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					            Innovation: Science or Art?




Prof. Olaf Diegel
  March 2007
   What its all about

                            P ROJE CT MODE L

C oncept and            Pl anni ng and                           C ommi ssi oni ng
  I ni t i at i on      D evel opment      I mpl ement at i on          and
                                                                     H andover




                                 P RODUCT MODE L

      D eci si on t o      D evel op det ai l ed D esi gn product        G et approval
    desi gn product          product bri ef        accordi ng t o         and l aunch
                                                        bri ef          manuf act uri ng




                                         I DE A GE NE RAT I ON MODE L



                          WhatPreparat i on: in the black box?
                               happens                                        Veri f i cat i on
                                                        I ncubat i on
                                                                                                  2
              What is creativity?


                                          Expertise = Learned

                                          Creative thinking
                                           skills = Teachable...
                                           to an extent

                                          Motivation =
                                           Manageable


Creativity: "the ability to create", where create means "to bring into
being, to cause to exist, to produce, or to give rise to". (OED)
                                                                         3
              What is innovation?


              US patent & Trademark office: To be
              patentable, an invention must satisfy
              the simultaneous criteria of being
              new, useful and non-obvious.

              de Bono stresses that there are three
               levels of being innovative:
              Bringing into being something that
               was not there before
              The new thing must have a value
              There has to be something unique or
               rare about it


Innovation: the introduction of novelties; the
alteration of what is established; a rebellion or
insurrection. (OED)
                                                      4
Innovation vs Creativity


                  Outputs
   Creativity     Ideas


                  Ideas for
   Innovation     Artifacts


    Product       Artifacts
  development



                              5
           Targeted problem solving


   General Innovation:
    New ideas that are not
    related to a specific
    project

   Innovative Targeted
    Problem Solving is
    innovation which is
    directed at a specific
    project.


                                      6
               Innovation is not magic



    Though the results of innovation may be about the new, the
    processes involved in innovation are about the old

“We cannot imagine anything whatsoever, only things
constructed out of existing knowledge. I cannot imagine
a colour beyond my visual experience” (G Smith, 1998)
   All innovation is based on knowledge
   An innovative idea consists in finding a novel use for an
    existing object or concept
   The method for arriving at a solution can be analyzed in
    hindsight.


                                                                 10
            How the mind works


                  Sensory Registers     Short-term
                                         Memory
                       Visual              Buffer        Long-term
                      Auditory                             Memory
Environmental                             Scanner        (Permanent
    Input                                                  Memory
                                                            Store)
                       Haptic

                                      Response Output


                     Data input         Data Screen
                                        Printout, etc.


                      Keyboard          Short-term       Permanent
Need to achieve        Mouse             storage           storage
  Something           Scanner                             Hard Disk
                                           RAM
                        GUI
                        etc...            Software




                                                                      11
            Short-Term Memory


   Simultaneous data input limited to 7 events
   The goldfish syndrome: Input remains active
    for 10 ~ 20 seconds
   7 elements can be simultaneously retained in
    STM
   Scanning process recognises validity of data
    and if required refreshes it, or puts it in long-
    term memory.
   Data in STM is used to recall data from LTM


                                                        12
                           Long-term Memory

                                         New link = invention of airplane

                                              Has skin
                                Animal        Can move around              Transport      Moves from A to B
                                              Eats                                        Carries people
                                              Breathes
                                                       Weak link, sub = fish
                                 Has wings            Has fins
                       Bird      Can fly    Fish      Can swim                  Underwater
                                 Has feathers         Has gills Submarine       Can swim             On road
       E=MC2                                                                             Car         Has engine
                                  Has long                            Triggers memory of meal
                      Ostrich     thin legs
                                                     2x2=4                  Is pink
                                  Is tall
                                                                            Is edible
                                  Can’t fly                    Salmon
                                                                            Swims
    Canary     Can sing                             Can bite                upstream
                                           Shark
               Is yellow                            Is dangerous            to lay eggs    Instantly retrievable
                                                                                             image of kitchen

   A dynamic structured hierarchical tree of knowledge
   Each extra node requires an additional 0.75msecs
   Node links can be of greater, or lesser strength and vary
    with time.
   Nodes can be ‘chunked’ into memory clusters which are
    instantaneously retrievable. (2 x 2 = 4, images)        13
           Some fun with numbers



   7 items in short term memory allows for 127
    new combinations (or 5913 if we include
    permutations)
   In 1 second we can scan 1333 items in LTM
    and process them in STM
   In 1 second we have the potential for 169,291
    innovations (7,882,029 if we include
    permutations)


                                                    14
            So, why isn’t it easy?



   Gestalt Theory: Law of Prägnanz states that
    psychological organisation will always be as
    concise, simple and unified as immediate events
    permit
   Innovative thinking is hard work!
   Our education acts as a barrier to Innovation




                                                 15
         Law of Prägnanz


   What do you see?




                           16
The barrier to Innovation



               Functional fixedness is
               the effect of only being
               able to see something
               for what we have
               traditionally been taught
               it is by our education,
               environment, culture, etc




                                      17
          Breaking down the barriers



   If we can break down these mental barriers
    to innovation then anything is possible!

   Some tools that help breakdown these
    barriers can be found on the Creative
    Industries Research Institute website at:


             www.ciri.org.nz
                                                 18
The End




 And now, Introducing Andy Connor…




                                     19

				
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