.1             Who is drinking water? The woman is drinking water.

        [EX] Náoko-ga/(??wa)                          wáin-o               nóndeiru\\
                      Naoko-NOM/TOP                   wine-ACC             drink.PROG\\
                        „Naoko is drinking wine.‟
        Play
[COM] The topic-marked subject is fine only with a contrastive meaning and intonation. [COM]




                                                                     48
              250

              200

              150
 Pitch (Hz)




              100

               50
                              Náoko-ga/wa                        wáin-o          nóndeiru

                            Naoko-NOM/TOP                       wine-ACC         is drinking

                    0                                                                          1.55975
                                                     Time (s)



2.2                 What is the woman doing? The woman is drinking water.

[EX] Náoko-ga/wa                            wáin-o                nóndeiru\\
              Naoko-NOM/TOP                 wine-ACC              drink.PROG\\
                „Naoko is drinking wine.‟
Play




              250

              200

              150
 Pitch (Hz)




              100

               50
                             Náoko-ga/wa                   wáin-o              nóndeiru

                           Naoko-NOM/TOP                 wine-ACC              is drinking

                    0                                                                           1.76771
                                                     Time (s)


                                                            49
2.3                 What is the woman drinking? The woman is drinking water.

[EX] Náoko-ga/wa                            wáin-o        nóndeiru\\
              Naoko-NOM/TOP                 wine-ACC drink.PROG\\
                „Naoko is drinking wine.‟
Play




              250

              200

              150
 Pitch (Hz)




              100

               50
                            Náoko-ga/wa                  wáin-o              nóndeiru

                          Naoko-NOM/TOP                wine-ACC              is drinking

                    0                                                                      1.76771
                                                     Time (s)



2.4                 What happens? The woman is drinking water.

[EX] Náoko-ga/wa                            wáin-o              nóndeiru\\
              Naoko-NOM/TOP                 wine-ACC            drink.PROG\\
                „Naoko is drinking wine.‟
Play




                                                           50
                 250

                 200

                 150
    Pitch (Hz)




                 100

                  50
                              Náoko-ga/wa                   wáin-o          nóndeiru

                           Naoko-NOM/TOP                   wine-ACC        is drinking

                       0                                                                 1.66374
                                                        Time (s)



    Topic-eliciting:
    2.5            There is a woman and a man in the context.. What do they do?
(Answer with a contrastive topic:) Naoko is drinking wine and Naomi is laughing.

   [EX] Náoko-wa             wáin-o         nóndeite,    Naomi-wa        waratteiru\\
                 Naoko-TOP wine-ACC drink.PROG Naomi-TOP                 laugh.PROG\\
                 „Naoko is drinking wine, and Naomi is laughing.‟
   Play




                                                          51
                 250

                 200

                 150
    Pitch (Hz)




                 100
                 70
                           Náoko-wa    wáin-o    nóndeite,           Naomi-wa    waratteiru

                           Naoko-TOP    wine     is drinking         Naomi-TOP   is laughing

                       0                                                                       3.501
                                                          Time (s)


2.A ditransitive sentence: Naoko gave a lemon to Yuji. (A man takes a fruit from a tree, Mary introduces
her husband to her friend,…)

   [EX] Náoko-ga/wa                       Yúuji-ni      rémon-o        ageta\\
                 Naoko-NOM/TOP Yuji-DAT lemon-ACC give.PST\\


   [COM] NÁOKO-ga                        RÉMON-o        Yúuji-ni ageta
   (corellation?)[COM]



    Focus-eliciting:

    3.1                Who is giving a book to her mother? A/The woman is giving a book to her mother.

   [EX] Náoko-ga/wa                       Yúuji-ni      rémon-o        ageta\\
                 Naoko-NOM/TOP Yuji-DAT lemon-ACC give.PST\\
                 “Naoko gave a lemon to Yuji”
   Play




                                                                52
              250

              200

              150
 Pitch (Hz)




              100

               50
                           Náoko-ga/wa          Yúuji-ni      rémon-o     ageta

                         Naoko-NOM/TOP         Yuji-DAT      lemon-ACC     gave

                    0                                                              2.11937
                                                 Time (s)



