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					       Reproduction Issues
Contraception, In Vitro Fertilization, and Cloning




                        By Elisa, Evan, Ali, Joaquin
                Ethical Questions

   How should we act responsibly as sexual human
    beings?
   Should new technology affect and/or change our
    morals?
   What determines an authentic human life?
   How do contraception/ in vitro fertilization/ cloning
    challenge the values of marriage?
Contraception
     Definition: the deliberate
      prevention of conception
      by use of birth control
      devices
     Examples: male and
      female condoms,
      diaphragms, spermicides,
      progestin injections, tubal
      sterilization, birth control
      pills, patches
                         Pros

   Many couples want to experience sex but do not
    want to have children
   Some partners may not be married, so
    contraceptives allow them to be sexually active
    without the pressures of providing for a child
   Social and financial issues
   Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases
   98% of all sexually active women have used at least
    one contraceptive method (2002)
                   Cons


   Promotes sexual activity outside of
    marriage
   Prevents possible human lives
   Unnatural…the best way to prevent
    pregnancy is abstinence
   Side effects to the Pill: raised risk of
    heart attack or stroke
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

               Definition: a specialized
                technique by which an
                ovum, esp. a human one,
                is fertilized by sperm
                outside the body, with the
                resulting embryo later
                implanted in the uterus for
                gestation
                 The Process

   test tube conception
   mature egg cells are removed from a woman
    and fertilized with sperm outside the body
   if the embryo attaches to the uterine wall, the
    pregnancy begins
The Process
                       Pros

   infertile couples who
    feel they would make
    good parents need IVF
    to have children
   National Center for
    Health Statistics
    estimates that about
    8.5% of married
    couples are infertile
                          Cons

   Not very accurate, only half of the 169 IVF clinics
    have reported a pregnancy
   Possible involvement of a third party (donated
    sperm, eggs, embryos, surrogate motherhood)
   Unnatural, seen as a threat to the family unit and
    dignity of human person
   Unused embryos are either discarded, donated,
    frozen for later use, or used in experiments
Cloning
                    Cloning

   Definition: a cell, cell product, or organism
    that is genetically identical to the unit or
    individual from which it was derived / To
    make multiple identical copies of (a DNA
    sequence).
   three types of cloning: DNA, reproductive,
    and therapeutic
   therapeutic cloning is the cloning of embryos
    to harvest stem cells
                      Pros

   The possibility of recreating a human being
    i.e.: someone who has died
   Clones can provide organs and other vital
    materials for surgeries or diseases (bone
    marrow transplants, etc.)
   Another way for infertile couples to
    reproduce
                            Cons

   90% of the population think
    human cloning is a bad idea
   No one knows if human
    cloning can work
   Also could damage the
    family unit
   There is a possibility the
    clone can suffer from many
    disorders and defects
   It’s unnatural
The Church’s Views
  Humanae Vitae
              Contraception

   OPPOSES CONTRACEPTION
   1930- The Church makes its first statement against birth
    control, calling it a sin, 1951- The only contraceptives the
    Church approves of are abstinence and the rhythm method
   Sex is for married men and women who intend to procreate
   “Equally to be condemned, as the magisterium of the Church
    has affirmed on many occasions, is direct sterilization, whether
    of the man or of the woman, whether permanent or temporary.
    (15) Similarly excluded is any action which either before, at the
    moment of, or after sexual intercourse, is specifically intended
    to prevent procreation—whether as an end or as a means. (16)”
            In Vitro Fertilization

   OPPOSES IVF
   “Sexual activity is ‘noble and worthy.’ It does
    not, moreover, cease to be legitimate even
    when, for reasons independent of their will, it
    is foreseen to be infertile.”
   Not every marital act will result in
    procreation, according to God’s plan. The
    Church urges people to follow the natural law
           In Vitro Fertilization

    The Church opposes IVF on 3 grounds:
1.   The destruction of embryos not used for
     implantation
2.   Donors can be others than the spouse,
     removes reproduction from marital context
3.   “Severing of an essential connection
     between the conjugal act and procreation”
                     Cloning

   OPPOSES CLONING
   “Children are the supreme gift of marriage”
   Against God’s will and human dignity
   To scientists: by their research establish the
    truth of the Church's claim that "there can
    be no contradiction between two divine
    laws—that which governs the transmitting
    of life and that which governs the fostering
    of married love
                 Biblical Quotes

   “As for you, be fruitful and increase in number;
    multiply on the earth and increase upon it” (Gen.
    9:7)
   “Isaac prayed to the LORD on behalf of his wife,
    because she was barren. The LORD answered
    his prayer, and his wife Rebekah became
    pregnant.” (Gen. 25:21)
             Ethical Questions

   How should we act responsibly as sexual
    human beings?
   Should new technology affect and/or change
    our morals?
   What determines an authentic human life?
   How do contraception/ in vitro fertilization/
    cloning challenge the values of marriage?
                               bibliography
   Mosher, William D. "Use of Contraception." Advance Data os 350 (2004): 1-46. 5 Oct. 2006
           <http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/usecontr.htm>.
   "Catholic Arguments Against Contraception in Detail." BBC. 2006. 05 Oct. 2006
           <http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/christianethics/contraception_8.s
           html>.
   Gibbs, Nancy “Baby, It's You! And You, And You...” Time Magazine 19 Feb. 2001
           http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,999233-1,00.html
   “The American Experience”
           http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/pill/timeline/index.html
   Mary Carrington Coutts “Ethical Issues in In Vitro Fertilization”
           http://www.georgetown.edu/research/nrcbl/publications/scopenotes/sn10.pdf
                             bibliography
   Pope Paul VI “Humanae Vitae” 25 July, 1968
            http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/paul_vi/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-
    vi_enc_25071968_humanae-vitae_en.html
   www.dictionary.com
   "In Vitro Fertilization." EMedicineHealth. 2006. WebMD. 05 Oct. 2006
            <http://www.emedicinehealth.com/in_vitro_fertilization/article_em.htm>.
   "Cloning Fact Sheet." Human Genome Project. 29 Aug. 2006. U.S. Department of Energy.
            05 Oct. 2006
            <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml>.
   “In Vitro Fertilization." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
            14 Oct. 2006 <http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9042232>.

				
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