15th Annual Psi Chi Research
California State University, Bakersfield
March 12, 2011
The purpose of Psi Chi shall be to encourage,
stimulate, serve, and maintain excellence in
scholarship toward the advancement of Psychology.
Psi Chi – The International Honor Society in Psychology
President: Kristen Silva
Vice-President: Matthew Waybright
Secretary: Ashley Kieffe
Public Relations: Lindsay Handren
Treasurer: Renee Penalver
Faculty Advisor: Luis Vega
11:00 a.m. -- Conference Begins
11:01 a.m. -- Kristen M. Silva
11:08 a.m. -- Ofelia Caballero
11:16 a.m. -- Lindsay Handren
11:24 a.m. -- Guadalupe Herrera
11:32 a.m. -- Vickie S. Guelker
11:40 a.m. -- Ashley Kieffe
11:48 a.m. -- Charles Kralowec
11:56 a.m. -- Lindsey Mayo
12:04 p.m. -- Abida Rahman
12:12 p.m. -- Josh Uhalt
12:20 p.m. -- Matthew Waybright
12:28 p.m. -- Stacy Teeters
12:38 p.m. -- -Break
12:45 p.m. -- Introduction of Dr. Sara Castro-Olivo
12:45 p.m. -- “The Role of School Psychologists in the Implementation of Culturally
Responsive Social-Emotional Learning Interventions.”
1:30 p.m. -- Q&A
1:45 p.m. -- Awards Ceremony/Closing remarks
What is Most Important in your Dossier: Beauty versus Brains
This research investigates what qualities are more important to individuals in the process of employment
hiring. The participants of this study include 30 college students from California State University,
Bakersfield. The participants surveyed are 14 females and 16 males, from various courses in the
Psychology Department. The independent variables are defined as (C1) office clerk and (C2)
maintenance worker. The dependent variables are the response ratings (Q1) short or tall, (Q2) heavy set
or thin, (Q3) unattractive or attractive, (Q4) young or older, (Q5) low people skills or high people skills,
(Q6) liberal or conservative, (Q7) shy or sociable, (Q8) low education or high education, (Q9) perspective
gender, and (Q10) gender. Participants were more likely to rate physical appearance higher for office
clerks, implying that prospective job candidates’ physical characteristics are crucial to obtain employment.
Quantifying the Motivating Factors Behind Wants and Needs
The purpose of this study is to qualitatively measure the motivating factors behind individual wants and
needs of 25 participants in an open-ended qualitative format in order to produce dimensions that can
quantify and operationally define these motivations. Using a coding rubric to analyze each response,
wants and needs were categorically defined as concrete or abstract. The motivating factors were
categorically defined as emotionally or logically driven. Results showed the following trends: wants are
more concrete (67%) than abstract (33%) and motivations are more emotionally (73%) than logically
driven (29%); needs are slightly more abstract (53%) than concrete (47%) and motivations are driven
logically (88%) than emotionally (12%), suggesting that wants fulfill instant gratification and needs fulfill a
How Students Interpret Positive and Negative Feedback from Professors
We examined the effect feedback has on students depending on whether student’s professors are male
or female. The study was conducted using 41 college student volunteers which were enrolled in
psychology courses. Data were collected through a survey given to the volunteer psychology students.
The independent variable is defined as (C1) male and (C2) female, and the dependent variable(s) is
feedback. Feedback can operationally be defined as inspirational, competent and knowledgeable for
positive feedback and insensitive, demeaning, and ignorant for negative feedback. There was no
statistically significant result when comparing any of the 6 measures. Statistically significant results were
found when comparing participant gender and the importance of feedback.
Does Gender of Professor Influence Negative Student Feedback?
Vickie S. Guelker
This paper examines various types of references relating to the effects on negative feedback based on
perception of gender of the evaluator. The main focal point was how people accepted feedback that was
expressed by a particular gender. Participants (N = 41) were assigned to either a (C1) female or a (C2)
male; with the dependent variable the emotional responses of the participants based on negative and
positive variable labels, in addition to the participants rating if the negative feedback from the professor is
warranted. The outcome of the study is that results were not significant due to many confounding factors.
Defining Leisure Computer Activity by Gender
This research qualitatively examined student computer usage. The focus was to observe 42 CSUB
student’s activity on library Computers. Categories were divided into either work activity or leisure activity.
Leisure activities were defined as Facebook, YouTube, and online games, and work activities were
defined as Microsoft programs, CSUB webpage, and Student Blackboard. Facebook and online games
resulted in almost half of total usage (40%). Microsoft programs and CSUB webpage resulted in 53
percent of total usage. A crosstabs analysis was used between gender and type of activity. Facebook
activity users were 72 percent women and 28 percent men. Online Games were more commonly used by
men (67%) than women (33%).