3.2                 What is the woman doing? The woman is giving a book to her mother.

[EX] Náoko-(*ga)/wa                Yúuji-ni    rémon-o        ageta\\
              Naoko-NOM/TOP Yuji-DAT lemon-ACC give.PST\\
                “Naoko gave a lemon to Yuji”
Play




              250

              200

              150
 Pitch (Hz)




              100

               50
                           Náoko-ga/wa          Yúuji-ni      rémon-o      ageta

                         Naoko-NOM/TOP         Yuji-DAT      lemon-ACC     gave

                    0                                                               2.42213
                                                  Time (s)

                                                       53
3.3                 What is the woman giving to her mother? The woman is giving a book to her mother.

[EX] Náoko-ga/wa                    Yúuji-ni    rémon-o       ageta\\
              Naoko-NOM/TOP Yuji-DAT lemon-ACC give.PST\\
                “Naoko gave a lemon to Yuji”
Play




              250

              200

              150
 Pitch (Hz)




              100
              70
                            Náoko-ga/wa            Yúuji-ni     rémon-o      ageta

                          Naoko-NOM/TOP           Yuji-DAT     lemon-ACC     gave

                    0                                                                2.119
                                                 Time (s)



3.4                                                                                               To whom
                    is the woman giving a book? The woman is giving a book to her mother.



3.5                 Who is giving what to her mother? The woman is giving a book to her mother.

[EX] Náoko-ga/wa                    Yúuji-ni    rémon-o       ageta\\
              Naoko-NOM/TOP Yuji-DAT lemon-ACC give.PST\\
                “Naoko gave a lemon to Yuji”
Play
[EX] Náoko-ga/wa                    rémon-o     Yúuji-ni       ageta\\
              Naoko-NOM/TOP lemon-ACC Yuji-DAT                 give.PST\\
Play




                                                        54
             250

             200

             150
Pitch (Hz)




             100

              50
                        Náoko-ga/wa        Yúuji-ni       rémon-o      ageta

                       Naoko-NOM/TOP       Yuji-DAT      lemon-ACC     gave

                   0                                                            2.22029
                                             Time (s)




             250

             200

             150
Pitch (Hz)




             100

              50
                          Náoko-ga/wa          rémon-o      Yúuji-ni    ageta

                        Naoko-NOM/TOP        lemon-ACC     Yuji-DAT     gave

                   0                                                            2.42213
                                             Time (s)



3.6            Who is giving what and to whom? The woman is giving a book to her mother.




                                                  55
3.7              What happens? The woman is giving a book to her mother.

[EX] Náoko-ga/wa                  Yúuji-ni       rémon-o       ageta\\
                Naoko-NOM/TOP Yuji-DAT lemon-ACC give.PST\\
                 “Naoko gave a lemon to Yuji”
Play




               250

               200

               150
 Pitch (Hz)




               100

                50
                          Náoko-ga/wa            Yúuji-ni      rémon-o         ageta

                         Naoko-NOM/TOP           Yuji-DAT    lemon-ACC             gave

                     0                                                                    2.19776
                                                  Time (s)



Topic-eliciting:



3.8              There are a woman and a man in the context. Both are giving something to their mother, but
what? (Answer with a contrastive topic:) What Naoko gave to Yuji was a lemon, and what Naomi gave to
Yuji was an orange.

[EX] Náoko-ga               Yúuji-ni     ageta         no-wa         rémon-de,\\
              Naoko-NOM     Yuji-DAT give.PST          NL-TOP        lemon-COP\\


[EXc] Naomi-ga              Yúuji-ni     ageta         no-wa         orénzi da\\
              Naomi-NOM     Yuji-DAT give.PST          NL-TOP        orange COP\\
„What Naoko gave to Yuji was a lemon, and what Naomi gave to Yuji was
an orange.‟
Play


                                                        56
               250

               200

               150
 Pitch (Hz)




               100

                50
                          Náoko-ga    Yúuji-ni ageta no-wa rémon-de    Naomi-ga Yúuji-ni   ageta no-wa    orénzi da

                           Naoko        Yuji gave     lemon-COP        Naomi-ga Yúuji-ni   ageta no-wa   orange COP

                     0                                                                                                5.89853
                                                                       Time (s)


3.A sentence with adjuncts and modifiers: A tall man is smoking by the river.