When are We Nicest? Emergencies Versus Tragedies
Are people nicer because of an internal drive, as personality psychology would have it, or is it because of
something more akin to social psychology's symbolic interaction theory, where people attach value to
objects and situations based on external condition? In a graded, undergraduate experiment assignment,
conducted in advanced research methods, participants were assigned to 1 of 3 conditions and asked to
rate their likeliness to help given (C1) a control condition where nothing is happening, (C2) a "stolen"
condition where personal property has been stolen, and (C3) a "damaged" condition where personal
property was destroyed in a natural disaster. Although no significant results were found in the main
experiment, post hoc analysis implied that both personality and context played a relevant role. A
significant problem with the construct itself, however, threatened the validity of the experiment.
Gender and how it Changes the Opinions of Adoption
This study examined the difference in opinions and attitudes towards adoption based on gender. The
participants were all students (N = 71, 32 females, 16 males, 23 blank) at California State University,
Bakersfield from 3 psychology classes 100, 300B, and 312L. The dependent measures were (Q1) views,
(Q2) family has adopted (y/n), (Q3) consider, (Q4) parents, (Q5) leaving, (Q6) person, (Q7) placed, (Q8)
academic, (Q9) behavior, and (Q10) drugs. Other than Q2, all items were rated on 5-point Likert scales,
with the differences of how women versus men rated the 10 measures examined. Gender differences
were noted in 3 of the items: Women held more positive views on adoption, men were more neutral on
how adoption would impact academic performance, and women were more disapproving of parents given
children up for adoption.
Gender Ideologies for Job Titles: Inequity Persistence
The purpose of this study was to investigate college student’s preferred gender for blue-collar and white-
collar job candidates. Forty-nine college participants were surveyed (via convenience method) in this
study; 32 were female and 17 were male. Participants were each given a survey using a 7-point Likert
scale in which preferences regarding characteristics of job candidates were rated. Independent variable
was clerical worker or maintenance worker and dependent variables were characteristics. Results
showed a significant preference for the white collar clerical worker to be female and highly skilled,
sociable, attractive, and educated as maintenance works were favored to be slightly heavy and
overwhelmingly of the male gender. Other key findings were manifested upon analyzing data.
Kristen M. Silva
The purpose of this paper is to investigate behavior of post-combat veterans and reasons for the onset of
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder following reintegration into a civilian lifestyle. Literature and evidence are
evaluated from recent studies involving combat veterans from Operations Enduring Freedom (OEF) and
Iraqi Freedom (OIF). It is hypothesized that post-combat veterans develop unhealthy levels of Cognitive
Dissonance after being released from military service and during the reintegration period into civilian
social roles and the result of such dissonance is the onset of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.
amBIguous: Tolerance of Ambiguity and Attitudes toward Bisexual Women and Men
Existing research on attitudes toward bisexual women and men has been limited in scope, often only
studying demographic data of the respondents. This study was designed to expand knowledge in this
area by assessing if a cognitive personality variable, Tolerance of Ambiguity (TOA), would be correlated
with attitudes toward bisexuals. It was hypothesized that people with a greater intolerance of ambiguity
would be more negative toward bisexuals. Participants were asked to answer three short surveys, two
which contained the target measures: the TOA scale and a modified version of the Attitudes Regarding
Bisexuality Scale (ARBS). The correlation between the measures was significant. Religiosity, measured in
the demographic portion of the survey, was also significantly correlated with the TOA and ARBS.
To Adopt or Not to Adopt: That is the question?
This research examines how people’s ability or inability to conceive children affects their views or
opinions of adoption. There were 71 California State University, Bakersfield undergraduate psychology
students from 3 psychology courses, 100, 312L, and 300B. The independent variable, infertility prompt,
was defined as (C1) have the ability and (C2) do not have the ability to conceive children. The dependent
variables are the answers to the 10 different survey questions covering many aspects of adoption.
Students did not differ in view or opinions of adoption due to being able to conceive or not being able to
conceive children. We did not expect to find that the view and opinion of the participants differed
regarding the academic performance of adoptees. These findings suggest that there might be different
dynamics at play when it comes to the nature versus nurture debate.
Relationships: The Good, the Bad, and the Unfortunate Truth
Relationships are a commonly occurrence in all cultures. Two kinds of relationships pertain to the
following literature review: (a) platonic and (b) romantic. The purpose of this literature review was to
examine the components of relationships. Love and communication were examined for this literature
review. The focus of this literature review was reciprocity and threats to relationships. Reciprocity in
relationships is a key element in all relationship and the same can be said about threats. On one hand,
reciprocity is, for the most part, a positive factor in a relationship. However, threats are a negative piece to
all relationships. When considering reciprocity and threats special consideration was taken to make sure
it focused on actual relationships. A special note of interest must be made and that is that love irrational.
Love is a strong indicator of a successful relationship and so the point of its irrationality is definitely of