                           Focus-eliciting:

              4.1          Who is drinking in a bar? An ugly man is drinking in a bar.

              [EX] minikúi otoko-ga/(??wa)                  nomíya-de nóndeiru\\
                         ugly        man-NOM/TOP            bar-LOC        drink.PROG\\
              Play




                                                                      57
              250

              200

              150
 Pitch (Hz)




              100

               50
                          minikúi otoko-ga/wa                 nomíya-de      nóndeiru

                         ugly man-NOM/TOP                     bar-LOC        is drinking

                    0                                                                      2.5195
                                                  Time (s)


4.2             What does the man do? An ugly man is drinking in a bar..

[EX] minikúi otoko-ga/wa                        nomíya-de nóndeiru\\
              ugly      man-NOM/TOP             bar-LOC       drink.PROG\\
Play




              250

              200

              150
 Pitch (Hz)




              100

               50
                        minikúi otoko-ga/wa               nomíya-de          nóndeiru

                         ugly man-NOM/TOP                  bar-LOC        is drinking

                    0                                                                       2.1217
                                                   Time (s)


                                                      58
4.3             Where is the man drinking? An ugly man is drinking in a bar.

[EX] minikúi otoko-ga/wa                      nomíya-de nóndeiru\\
              ugly      man-NOM/TOP           bar-LOC      drink.PROG\\
Play




              250

              200

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 Pitch (Hz)




              100

              50
                        minikúi otoko-ga/wa            nomíya-de          nóndeiru

                        ugly man-NOM/TOP                bar-LOC       is drinking

                    0                                                                2.38689
                                                Time (s)

4.4             Who drinks and where? An ugly man is drinking in a bar.

[EX] minikúi otoko-ga/wa                      nomíya-de nóndeiru\\
              ugly      man-NOM/TOP           bar-LOC      drink.PROG\\
Play




                                                     59
              250

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 Pitch (Hz)




              100

               50
                        minikúi otoko-ga/wa            nomíya-de               nóndeiru

                        ugly man-NOM/TOP                bar-LOC               is drinking

                    0                                                                          2.65211
                                                   Time (s)

4.5             What happens? An ugly man is drinking in a bar..

[EX] minikúi otoko-ga/wa                      nomíya-de nóndeiru\\
              ugly      man-NOM/TOP           bar-LOC         drink.PROG\\
Play




              250

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 Pitch (Hz)




              100

               50
                             minikúi otoko-ga/wa                  nomíya-de         nóndeiru

                             ugly man-NOM/TOP                      bar-LOC         is drinking

                    0                                                                            2.5195
                                                   Time (s)

                                                       60
    Topic-eliciting:

    4.6             There are a tall man and a short man in the context.. What do they do?

(Answer with a contrastive topic:)

The ugly man is drinking at the bar, and the good-looking man is smoking a cigarette.

   [EX] minikúi otoko-wa                             nomíya-de nondeite,\\
                  ugly            man-TOP            bar-LOC          drink.PROG\\


   [EXc] kakkoii                           otoko-wa            tabako-o           sutteiru\\
                  good-looking             man-TOP             cigarette-ACC smoke.PROG\\
   „The ugly man is drinking at the bar, and the good-looking man is smoking a
   cigarette.‟
   Play




                  250

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     Pitch (Hz)




                  100

                   50
                            minikúi otoko-wa    nomíya-de nondeite     kakkoii otoko-wa   tabako-o sutteiru

                               ugly man         bar-LOC is drinking    good-looking man cigarette is smoking

                        0                                                                               5.70204
                                                               Time (s)



    Only as a focus operator:
    5.1             Only Naoko has eaten a banana.

   [EX] Náoko-daké-ga                          bánana-o               tábeta\\
                  Naoko-only-NOM banana-ACC                           eat.PST\\
   Play


                                                                       61
                250

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 Pitch (Hz)




                100

                 50
                                Náoko-daké-ga                bánana-o                  tábeta

                               Naoko-only-NOM              banana-ACC                   ate

                      0                                                                         2.20408
                                                     Time (s)



5.2                   Naoko has only bought the book (she did not write it).
[EX] Náoko-wa                   hón-o           katta-daké           da\\
                 Naoko-TOP book-ACC buy.PST-only                     COP\\
              „Naoko only BOUGHT the book.‟
[COM] alternative:
[EX]              Naoko-wa           hon-o             kai-dake               sita\\

                  Naoko-TOP          book-ACC          buy-only               do.PST\\


Play
[EX] Náoko-wa                   hón-o           katta-daké           de,\\
                 Naoko-TOP book-ACC buy.PST-only                     COP\\
[EXc] Náoko-wa                  hón-o           yónde-wa             inai\\
                 Naoko-TOP book-ACC read.PST-TOP NEG\\
              „Naoko only BOUGHT the book, and has not read it.‟
Play




                                                                62
              500

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Pitch (Hz)




              200

              100
                             Náoko-wa              hón-o             katta-daké da

                            Naoko-TOP            book-ACC          bought-only COP

                    0                                                                   2.34184
                                                Time (s)




              250

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 Pitch (Hz)




              100

               50
                          Náoko-wa hón-o          katta-daké de          yónde-wa inai

                        Naoko-TOP book-ACC      bought-only COP          read-TOP NEG

                    0                                                                       2.47959
                                                 Time (s)



5.3             Naoko has only watered the flower (the only thing that Naoko did was to water the flower).
[EX] Náoko-wa               haná-ni          mizu-o         yatta-daké               da\\




                                                      63
                        Naoko-TOP flower-DAT                    water-ACC give.PST-only                    COP\\
                     „Naoko only [watered the flower].‟        1


       Play




                       250

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        Pitch (Hz)




                       100

                        50
                                 Náoko-wa     haná-ni        mizu-o                    yatta-daké da

                                 Naoko-TOP        flower    water-ACC              gave-only COP

                             0                                                                             2.24812
                                                                    Time (s)



        5.4                  Naoko only watered [the flower], but not [the cuctus].
       [EX] Náoko-wa                    hana-ni            mizu-o         yatta-daké               de,\\
                        Naoko-TOP flower-DAT water-ACC give.PST-only                               COP\\
       [EXc] saboten-ni-wa                    yatte             inai\\
                        cuctus-DAT-TOP give.PST                 NEG\\
                     „Naoko only watered [the flower], but not [the cuctus].‟2
       Play
        [COM] alternative (more natural):

        [EX]                 Naoko-wa        hana-ni-dake            mizu-o              yatta\\
                             N.-TOP          flower-DAT-only water-ACC                   give.PST\\



1
   There is another possible way to say this sentence.
  (vi) Náoko-wa hana-ni-dake mizu-o yatta
      Naoko-TOP flower-DAT-only water-ACC gave
  „Naoko only watered [the flower].‟
2
   Just in the same way as the above sentence, one could say with -dake „only‟ attached to hana-ni „flower-
DAT‟ in this case as well.
                                                                           64
                   250

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    Pitch (Hz)




                   100

                    50
                              Náoko-wa      hana-ni mizu-o yatta-daké de saboten-ni-wa   yatte inai

                             Naoko-TOP       flower   water gave-only       cuctus       gave NEG

                         0                                                                            3.43134
                                                             Time (s)

6. Also as a focus operator

    6.1                  Also Naoko has eaten a banana.

   [EX] Náoko-mo bánana-o                      tábeta\\
                    Naoko-also banana-ACC eat.PST\\
                 „Also Naoko ate a banana.‟
   Play




                                                             65
                300

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 Pitch (Hz)




                150

                100

                 50
                               Náoko-mo               bánana-o                 tábeta

                              Naoko-also            banana-ACC                  ate

                      0                                                                    1.84764
                                                    Time (s)



6.2                   Naoko has also bought the book (on top of reading it).

[EX]              Náoko-wa            hón-o        kaí-mo        sita\\
                  Naoko-TOP           book-ACC     buy-also      do.PST\\
              „Naoko also [bought] the book.‟
Play




                250

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 Pitch (Hz)




                100

                 50
                          Náoko-wa              hón-o (hunda)               kaí-mo sita

                          Naoko-TOP           book-ACC (hunda)              buy-also did

                      0                                                                     2.56683
                                                     Time (s)

                                                            66
        6.3             Naoko has also watered the flower (John fed the animals earlier).

        [EX] Náoko-wa             haná-ni                  mizu-mo        yatta\\
                      Naoko-TOP flower-DAT                 water-also give.PST\\
                  „Naoko also [watered the flower].‟   3


        Play
        [EX] Náoko-wa             haná-ni-mo               mizu-o         yatta\\
                      Naoko-TOP flower-DAT-also water-ACC give.PST\\
                  „Naoko also watered [the flower].‟
        Play




                      250

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         Pitch (Hz)




                      100

                       50
                                Náoko-wa            haná-ni-mo                 mizu-o   yatta

                                Naoko-TOP         flower-DAT-also          water-ACC    gave

                            0                                                                   2.20014
                                                              Time (s)




3
     Also possible:
    Náoko-wa hana-ni mizu-o            yari-mo sita
    Naoko-TOP flower-DAT water-ACC give-also                             did
    „Naoko also [watered the flower].‟
                                                                    67
              250

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 Pitch (Hz)




              100

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                        Náoko-wa            haná-ni          mizu-mo        yatta

                        Naoko-TOP          flower-DAT    water-also         gave

                    0                                                               2.07791
                                                  Time (s)



6.4             Naoko has also watered the flower (he watered the trees earlier).

[EX] Náoko-wa             hana-ni-mo           mizu-o          yattasi,\\
              Naoko-TOP flower-DAT-also water-ACC give.PST\\
[EXc] saboten-ní-mo              yatta\\
          cuctus-DAT-also      give.PST\\
          „Naoko watered [the flower], and also [the cuctus].‟
Play




                                                        68
             300

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Pitch (Hz)




             150

             100

              50
                       Náoko-wa           hana-ni-mo      mizu-o           yattasi,             saboten-ní-mo    yatta

                       Naoko-TOP        flower-DAT-also water-ACC              gave            cuctus-DAT-also   gave

                   0                                                                                                     3.17798
                                                                    Time (s)


 7. Even as a focus operator

             7.1       Even Naoko has eaten a banana (Mary and Bill also ate a banana).

             [EX] Náoko-sae bánana-o             tábeta\\
             [EX] Naoko-even banana-ACC eat.PST\\
               „Even Naoko eat a banana.‟
             Play




             300

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Pitch (Hz)




             150

             100

              50
                           Náoko-sae                    bánana-o                      tábeta

                           Naoko-even                  banana-ACC                      ate

                   0                                                                            1.77673
                                                       Time (s)

                                                                   69
7.2                Naoko has even bought the book (after having written it).

                   [EX]        Náoko-wa        hón-o        kaí-sae        sita\\
                               Naoko-TOP       book-ACC     buy-even       do.PST\\
                     „Naoko even [bought the book].‟
                   Play




                    300

                    250

                    200
      Pitch (Hz)




                    150

                    100

                     50
                                    Náoko-wa              hón-o                      kaí-sae sita

                                   Naoko-TOP            book-ACC                    buy-even did

                          0                                                                         1.77676
                                                             Time (s)


7.3                Naoko has even watered the flower (she did a lot in the house earlier).

                   [EX] Náoko-wa          haná-ni      mizu-o      yarí-sae         sita\\
                              Naoko-TOP flower-DAT water-ACC give-even do.PST\\
                     „Naoko even [watered the flower].‟
                   Play




                                                                      70
             300

             250

             200
Pitch (Hz)




             150

             100

                 50
                                         Náoko-wa         haná-ni      mizu-o                    yarí-sae sita

                                         Naoko-TOP      flower-DAT water-ACC                 give-even did

                           0                                                                                      2.22095
                                                                    Time (s)



             7.4                     John has even watered the flower (he watered, the trees, the vegetables, the flowers…).

             [EX] Náoko-wa                      haná-ni-sae          mizu-o            yatta\\
                               Naoko-TOP flower-DAT-even water-ACC give.PST\\
                           'Naoko even watered [the flower].‟
             Play




                               250

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              Pitch (Hz)




                               100

                                50
                                            Náoko-wa          haná-ni-sae           mizu-o                yatta

                                            Naoko-TOP      flower-DAT-even water-ACC                      gave

                                     0                                                                              2.332
                                                                       Time (s)

                                                                               71
8. Negation

   8.1                   Naoko is not walking/sleeping.

   [EX] Náoko-wa                   arúitei-nai\\
                    Naoko-TOP walk.PROG-NEG\\
                 „Naoko is not walking.‟
   Play
   [EX] Náoko-wa                   nemuttei-nai\\
                    Naoko-TOP sleep.PROG-NEG\\
                 „Naoko is not sleeping.‟
   Play




                   250

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    Pitch (Hz)




                   100

                    50
                                   Náoko-wa                              arúitei-nai

                                  Naoko-TOP                            is.walking-NEG

                         0                                                              1.68515
                                                          Time (s)



   8.2                   Naoko is not drinking wine.

   [EX] Náoko-wa                   wáin-o          nóndei-nai\\
                    Naoko-TOP wine-ACC             drinking.PROG-NEG\\
                 „Naoko is not drinking wine.‟
   Play




                                                                  72
                250

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 Pitch (Hz)




                100

                 50
                            Náoko-wa             wáin-o                     nóndei-nai

                            Naoko-TOP           wine-ACC                 is.drinking-NEG

                      0                                                                          1.81478
                                                      Time (s)



8.3                   Neither Naoko nor Naomi has not given Yuji a lemon.

[EX] Náoko-mo Naomi-mo Yúuji-ni                               rémon-o       agete               inai\\
                 Naoko-also Naomi-also Yuji-DAT lemon-ACC give.PST                              NEG\\
              „Neither Naoko nor Naomi has not given Yuji a lemon.‟
Play




                250

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 Pitch (Hz)




                100

                 50
                          Náoko-mo      Naomi-mo          Yúuji-ni   rémon-o             agete inai

                          Naoko-also    Naomi-also     Yuji-DAT         lemon            gave-NEG

                      0                                                                               3.49991
                                                          Time (s)

                                                               73
    8.4               There is no man smoking by the river.



    8.5               John did not also buy the book. (There is not an ugly man at the bar.)

   [EX] minikúi otoko-wa                         nómiya-ni     hitori-mo           inai\\
                    ugly       man-TOP           bar-LOC       1.CLF-also          NEG\\
                   „There is not an ugly man at the bar.‟
   Play




                   250

                   200

                   150
    Pitch (Hz)




                   100

                    50
                             minikúi otoko-wa                nómiya-ni            hitori-mo inai

                              ugly man-TOP                   bar-LOC            1:CLF-also NEG

                         0                                                                         2.98683
                                                            Time (s)

9. Subordinate clause:

    9.1 When Naoko was a child, she often met friends after school and played many horus.

   [EX] Náoko-wa                  kodomo-no kóro, yóku hookago-ni                  yuuzin-to\\
                    Naoko-TOP child-GEN time often after.school-at                 friend-with\\
   [EXc] atte                  nanjíkanmo               asonda\\
                    see.PST what.hours.even             play.PST\\
                 „When Naoko was a child, she often met friends after school and played
   many hours.‟
   Play




                                                                74
             250

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Pitch (Hz)




             100

              50
                        Náoko-wa kodomo-no kóro,           yóku hookago-ni yuuzin-to atte          nanjíkanmo asonda

                        Naoko-TOP child-GEN time         often after.school-at friend-with saw     many.hours played.

                   0                                                                                                     5.51857
                                                                        Time (s)



             9.2          Naoko heard a rumor that Yuji becomes the prime minister.

             [EX] Náoko-wa                 Yúuzi-ga       sooridáizin-ni                  naru                  to\\
                       Naoko-TOP           Yuji-NOM       prime.minister-DAT              become.NPST           that\\


             [EXc] iu         uwasa-o       kiita.\\
                         said rumor-ACC hear.PST\\
                       „Naoko heard a rumor that Yuji becomes the prime minister.‟
             Play




                                                                   75
             250

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Pitch (Hz)




             100

              50
                             Náoko-wa Yúuzi-ga         sooridáizin-ni naru        to iu uwasa-o (said) kita

                            Naoko-TOP Yuji-NOM        prime.minister-DAT        become that rumor-ACC kiita

                   0                                                                                          3.86533
                                                               Time (s)


 10. Questions:

             10.1          Who has come?

             [EX]          Dáre-ga         kíta       no?\\
                           who-NOM         come.PST   Q\\
               „Who came?‟
             Play




              250

              200

              150
Pitch (Hz)




              100

               50
                                      dáre-ga                        kíta no?

                                     who-NOM                          came Q

                       0                                                         1.17132
                                                  Time (s)

                                                              76
             10.2         What did Naoko drink?

             [EX]        Náoko-wa        náni-o        nónda          no?\\
                         Naoko-TOP       what-ACC      drink.PST      Q\\
                        „What did Naoko drink?‟
             Play




              250

              200

              150
Pitch (Hz)




              100

               50
                              Náoko-wa             náni-o             nónda no?

                             Naoko-TOP            what-ACC             drank Q

                    0                                                             1.75696
                                                  Time (s)



             10.3         Who gave what to whom?

             [EX] dáre-ga           dáre-ni       náni-o            agetá         no?\\
                        who-NOM who-DAT           what-ACC          give.PST      Q\\
             „Who gave what to whom?‟
             Play




                                                               77
             250

             200

             150
Pitch (Hz)




             100
              70
                                dáre-ga            dáre-ni        náni-o           agetá no?

                               who-NOM            who-DAT        what-ACC           gave Q

                   0                                                                            2.46
                                                      Time (s)



             10.4          Where did the man drink?

             [EX] otoko-wa           dóko-de      nónda                no?\\
                       man-TOP       where-LOC drink.PST               Q\\
               „Where did the man drink?‟
             Play




              250

              200

              150
Pitch (Hz)




              100

               50
                             otoko-wa           dóko-de                      nónda no?

                             man-TOP           where-LOC                      drank Q

                       0                                                                       1.5227
                                                      Time (s)



                                                                  78
10.5            Has Naoko come?

                [EX]        Náoko-wa        kíta         (no)?\\
                            Naoko-TOP       come.PST     (Q)\\
                   „Did Naoko come?‟
                Play




                 250

                 200

                 150
   Pitch (Hz)




                 100

                  50
                                Náoko-wa                           kíta (no)?

                                Naoko-TOP                           came Q

                       0                                                           1.30483
                                                   Time (s)



10.6            Does it rain?

                [EX] íma       áme fútteiru        no?   soretomo fútte-nái        no?\\
                           now rain    fall.PROG   Q     or             fall-NEG   Q\\
                  „Is it raining now or not?‟

                Play




                                                                   79
                 400

                 300

                 200
   Pitch (Hz)




                 100
                  50
                                íma áme              fútta no?     soretomo    fútte-nái no?

                                now rain              fall Q           or      fall-NEG Q

                       0                                                                       3.26673
                                                                 Time (s)



10.7            Do you want coffee or tea?

                [EX] Náoko-wa              wáin-o       nónda         no? \\
                           Naoko-TOP wine-ACC drink.PST               Q\\
                [EXc] soretomo             bíiru-o      nónda         no?\\
                           or              beer-ACC     drink.PST     Q\\
                  „Did Naoko drink wine or beer?‟


                Play




                                                                       80
             250

             200

             150
Pitch (Hz)




             100
             70
                       Náoko-wa    wáin-o   nónda no?      soretomo        bíiru-o   nónda no?

                       Naoko-TOP   wine     drank Q           or            beer     drank Q

                   0                                                                             3.263
                                                        Time (s)




                                                                      81

				
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